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Cornell  University  Library 
QM  81.E97 

Anatomical  names. 

3  1924  024  790  648 

Cornell  University 

The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

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ROY  LEE  MOODIE.  A.  B..  Ph.  D. 







Copyright,  1917. 
By  William  Wood  &  Company. 


Anatomic  terminology  began  when  primitive  man  first  assigned  names 
to  parts  of  the  human  body.  These  terms  have  increased  in  number 
until  the  science  of  anatomy  is  in  danger  of  being  submerged  by  its  own 
terminology.  Over  50,000  names  have  been  given  to  some  5,000  structures. 
The  purpose  of  this  book  is  to  help  the  student,  teacher  and  clinician  to 
become  familiar  with  5,000  international  BNA  terms  and  to  discard 
upwards  of  45,000  synonyms. 

When  the  science  of  anatomy  was  in  a  formative  stage,  when 
the  knowledge  of  the  human  body  and  its  structures  was  still  very 
limited,  the  number  of  technical  terms  was  naturally  small.  At  the  time 
of  Hippocrates  some  terms  like  r]ovSv\diSri<s,  xovSp(i)Sr]'s  were  repeatedly 
used  in  the  same  meaning,  and  therefore  must  be  considered  as 
technical  terms.  Aristoteles  had  a  much  larger  knowledge  of  anatomy 
and  by  him  the  technical  vocabulary  was  considerably  enriched,  but  the 
first  one  who  created  a  comprehensive  anatomic  language  was  Galen 
of  Pergamus.  It  can  truly  be  said,  that  under  him  medical  science  in 
general  and  anatomy  in  particular  attained  a  high  state  of  perfection 
and  completion.  His  nomenclature,  derived  from  the  Greek,  is  very  ex- 
tensive and  a  very  large  percentage  of  his  terms  are  still  in  use. 

After  the  decline  of  Greece,  the  center  of  general  progress  shifted 
to  Rome.  But  although  the  Romans  gave  us  the  foundation  of  the  still 
existing  civil  law,  they  accomplished  very  little  in  medicine.  The  medi- 
cal art  was  entirely  in  the  hands  of  strangers,  especially  Greeks  and 
freedmen.  There  is  found  very  little  of  medicine  in  Roman  literature 
and  even  Celsus  who  wrote  the  "  Medicina  "  was  probably  not  a  physi- 
cian. He  was  the  scion  of  a  noble  family  who  wrote  books  on  very  many 
branches  of  science  and  it  has  been  said  that  his  "  Medicina  "  was  nothing 
more  than  a  clever  compilation  of  notes  of  physicians  of  his  time.  The 
first  chapter  of  the  fourth  book  and  the  first  of  the  eighth  book,  of  his 
"  Medicina "  contain  short  descriptions  of  the  bones  and  intestines 
with  a  number  of  new  anatomic  terms.  Almost  all  the  terms  used  by 
him  are  Latin,  but  occasionally  he  uses  Greek  names  like  i^apioTiScs, 
ovp-qrriK  always  pointing  out  that  they  were  introduced  by  the  Greeks. 



Many  of  the  terms  found  in  Celsus'  "  Medicina  "  are  still  used  in  our 

During  the  medieval  period  the  sciences  in  general  were  confined  to 
the  monasteries,  where  the  monks  used  the  Latin  language  in  speaking 
as  well  as  in  writing;  since  the  quality  of  their  Latin  was  by  no 
means  classic,  many  barbarisms  and  inaccurate  terms  were  embodied  in 
the  anatomic  language.  The  science  of  medicine  was  acquired  by  the 
monks  in  part  directly  from  the  Greeks  and  in  part  through  the  Arabians, 
who  commented  extensively  upon  the  books  of  Galen  without  adding 
anything  noteworthy.  Naturally  then,  our  nomenclature  was  influenced 
somewhat  by  the  Arabic,  and  we  find  some  Arabic  hybrids  such  as : 
salvatella,  saphena,  and  nucha.  The  most  of  these  terms,  however,  can 
be  traced  back  tO'  the  Greeks. 

Andre  Vesal,  the  great  reformer  of  anatomy,  wrote  in  Latin  and  for 
the  most  part  used  a  Latin  terminology.  He  also  used  some  Greek 
terms;  often  with  Latin  endings,  as  colum,  hyoides,  peritonaeum, 
stomachus.  His  terminology  is  on  the  whole  grammatically  and  philologi- 
cally  correct,  although  some  words  might  be  objected  to,  like  dorsalis 
(Latin,  dorsualis),  cavitas  (Latin,  cavum)  and  epiglottalis  (Greek  with 
Latin  ending).  Vesal  recognized  the  unsatisfactory  condition  of  the 
nomenclature  and  complained  that  explanation  was  made  difficult  by  the 
great  number  of  existing  terms;  that  many  different  names  were  used 
by  various  authors  and  even  by  the  same  author  to  designate  a  given 

After  Vesal,  new  discoveries  required  the  coining  of  new  terms  which 
were  derived  in  the  conventional  way  from  the  Greek  and  Latin ;  but  the 
anatomists  of  those  times  were  not  in  possession  of  a  knowledge  of  the 
ancient  languages  intimate  enough  to  avoid  errors  and  mistakes. 

The  foramina  in  the  bones,  the  muscles  attached  to  the  bones,  the 
vessels  and  nerves  following  them  were  designated  only  by  numbers. 
These  numerical  designations  were  taken  from  Galen  by  the'  physicians 
of  the  15th  and  i6th  centuries,  but  with  each  new  discovery  and  each 
change  in  interpretation  these  numbers  had  to  be  changed,  the  result  of 
which  was  a  hopeless  confusion. 

Jacobus  Sylvius  (Jacques  Dubois)  was  the  first  to  give  names  to  most 
of  the  muscles,  vessels,  etc.  Laurentius,  Court  Physician  of  Henry  IV 
of  France,  justly  says :  J.  Sylvio  haec  prima  debetur  laus,  quod  muscu- 
lorum et  vasorum  omnium  sylvam  ac  confusionem  in  exquisitam  ordinem 
digesserit  et  propriis  nominibus  designarit,  quae  nunc  ab  omnibus  ana- 
tomicis  retinentur.  C.  Bauhin,  Professor  in  Basle,  seems  to  have  been 
the  first  to  use  adjectives  with  the  ending  -ideus,  to  denote  "  referring 
to  a  thing,"  and  with  the  ending  -ides,  to  denote  "  similar  to."    Casserius 


uses  arytainoeides,  crycoeides;  Bucretius  speaks  of  ossa  sesamoiaea  and 
sesamoeidea ;  also  of  m.  hyothyroides,  sternothyroideus,  miloglossus, 
ceratoglossus.  Spigelius  mentions  terms  like  geniohyoideus,  oesopha- 
giaeus,  sternothyroideus,  hyothyroides,  radieus.  Thomas  Barthohnus 
uses  stylopharyngaeus,  deltoides,  mastoideus,  pectinaeus,  etc.  Thus  the 
anatomists  used  unsystematically  adjectives  with  these  different  endings. 

Latin  was  preferred  by  scientists  during  the  early  part  of  the  19th 
century,  although  some  attempts  to  use  the  modern  languages  were 
made.  We  therefore  can  account  for  the  fact  that  Latin  and  Latinized 
Greek  words  were  retained  in  scientific  nomenclature,  and  that  new 
terms  were  coined  in  the  conventional  way.  Indeed,  the  Latin  and  Greek 
terms  were  so  intimately  connected  with  scientific  thinking  that  they 
could  not  be  severed  from  the  subjects  which  they  designated.  During  the 
end  of  the  medieval  period,  the  barbers  were  the  exponents  of  common 
surgery  and,  therefore,  the  language  of  the  country  was  used.  Thus, 
German  anatomic  names  began.  Some  of  the  classical  anatomic  books 
were  translated  into  German  as  early  as  1733,  as  were  also  some  of  the 
English  and  French  anatomies.  In  1781  a  reprint  of  Vesal's  drawings 
was  made  by  Leveling  with  explanations  in  German.  Leveling  collected 
the  German  terms  and  their  Latin  synonyms  although  the  latter  were 
only  partially  taken  from  Vesal.  Many  of  his  terms,  such  as  arytaenoe- 
piglotteus,  gluteus,  radiaeus,  solaeus,  and  others,  are  grammatically 
and  philologically  faulty. 

In  the  Romanic  countries  and  in  England,  the  terms  were  more  or 
less  adapted  to  the  language  of  the  country.  While  the  Germans  used 
adjectives  with  the  endings  -ides  and  -ideus,  the  English  used  terms 
with  the  endings  -id  and  -idean,  the  French  with  the  endings  -ide  and 
-iden,  the  Italians  -ide  and  -ideo.  Direct  translations  into  the  Romanic 
language  and  into  English,  were  adopted  as  purely  technical  terms. 

About  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  anatomic  teaching  was 
begun  in  America,  and  with  it  came  varied  translations  from  foreign 
works.  This  gave  rise  to  the  use  of  a  number  of  terms  for  the  same 
structure.  Again  the  same  term  was  frequently  used  for  different 
structures.  This  multiplication  of  terms  was  not  at  all  peculiar  to 
America ;  indeed  it  prevailed  to  an  alarming  degree  in  Germany,  England 
and  France.  There  thus  piled  up  such  a  mass  of  technical  terms  that 
the  science  of  anatomy  staggered  beneath  its  own  terminology. 

As  a  typical  illustration  of  the  time  and  energy  consumed  in  acquiring 
a  working  vocabulary  one  needs  but  recall  that  the  Cartesian  "  seat  of 
the  soul "  was  designated  as  the  pineal  body,  pineal  gland,  pineal  organ ; 
parietal  body,  parietal  gland,  parietal  organ;  third  eye,  median  eye, 
parietal  eye,  pineal  eye;  corpus  pineale,  glandula  pineale;  epiphysis,  epi- 
physis cerebri;  penis  cerebri,  pinus,  conarium.    Were  the  synonyms  from 


the  French  and  German  added  to  these,  the  total  would  be  approxi- 
mately fifty  names  for  this  one  structure.  Contrast  this  condition  with 
that  which  exists  today  in  electrical  science,  in  which  one  finds  universal 
terms  such  as  ampere,  ohm,  and  volt. 

Such  a  status  is  so  harmful  to  teaching  and  so  stifling  to  research  that 
many  attempts  have  been  made  to  free  the  student,  teacher  and  investi- 
gator from  this  incubus.  Some  progress  was  made  by  Henle,  Gegenbaur, 
Krause,  Sappey,  Testut,  Quain,  Macalister,  Wilder  and  others.  These 
individual  efforts,  however,  have  never  obtained  general  recognition.  It 
thus  became  more  and  more  apparent  that  any  list  of  terms  must  have 
more  than  individual  prestige,  and  that  some  cooperative  plan  was 

Such  a  plan  was  outlined  by  the  German  Anatomic  Society  at  its  first 
meeting  in  Leipzig  in  1887,  and  its  officers  were  requested  to  work  out 
the  details.  The  officers  selected  a  revision  Commission  which  was 
enlarged  from  time  to  time,  until  it  included  the  leading  anatomists  of 
the  world.  Those  who  took  an  active  part  in  the  work  were  von 
Bardeleben,  Braune,  Cunningham,  Henke,  O.  Hertwig,  His,  von  K61- 
liker,  Kollmann,  Krause,  von  Kupffer,  Lebocq,  Merkel,  von  Mihalkovics, 
Riidinger,  Thane,  Toldt,  Turner,  Waldeyer  and  Zuckerkandl. 

Certain  limitations  and  fundamental  principles  were  agreed  on  at  the 
!  beginning;  others  arose  as  the  work  progressed.     The  work  was  limited 
i  to  descriptive  human  anatomy,  and  further  restricted  to  the  names  of 
I  those  structures  which  can  be  seen  by  the  unaided  eye,  or  at  most  by 
•  i  the  aid  of  a  simple  hand  lens.     Latin  was  adopted  as  the  official  language. 
As  the  work  progressed,  a  number  of  rules  were  adopted,  yet  none  became 
a  rule  without  exceptions.    The  more  important  of  these  were  the  fol- 
lowing :  each  part  to  be  named  shall  ha;ye  only  one  name ;  the  name  must 
be  grammatically  correct ;  the  name  must  be  as  short  and  simple  as  pos- 
sible ;  the  names  shall  be  simply  memory  signs  and  need  not  be  explana- 
tions; related  terms,  as  far  as  possible,  shall  be  similar,  for  example, 
femur,  arteria  femoralis,  vena  femoralis,  nervus   femoralis;  adjectives, 
in  general,  shall  be  arranged  with  their  antonyms,  as  dexter,  sinister; 
major,  minor;  superficialis,  profundus. 
j       The  commission,  under  the  guidance  of  its  editor,  W.  Krause,  extended 
1  its  work  over  a  period  of  six  years.     From  upward  of  30,000  Latin  terms 
about  4,500  were  selected.     Many  of  these  terms  could  not  be  agreed  on, 
either  through  correspondence  or  personal  discussions,  but  had  to  be 
decided  on  the  basis  of  special  dissections.     On  one  point  the  Commis- 
sion was  unable  to  reach  a  conclusion,  and  this  was  concerning  the  reten- 
tion of  proper  names.    This  was  finally  settled  by  including  them  in 
brackets  following  the  objective  names,  thus  leaving  to  time  the  final 
decision   on  this  point.     In   some  of   the  modern  textbooks  they  are 


included.  In  the  textbook  by  Krause,  editor-in-chief  of  the  Commission, 
they  are  not  included.  When  the  list  was  nearly  completed  it  was  turned 
over  to  a  special  editing  committee,  consisting  of  His,  Krause  and 
Waldeyer.  After  each  term  had  been  subjected  to  a  thorough  re-exami- 
nation by  this  committee,  the  whole  list  was  presented  for  final  criticism 
to  the  Anatomic  Society  at  its  annual  meeting  in  Basle  in  1895.  After 
careful  consideration  it  was  finally  adopted.  It  has  since  been  known  as 
the  "  Basle  Nomina  Anatomica  "  or  by  its  official  abbreviation  BNA.  It 
was  at  once  adopted  by  a  great  majority  of  European  anatomists  and 
has  since  been  accepted  by  American  anatomists.  It  is  safe  to  say  that 
the  greater  part  of  the  recent  anatomic  literature  of  the  world  is  ac- 
cessible only  to  those  who  have  acquainted  themselves  with  the  BNA. 

During  the  twenty  years  since  its  adoption,  each  term  has  been  care- 
fully studied,  and  some  pertinent  suggestions  have  been  made.  Lesbre 
says^  that  the  terms  should  be  applicable  in  comparative  anatomy.  Chaine 
would  have  the  muscles  so  named  that  the  terms  could  be  used  in  com- 
parative myology.  Braune  suggests  changing  the  names  of  the  arteries 
of  the  hand  and  foot  so  that  the  names  could  be  used  for  similar  arteries 
in  domestic  animals.  Some  day  we  may  be  able  to  bring  about  these 
desired  improvements,  but  this  cannot  be  done  until  homologies  are  better 
known.  The  fields  of  comparative  osteology  and  myology  are  still  under 
investigation,  while  the  unraveling  of  the  homologies  of  nuclear  masses 
and  fiber  tracts  in  the  central  nervous  systems  of  vertebrates  scarcely  has 

Other  suggestions  have  been  made  concerning  the  significance  of  cer- 
tain terms.  Von  Bardeleben  says  that  it  is  inconsequent  to  call  the  gland 
beneath  the  mandible  "  glandula  submaxillaris,"  since  it  is  obviously 
a  glandula  submandibularis.  Austerlitz  takes  exception  to  the  term 
"  thalamus  opticus,"  since  it  is  no  sleeping  room ;  to  "  aquaeductus 
cerebri,"  since  it  contains  no  water.  Had  these  names  been  changed  by 
the  commission,  why  should  they  not  have  dropped  "  acetabulum,"  since 
it  is  no  vinegar  cup ;  "hippocampus,"  since  it  is  not  a  sea  horse ;  "zygoma," 
since  it  is  not  an  ox  yoke  ?  "  Plexus  lymphaticus  "  is  not  a  crazy  plexus ; 
"  nervus  pudendus  "  is  not  a  shameful  nerve.  In  short,  any  attempt  to 
have  substituted  objectively  correct  terms  would  have  been  in  direct 
opposition  to  the  aim  of  the  Commission.  Its  aim  was  to  select  the  most 
suitable  terms  from  the  many  in  current  usage  or  from  those  which  had 
previously  been  used. 

Triepel,  after  carefully  studying  the  BNA,  suggests  substituting  cer- 
tain terms  for  those  adopted,  namely:  articulus  for  articulatio;  bifurcus 
for  bifurcatus ;  bipennis  for  bipennatus ;  dorsualis  for  dorsalis ;  glomeri- 
formis  for  glomiformis ;  glomerulum  for  glomerulus ;  lumbaris  for  lum- 
balis;  plicatura  for  plica.     Were  these  changes  made  as  suggested  by 


Triepel,  they  introduce  nothing  more  than  a  different  spelling  of  the 
same  words. 

Were  scientific  opinion  to  sustain  all  the  objections  brought  against  the 
BNA,  less  than  three  per  cent,  of  the  terms  would  be  affected.  A  system 
which  so  nearly  fulfills  all  demands  has  naturally  become  an  international 
anatomic  language.  On  the  whole,  it  may  be  said  that  the  more  critical 
the  study  of  the  BNA,  the  more  apparent  becomes  its  merits. 

The  question  as  to  whether  terms  should  be  written  in  Latin  or  in  the 
language  of  the  author  is  a  matter  of  choice.  The  commission  expressly 
states  that  while  its  official  language  is  Latin,  it  does  not  wish  to  impose 
the  slightest  restriction  on  the  translation  of  these  terms  into  any  lan- 
guage. Anatomists,  however,  are  using  quite  uniformly  the  Latin  terms, 
and  are  thereby  greatly  facilitating  the  development  of  'anatomic  science 
through  a  common  language. 

Since  the  BNA  has  become  the  language  of  the  anatomists,  may  they 
not  hope  for  the  cooperation  of  the  clinicians  in  clearing  the  field  of  the 
thousands  of  useless  synonyms?  At  the  present  day  it  is  scarcely  possi- 
ble to  find  a  students'  textbook  on  any  clinical  subject  which  evinces  the 
slightest  concern  as  to  the  uniformity  of  its  anatomic  terms. 

There  are  a  number  of  reasons  why  the  BNA  has  not  been  more  widely 
adopted.  One  is  because  the  terms  are  arranged  according  to  systems, 
which  makes  it  difficult  to  find  a  given  term.  Moreover,  in  such  an 
arrangement  it  naturally  is  inferred  that  all  the  bones  should  be  found 
under  Osteologia ;  all  the  muscles  under  Myologia ;  all  ,the  arteries  and 
veins  under  Angiologia ;  all  the  nerves  under  Neurologia.  Such  an  infer- 
ence, however,  is  entirely  erroneous.  The  temporal  bone  (os  temporale) 
and  its  subdivisions  are  given  for  the  most  part  on  pp.  30-31 ;  the  semi- 
circular canals  (canales  semicirculares)  on  p.  98;  the  auditory  ossicles 
(ossicula  auditus)  on  p.  99.  The  muscles  of  the  head  (musculi  capitis) 
on  p.  46,  must  be  supplemented  by  those  on  pp.  59,  95,  96,  97,  100,  before 
the  list  is  complete.  Angiologia  proper,  pp.  67-79,  must  be  extended  to 
include  the  vessels  on  pp.  56,  57,  61,  87,  96,  98.  This  is  equally  true  of 
other  divisions  and  subdivisions. 

Another  reason  is  that  there  is  nowhere  a  complete  alphabetical  list  of 
these  terms.  It,  therefore,  is  necessary  to  confirm  all  terms  by  consult- 
ing the  original  systematically  arranged  BNA.  Again  the  BNA  as 
adopted  by  the  Anatomic  Society  was  accompanied  by  an  exhaustive 
report  written  by  W.  His.  This  report  not  only  gives  the  details  of  the 
organization  and  work  of  the  revision  committee,  but  also  the  reasons 
for  including  or  rejecting  certain  terms.  This  report  has  never  been 
accessible,  excepting  in  the  original  German.  The  most  serious  of  all  the 
difficulties  is  to  find  the  BNA  equivalents  of  the  tens  of  thousands  of 
synonymous  terms  which  are  scattered  through  the  anatomic  literature. 


Some  years  ago  the  author  experienced  great  difiSculty  in  applying  the 
BNA  terms  to  the  various  structures  of  the  human  body.  In  order  to 
facilitate  this  work  all  these  terms  were  arranged  alphabetically  and  cross- 
reference  numerals  affixed  to  each,  citing  the  page  and  serial  number  of 
the  same  term  in  its  systematic  position.  In  order  to  make  the  report  by 
His  more  accessible  it  was  translated  into  English. 

With  this  material  in  hand  and  a  realization  of  its  value,  it  was  decided 
to  supplement  the  alphabetical  list  of  BNA  terms  through  the  addition  of 
some  twenty  thousand  synonyms,  each  of  which  bears  numerals  citing  the 
equivalent  BNA  term.  Since  most  of  the  Latin  synonyms  have  been  col- 
lected by  Henle,  Krause,  Merkel,  de  Terra,  and  others,  it  was  not  a  dif- 
ficult task  to  place  these  in  their  alphabetical  position.  The  gathering  of 
the  English  terms  and  the  finding  of  their  BNA  equivalents  was  a  much 
greater  task,  and  in  this  respect  the  index  is  far  from  complete. 

There  also  has  been  included  a  Biographical  List  containing  some  eight 
hundred  brief  sketches  of  the  leading  anatomists  of  the  world  by  Roy  L. 

We  are  especially  indebted  to  Martin  W.  Schmidt  for  help  in  the  trans- 
lations ;  to  A.  M.  Schwitalla,  S.  J.,  for  going  over  the  entire  list ;  to  Tom 
Jones  and  Esther  Broday  for  much  aid;  to  Messrs.  Birsner,  Boelio, 
Carothers,  Fisch,  Norwood,  Waldman,  Miss  H^ll  and  others  for  valuable 
assistance.  We  would  likewise  express  our  obligations  to  the  publishers 
for  their  painstaking  care  in  the  preparation  of  the  work. 

The  work  is  presented  with  the  hope  that  all  who  use  anatomic  names 
will  help  to  conserve  the  energy  which  is  now  wasted  in  learning  the  tens 
of  thousands  of  anatomic  synonyms  when  less  than  five  thousand  terms 
will  designate  the  structures  with  greater  precision. 



Introduction 3 

Scope  of  the  work 5 

Plan  and  achievements  of  the  undertaking lo 

Rules  for  the  assignment  of  names i6 

Nomina  anatomica 23 

Termini  situum  et  directionem  partium  corporis  indicantes 23 

Termini  generales  24 

Partes  corporis  humani 26 

Osteologia 28 

Columna  vertebralis    ■. 28 

Atlas 28 

Epistropheus 29 

Os  sacrum  29 

Os  coccygis   29 

Thorax 29 

Costae 29 

Sternum 29 

Thorax 29 

Ossa  cranii 29 

Os  basilare  29 

Os  occipitale   29 

Os   sphenoidale    3° 

Os   temporale    30 

Os  parietale    31 

Os  frontale 32 

Os  ethmoidale   32 

Concha  nasalis  inferior 32 

Os  lacrimale   32 

Os  nasale   32 

Vomer 32 

Ossa  faciei  32 

Maxilla 32 

Os  palatinum   33 

Os  zygomaticum   33 

Mandibula 33 

Os  hyoideum 34 

Cranium 34 

Fossae  cranii 34 

Facies  ossea 34 

Orbitae 34 

Cavum  nasi 34 

Cavum  oris 34 

Fossa  infratemporalis  und  Fossa  pterygopalatina 34 

Suturae  cranii  34 

Synchondroses  cranii  35 

extremitatis  superioris 35 

Cingulum    extremitatis    superioris 35 

Scapula 35 

Clavicula 35 

Skeleton     extremitatis     superioris     liberae..  35 

Humerus 35 

Radius 36 

Ulna 36 

Carpus 36 



Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 
Osteologia —  Continued. 

Ossa  extremitatis  superioris — Continued.  Page 

Metacarpus , 36 

Phalanges  digitorum  manus 36 

Ossa  sesamoidea  manus 37 

Ossa  extremitatis  inferioris 37 

Cingulum     extremitatis     inferioris 37 

Os  coxae  37 

Os  ilium  37 

Os  ischii   37 

Os  pubis 37 

Pelvis 37 

Skeleton    extremitatis    inferioris    liberae...  37 

Femur    37 

Tibia 38 

Fibula 38 

Patella 38 

Tarsus   (Ossa  tarsi)..- 38 

Talus 38 

Calcaneus 39 

Os  naviculare  pedis 39 

Ossa  cuneiformia 39 


Metatarsus 39 

Phalanges  digitorum  pedis 39 

Ossa  sesamoidea  pedis 39 

Syndesmologia 40 

Ligamenta  columnae  vertebralis  et  cranii 40 

Articulatio  atlantooccipitalis  41 

Articulatio   atlantoepistrophica    41 

Articulationes  costovertebrales   41 

Articulationes   capitulorum    41 

Articulationes  costotransversariae   41 

Articulationes  sternocostales    41 

Articulatio  mandibularis  41 

(Articulationes  oss.  hyoidei) 

Ligamenta  cinguli  extremitatis  superioris 41 

Articulatio   acromioclavicularis    41 

Articulatio  sternoclavicularis   41 

Articulatio  humeri 41 

Articulatio  cubiti  41 

Articulatio  radioulnaris  distalis 42 

Articulatio  manus   42 

Articulatio  radiocarpea   42 

Articulatio   intercarpea    42 

Articulatio  ossis  pisiformis 42 

Articulationes   carpometacarpeae    42 

Articulatio  carpometacargea  poUicis 42 

Articulationes  intermetacarpeae    42 

Articulationes  metacarpophalangeae   42 

Articulationes   digitorum  manus 42 

Ligamenta  cinguli  extremitatis  inferioris 42 

Articulatio  sacroiliaca   42 

Symphysis  ossium  pubis 42 

Articulatio  coxae  '. .  42 

Articulatio   genu    43 

Articulatio  tibiofibularis 43 

Syndesmosis  tibiofibularis   43 

Articulationes  pedis   •. 43 

Articulatio  talocruralis    43 

Articulationes   intertarseae    43 

Articulatio  talocalcaneonavicularis  43 

Articulatio  talocalcanea    43 

Articulatio  tarsi  transversa  43 

Articulatio  talonavicularis   .• 43 

CONTENTS.  xiii 

Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 
Syndesmologia —  Continued. 

Ligamenta  cinguli  extremitatis  inferioris  —  Continued.  Page 

Articulatio   calcaneocuboidea    43 

Articulatio  cuneonavicularis    43 

Ligamenta  tarsi  interossea 43 

Ligamenta  tarsi  dorsalia  ^ 43 

Ligamenta  tarsi  plantana 43 

Articulationes   tarsometatarseae    44 

Articulationes  intermetatar&eae  44 

Articulationes   metatarsophalangeae    44 

Articulationes  digitorum  pedis 44 

Myologia 45 

Musculi  dorsi 45 

Musculi  capitis  46 

Musculi  ossis  hyoidei 46 

Musculi  colli   46 

Musculi  thoracis   46 

Musculi  abdominis 47 

Musculi  coccygei  47 

Musculi  extremitatis  superioris 47 

Musculi  extremitatis  inferioris  48 

Bursae  et  Vaginae  mucosae 50 

Splanchnologia 52 

Apparatus  digestorius 52 

Cavum  oris   52 

Bucca 52 

Vestibulum  oris  52 

Cavum  oris  proprium 52 

Palatum 52 

Tunica  mucosa  oris 52 

Glandulae  oris_ 53 

(Glandulae  salivales)    53 

Dentes  ... 53 

Lingua  .  .  . S3 

Septum  linguae S3 

Musculi  linguae    54 

Fauces 54 

Musculi  palati  et  f aucium 54 

Pharynx 54 

Tubus  digestorius   54 

Oesophagus 54 

Ventriculus 54 

Intestinum  tenue   55 

Intestinum  crassum   55 

Intestinum  rectum    56 

Pancreas S6 

Hepar 56 

Lien 57 

Apparatus  respiratorius 57 

Cavum  nasi   57 

Nasus  externus    57 

Larynx 58 

Cartilagines  laryngis   58 

Musculi  laryngis    58 

Cavum  laryngis   59 

Tunica  mucosa  laryngis 59 

Trachea  et   Bronchi 59 

Pulmo 59 

Cavum  thoracis    60 

Cavum  pleurae  60 

Clandula  thyreoidea  60 

Glomus  caroticum 60 

Thymus 60 


Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 

Splanchnologia  —  Continued.  Page 

Apparatus  urogenitalis 60 

Organa  uropoetica   60 

Ren 60 

Arteriae  renis   61 

Venae  renis   61 

Ureter  ... 61 

Vesica  urinaria 61 

Glandula  suprarenalis    61 

Organa  genitalia    61 

Organa  genitalia  virilia 61 

Testis 61 

Vesicula  seminalis   62 

Funiculus  spermaticus  et  tunicae  testis  et  funiculi  spermatid  62 

Prostata 62 

Glandula  bulbourethralis    62 

Partes  genitales  externae 62 

Penis 62 

Urethra  virilis    63 

Scrotum '. 63 

Organa  genitalia  muliebria 63 

Ovarium 63 

Tuba  uterina 63 

Uterus 63 

Vagina 64 

•Epoophoron 64 

Paroophoron 64 

Partes   genitales   externae 64 

Pudendum  muliebre   64 

Gl.  vestibularis  major 64 

Clitoris 64 

Urethra  muliebris   64 

Perineum , 65 

Musculi  perinei 65 

Diaphragma  pelvis  et  diaphragma  urogenitale 65 

Peritonaeum 65 

Angiologia 67 

Cor 67 

Atrium    dextrum    68 

Ventriculus  dexter 68 

Atrium  sinistrum  68 

Ventriculus  sinister    68 

Arteriae 68 

Arteria  pulmonalis  68 

Aorta 68 

Aorta  ascendens  68 

Arcus  aortae 68 

Aorta  descendens 68 

A.  anonyma   68 

Arteria  carotis  communis 68 

A.  carotis  externa 68 

A.  carotis  interna 69 

Arteria  subclavia 70 

A.  vertebralis  7° 

A.  basilaris    7o 

A.  mammaria   interna 70 

Truncus  thyreocervicalis    ; 70 

A.  thyreoidea  inferior 70 

A.  cervicalis  ascendens 70 

A.  cervicalis  superficialis ; 70 

A.  transversa  scapulae 70 


Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 
Angiologia  —  Continued. 

Arteria  subclavia  —  Continued.  Page 

Truncus   costocervicalis    70 

A.  intercostalis  suprema  70 

A.  cervicalis  profunda 70 

A.  transversa  colli ■  70 

A.  axillaris   70 

A.  thoracalis  suprema 71 

A.   thoracoacromialis    .- 71 

A.  tiioracalis  lateralis 71 

A.  subscapularis , 71 

A.  circumflexa  humeri  anterior 71 

A.  circumflexa  humeri  posterior 71 

A.  brachialis  71 

A.  profunda  brachii 71 

A.  collateralis  ulnaris  superior 71 

A.  collateralis  ulnaris  inferior 71 

A.  radialis  71 

A.  ulnaris  71 

Aorta  thoracalis  71 

Rami  viscerales  71 

Rami  parietales   71 

Aa.  intercostales   71 

Aorta  abdominalis 72 

Rami  parietales    72 

A.  phrenica  inferior 72 

Aa.  lumbales 72 

A.  sacralis  media 72 

Glomus  coccygeum 72 

Rami  viscerales    72 

A.  coeliaca 72 

h..  mesenterica  superior 72 

A.  mesenterica  inferior  72 

A.  suprarenalis  media   72 

A.  renalis 72 

A.  spermatica  interna   72 

A.  testicularis 

A.  ovarica 72 

A.  iliaca  communis 72 

A.  hypogastrica 72 

Rami  parietales   72 

A.  iliolumbalis 72 

A.  sacralis   lateralis    72 

A.  obturatoria 72 

A.  glutaea  superior 73 

A.  glutaea  inferior   73 

Rami  viscerales    73 

A.  umbilicalis 73 

A.  vesicalis  inferior   73 

A.  deferentialis 73 

A.  uterina 73 

A.  haemorrhoidalis  media   73 

A.  pudenda  interna  73 

A.  iliaca  externa  73 

A.  epigastrica  inferior  73 

A.  circumflexa  ilium  profunda 73 

A.  f  emoralis  , 73 

A.  profunda  femoris   73 

A.  genu  suprema  73 

A.  poplitea 73 

A.  tibialis  anterior 74 

A.  tibialis  posterior   74 


Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 

Angiologia  —  Continued.  Page 

Venae 74 

Venae  pulmonales  74 

Vv.   cordis    74 

Vena   cava   superior 74 

Vv.  anonymae  dextra  et  sinistra 74 

V.  jugularis  interna 74 

Sinus  durae  matris 75 

Venae  cerebri  75 

V.  ophthalmica  superior 75 

V.  ophthalmica  inferior 75 

V.  facialis  communis 75 

V.  facialis  anterior 75 

V.  facialis  posterior 76 

V.  jugularis  externa 76 

V.  suhclavia  76 

V.  axillaris  76 

V.  azygos   J 76 

V.  cava  inferior 77 

Radices  parietalis    77 

Radices  viscerales  yj 

Venae  portae    ^^ 

Vena  iliaca  communis 77 

V.  hypogastrica    TJ 

V.  iliaca  externa 77 

Systema  lymphaticum  78 

Vasa  lymphatica    78 

Ductus  thoracicus  78 

Lymphoglandulae 78 

Plexus  lymphatici   79 

Neurologia 80 

Systema  nervorum  centrale 80 

Medulla  spinalis  80 

Sectiones  medullae   spinalis 80 

Encephalon  ...  .' 81 

Rhombencephalon 81 

Myelencephalon 81 

Medulla  oblongata    81 

Sectiones  medullae  oblongatae 81 

Ventriculus  quartus    81 

Metencephalon 82 

Pons 82 

Sectiones  pontis  82 

Pars  dorsalis  pontis 82 

Pars  basilaris  pontis 82 

Cerebellum 82 

Hemisphaeria  cerebelli    82 

Vermis 82 

Sectiones  cerebelli 83 

Isthmus  rhombencephali    83 

Sectiones  isthmj    83 

Cerebrum 83 

Mesencephalon 83 

Pedunculus  cerebri   83 

Sectiones  pedunculi   cerebri "; 83 

Corpora   quadrigemina 84 

Sectiones  corporum  quadrigeminorum 84 

Prosencephalon 84 

Diencep'halon 84 

Hypothalamus 84 

Pars  optica  hypothalami 84 

Sectiones   hypothalami    84 

CONTENTS.  xvii 

Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 
Neurologia  —  Continued. 

Cerebrum  —  Continued.  Pages 

Thalamencephalon 84 

Thalamus 84 

Metathalamus 84 

Epitlialamus 84 

Sectiones  thalamencephali   84 

Telencephalon 85 

Hemisphaerium 85 

Pallium 85 

Facies  medialis  hemisphaerii 85 

Corpus   callosum    86 

Fornix 86 

Septum  pellucidum '. 86 

Ventriculus  lateralis   86 

Rhinencephlon 86 

Sectiones  telencephali   86 

Meninges 87 

Systema  nervorum  periphericum ; 88 

Nervi  cerebrales  88 

Nn.  olfactorii   88 

N.  opticus  88 

N.  oculomotorius  88 

N.  trochlearis   88 

N.  trigeminus   88 

N.   ophthalmicus    88 

Ganglion  ciliare   88 

N.  maxillaris  88 

Ganglion  sphenopalatinum    '. 88 

N.  -mandibularis   • 89 

Ganglion  oticum    89 

Ganglion  submaxillare    89 

N.  abducens 89 

N.  facialis 89 

N.  intermedins 89 

N.  acusticus  89 

N.  vestibuli    89 

N.  cochleae   90 

N.  glossopharyngeus    90 

N.  vagus   90 

N.   accessorius    90 

N.  hypoglossus  90 

Nn.   spinales 90 

Nn.  cervicales gi 

Rami  posteriores 91 

Rami  anteriores 91 

Plexus  cervicalis    91 

Plexus  brachialis   91 

Pars  supraclavicularis    91 

Pars   infraclavicularis    91 

N.  medianus 91 

N.  ulnaris  91 

N.  radialis 91 

Nn.  thoracales    .  ■ 91 

Rami  posteriores     91 

Rami  anteriores 92 

Nn.  lumbales,  sacrales,  coccygeus 92 

Plexus  lumbosacralis   92 

Plexus  lumbalis    92 

N.  iliohypogastricus  92 

N.  ilioinguinalis   92 

N.  genitofemoralis    92 

N.  cutaneus  f emoris  lateralis 92 

xviii  CONTENTS. 

Nomina  anatomica — Continued. 
Neurologia  —  Continued. 

Systema  nervorum  periphericum  —  Continued.  Pages 

N.  obturatorius    93 

N.  femoralis    92 

Plexus  sacralis   92 

N.  ischiadicus   92 

Plexus  pudendus   93 

N.  coccygeus  93 

Systema  nervorum  sympathicum 93 

Pars  cephalica  et  cervicalis  s.  sympathici 93 

Pars  thoracalis  s.  sympathici 94 

Pars  abdominalis  et  pelvina  s.  sympatliici 94 

Organa  sensuum  et  Integumentum  commune 95 

Organon  visus 95 

Oculus 95 

N.  opticus 95 

Bulbus  oculi   95 

Tunica  fibrosa  oculi 9S 

Sclera 95 

Cornea 95 

Tunica  vasculosa  oculi 95 

Chorioidea 9S 

Corpus  ciliare   95 

Iris 95 

Stratum  pigmenti    96 

Retina 96 

Vasa  sanguinea  retinae 96 

Cajnera  oculi  anterior 96 

Camera  oculi  posterior 96 

Corpus  vitreu'm    96 

Lens  crystallina  96 

Zonula  ciliaris    96 

Organa  oculi  accessoria 96 

Musculi  oculi,  Fasciae  orbitales 96 

Supercilium 97 

Palpebrae 97 

Conjunctiva 97 

Apparatus   lacrimalis    97 

Organon  auditus   97 

Auris   interna    97 

Labyrinthus   membranaceus    97 

Ductus  cochlearis 98 

Vasa  auris  internae 98 

Labyrinthus  osseus    98^ 

Vestibulum 98* 

Cochlea 98 

Meatus  acusticus  internus 98 

Cavum  tympani    98 

Paries  tegmentalis    98 

Paries  jugularis   99 

Paries  labyrinthicus   99 

Paries  mastoideus   99 

Paries  caroticus   99 

Paries  membranaceus   99 

Membrana  tympani    99 

Ossicula  auditus  99 

Stapes 99 

Incus 99 

Malleus 99 

Articulationes   ossiculorum   auditus 99 

Ligamenta  ossiculorum  auditus 99 

Musculi  ossiculorum  auditus gg 


Nomina  anatomica  —  Continued. 

Organa  sensuum  et  Integumentimi  commune  —  Continued. 

Organon  auditus  —  Continued.  Pages 

Tunica  mucosa  tympanica lOO 

Tuba  auditiva 

Meatus  acusticus  externus 


Organon  olfactus 

Organon  gustus  

Integumentum  commune   



Corium  .  .  . 

Tela  subcutanea 

Corpuscula  nervorum  terminalia 



Glandulae  cutis 

Gl.   glomiformes    

Glandulae  sebaceae  


Mamma  virilis    

Regiones  corporis  humani 

Explanations  for  the  Nomenclature *. 


Designations  of  position  and  direction  of  parts 

Glandulae,  lymphoglandulae,  noduli  lymphatici 

Partes,  termini  generales 


Infundibulum  ethmoidale   


Fossa  scaphoidea    


Sulci  paraglenoidales   

Linea  intermedia  

Ala  ossis  ilium 

Syndesmology  .  .  .  

Lig.  accessorium  volare 

Lig.  carpi  volare 

Lig.  carpi  trans versum 

Lig.   talocalcaneum  anterius 


Pars  lacrimalis  m.  orbicularis  oculi  [M.  Horneri] 

M.  quadratus  labii  superioris 

Raphe   pterygomandibularis    

M.  sternocleidomastoideus  

Fasciculi  transversi  [Aponeurosis  palmaris] 

M.  scalenus  minimus 

Lig.  fundiforme  penis 

Inguinal  foveae 

Bursae  et  vaginae  mucosae 


Tonsilla   lingualis    

Sulcus  terminalis  linguae;  ductus  lingualis,  etc 

Recessus  pharyngeus  

Bursa  pharyngea   

Areae  gastricae    

Pars   analis   recti 



Macula  flava 

Cartilago  cuneiformis    

Lig.   cricothyreoideum   medium 

Annulus   urethralis   vesicae 


Explanations  for  the  Nomenclature —  Continued. 

Splanchnology — Continued.  Pag'es 

Prostata I33 

Colliculus  seminalis   I3S 

Cavum  pelvis 136 

Peritonaeum 140 

Bursa  omentalis  140 

Lig.  falciforme  hepatis 141 

Plica  vesicalis  transversa 142 

Bursa   ovarii    142 

Angiology 144 

Cor 144 

Vena  obliquua  atrii  sinistri 146 

Vena  jugularis  externa 147 

Vena  auricularis  posterior 148 

Venae  cutaneae  brachii  et  antibrachii ■    148 

Venae  parumbilicales  148 

Neurology 153 

Divisions  of  the  brain 154 

Medulla  spinalis  160 

Ventriculus   quartus    160 

Taeniae  ventriculorum  161 

Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medialis 164 

Ascending  and  descending  nerve  roots 164 

Nuclei  of  nerves 165 

Gyrus  fornicatus   166 

Fissura  hippocampi,  etc 16O 

Gyrus  subcallosus   166 

Rhinencephalon 170 

Organa  sensuum 174 

Resume 175 

Biographical  Sketches   '. 177 

Index  and  Synonym  Register 355 







The  lists  of  anatomical  names  have  been  reproduced  exactly  from 
the  original.  Some  of  the  obvious  errors  in  the  original  are  the 
following : 

42,  Nos.  34,  35  read  Ligg.  instead  of  Lig. 
45,  Nos.  56,  57,  58  read  Mm.  instead  of  M. 
47,  No.  49  read  [Spigeli]  instead  of  [Spige] 
51,  No.  4  read  obturatoris  instead  of  obturatorii 
56,  No.  65  read  fibrosa  instead  of  fibrosus 
75  Nos.  74,  75,  76  read  Vv.  instead  of  V. 
"J"]  No.  51  read  V.  instead  of  Vv. 
90  No.  65  read  Nn.  instead  of  N. 


A.  Arteria.  n.  nervi. 

a.  arteriae.  Nn.  Nervi. 

Aa.  Arteriae.  Oss.  Ossa. 

Gl.  Glandula,  glandulae.  oss.  ossis,  ossium. 

Lig.  Ligamentum.  R.  Ramus. 

lig.  ligamenti.  r.  rami. 

Ligg.  Ligamenta.  Rr.  Rami. 

M.  Musculus.  V.  Vena. 

m.  musculi.  v.  venae. 

Mm.  Musculi.  Yv.  Venae, 

N.  Nervus. 


In  the  year  1887  the  Anatomical  Society,  which  since  has  grown  very 
vigorously,  resolved  at  its  first  session  in  Leipzig  to  undertake  a  revision 
of  the  entire  anatomical  nomenclature,  and  authorized  its  officers  to  begin 
the  necessary  preparations  for  the  execution  of  the  undertaking.  I  had 
suggested  this  matter  at  that  time  and  the  board  of  directors  decided  at 
first  to  choose  a  preliminary  Commission  of  two  members.  After  a 
lengthy  discussion  the  board  resolved,  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Leuckart, 
that  the  officials  of  the  entire  Society  discuss  such  an  undertaking.^ 

The  reasons  for  a  revision  of  the  nomenclature  were  very  obvious. 
Indeed  an  anarchy  had  reigned  here  under  which  teachers  and  pupils 
equally  suffered  and  which  necessarily  retarded  investigation.  The  stock 
of  terms  handed  down  from  previous  centuries  was  by  itself  more  than 
sufficient,  and  we  long  had  been  accustomed  to  seeing  double  or  multiple 
designations  for  many  structures,  e.  g.,  M.  trapezius  sive  cucularis; 
N.  vagus  sive  pneumogastricus ;  M.  petrosalpingostaphylinus  sive  levator 
palati  and  similar  double  names  were  repeated  from  textbook  to  textbook, 
from  lecture  to  lecture.  Occasionally  the  luxus  went  considerably  farther 
and  designations  like  Valvula  coli,  sive  ileocoecalis,  sive  Bauhini,  sive 
Tulpii,  sive  Falloppiae  gave  to  the  teacher  occasion  for  excursions  into 
historical  territory  and  for  the  discussion  of  fossil  priority  questions. 

The  merit  of  conscious  rupture  with  these  old  harmless  traditions 
belongs  ito  J.  Henle,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  also  for  the  subsequent 
introduction  of  good  orienting  designations,  such  as  sagittal,  frontal, 
medial,  lateral.  Henle  accepted  only  one  name  for  each  structure  and 
relegated  synonyms  to  notes  beneath  the  text.  Furthermore  Henle 
rejected  personal  names  and  replaced  them  throughout  by  objective 
terms,  giving  as  a  reason  that  the  current  names  often  implied  historical ' 

1  Report  on  the  transactions  of  the  first  meeting  of  the  Anatomical  Society. 
Anatomischer  Anzeiger  Vol.  II,  p.  403. 


If  we  wish  to  be  frank,  we  must  say  that  Henle's  effort  to  simplify 
the  anatomical  nomenclature,  did  not  at  first  bring  us  nearer  to  the 
coveted  goal  but  carried  us  from  it.  At  least  since  the  publication  of 
Henle's  textbook  the  mix-up  has  become  more  obvious.  Henle  himself 
introduced  many  new  names.  While  some  teachers  immediately  fol- 
lowed him,  others  remained  stationary,  still  others  were  eclectic  and  main- 
tained their  right  to  coin  names.  Thus  the  condition  gradually  has  come 
about  that  each  school  has  its  peculiar  language.  The  student  going 
from  one  university  to  another  becomes  tangled  up  in  his  hard  acquired 
treasury  of  knowledge;  even  the  physician  can  follow  readily  only  that 
literature  which  uses  his  own  acquired  anatomical  language.  This  state 
of  affairs  is  so  harmful  to  instruction  and  so  humiliating  to  science,  that 
all  who  foster  anatomy  are  impressed  with  the  necessity  of  a  change  of 
conditions.  Moreover  the  proposition  to  do  away  with  this  nuisance 
immediately  found  general  approbation  in  the  Society  and  was  gladly 
put  into  a  resolution.  But  when  the  officers  began  the  execution  of  the 
detailed  work  the  first  difficulties  very  quickly  came  to  light.  Since  then 
the  number  and  importance  of  the  difficulties  have  notably  increased ;  but 
at  the  same  time  we  have  reached  the  conviction  that  the  present  obstacles 
are  not  insurmountable.  It  is  necessary,  however,  for  the  attainment  of 
the  object  in  view  to  have  the  good  will  of  all  interested  and  above  all 
the  thorough  cooperation  of  the  members  of  the  Anatomical  Society. 

It  soon  became  very  clear  to  the  officers,  that  an  undertaking  which 
involved  so  much  detailed  work  could  not  be  done  off-hand ;  even  less 
so  since  the  administration  changes  from  year  to  year.  In  a  presidential 
address  in  Berlin,  in  1889, 1  brought  up  for  discussion  the  most  important 
difficulties  which  stood  in  the  way  of  a  uniform  nomenclature.  Therein 
I  emphasized  the  necessity  pf  turning  over  the  revision  of  the  anatomical 
language  tp  an  appointed  Commission;  and  above  all  of  securing  an 
editor  who  would  make  the  necessary  investigations  his  sole  work  for 
several  years.  In  the  business  meeting  of  the  session  referred  to,  the 
ideas  suggested  were  formally  adopted.  A  Commission  was  appointed 
which  should  undertake,  in  the  spirit  of  the  above  mentioned  opening  ad- 
dress, the  revision  of  our  anatomical  terms  and  the  preparation  of  a  uni- 
form nomenclature,  v.  Kolliker  was  chosen  as  chairman  of  the  Commis- 
sion while  O.  Hertwig,  His,  Kollmann,  Merkel,  Schwalbe,  Toldt, 
Waldeyer  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Society,  K.  v.  Bardeleben^  were 
chosen  as  members  of  the  same. 

2  Transactions    of   the   Anatomical   Society   at   its   3rd   meeting   in   Berlin 
1889.     Erganzungsheft  of  the  Anatomischer  Anzeiger.     Vol.   IV,  p.   131. 


Two  difficulties  confronted  the  Commission:  the  securing  of  a  com- 
petent editor  and  the  obtaining  of  the  necessary  funds.  As  editor 
the  Commission  was  fortunate  enough  to  obtain  our  colleague  Krause 
who  through  his  broad  literary  attainments  seems  to  have  been  trained 
for  just  such  a  task.  Krause,  through  all  these  years,  has  shown  inde- 
fatigable diligence  and  still  more  untiring  patience  and  has  complied  with 
all  the  demands  which  the  work  itself  and  the  many  individuals  interested 
have  placed  upon  him.  I  know  from  my  own  experience  that  during 
this  time  he  has  written  an  enormous  number  of  letters  and  compiled  a 
still  greater  mass  of  detailed  correspondence;  moreover  he  has  never 
hesitated  to  carry  on  a  correspondence,  even  for  weeks,  in  order  to  set  a 
single  term  right  or  to  put  it  in  its  proper  place.  When  the  task  begun 
will  have  come  to  a  satisfactory  termination,  then  we  shall  have  to  thank, 
especially,  our  editor. 

The  necessary  funds  we  originally  estimated  at  10,000  marks,  a  sum 
which  probably  will  be  exceeded  but  slightly.  The  amount  was  too  great 
to  be  borne  by  the  Society  alone.  The  Commission  through  a  number 
of  its  members  applied  for  assistance  to  the  Royal  and  the  Imperial  Royal 
Academies  of  Sciences  of  Berlin,  Munich,  Vienna,.  Budapest,  and  the 
Royal  Society  of  Sciences  in  Leipzig.  These  Societies  have  responded 
,  in  a  very  liberal  manner  and  we  are  indebted  to  them  for  a  sum  total  of 
about  8,090  marks.  The  Anatomical  Society  itself  thus  far  has  contributed 
a  little  over  3,800  marks  toward  the  expense  of  the  undertaking.  The 
strong  financial  support  which  we  have  received  from  the  higher  scien- 
tific societies  has  been  accepted  as  a  special  proof  of  confidence.  It, 
however,  places  upon  us  a  special  obligation  to  justify  the  confidence 
shown  and  to  bring  the  task  to  a  satisfactory  conclusion.* 

The  Scope  of  the  Work. 

If  we  did  not  wish  to  be  lost  in  the  infinite,  it  was  necessary  right  at 
the  beginning  to  set  the  limits  and  not  to  extend  them  too  far.  It  is 
obvious  that  we  could  not  think  of  settling  the  terminology  in  domains 
which  are  still  undergoing  a  more  or  less  active  scientific  fermentation. 

'There  has  been  given  us  by: 

Die  k.  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  in  Berlin M.  3000 


"  "  in  Miinchen    

k.k.    Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  in  Wien 

kgl.  Gesellschaft  der  Wissenschaften  in   Leipzig. 

kgl.  ungarische  Akademie   

anatomische  Gesellschaft   


For  this  reason  it  was  decided,  after  some  preliminary  experiments,  to 
consider  descriptive  anatomy  alone;  and  this  only  in  so  far  as  it  is  the 
object  of  investigation  with  the  naked  eye;  or  at  most  with  the  aid  of  a 
simple  hand  lens.  The  few  attempts  to  take  up  terms  of  microscopic 
anatomy — such  as  the  layers  of  the  cerebral  cortex  or  of  the  retina  — 
were  discussed  in  several  meetings  and  were  defeated  through  the  firm 
opposition  of  the  Commission.  Another  limitation  which  we  imposed 
upon  ourselves  is  the  use  of  a  single  language.  We  have  endeavored  to 
establish  terms  only  in  Latin  upon  the  assumption  that  everyone  must  be 
permitted  to  translate  these  terms  more  or  less  freely  into  his  own 
language.  The  word  "  Brustschliisselzitzenf  ortsatzmuskel "  is  a  literal, 
the  word  "  Kopfniker  "  a  free  translation  for  "  sternocleidomastoideus," 
and  no  matter  how  correct  the  former  may  be,  many  will  prefer  the 

The  question  as  to  how  far  our  work  should  partake  of  an  inter- 
national character  was  of  a  much  more  delicate  nature.  The  considera- 
tion of  this  question  led  to  rather  explicit  correspondence  and  discussion, 
and  I  shall  try  to  define  our  attitude  toward  the  same  in  the  clearest 
and  most  disinterested  manner  possible. 

First  of  all  it  should  be  emphasized  thfet  the  work  on  terminology  was 
begun  by  the  Anatomical  Society  and  that  the  same,  up  to  the  present 
day,  must  be  considered  an  affair  of  the  Society. 

The  Anatomical  Society,  although  founded  in  Berlin,  and  thus  far 
has  held  its  meetings  only  in  cities  where  the  German  language  is  spoken, 
has  not  been  from  the  day  of  its  foundation  merely  German  in  character. 
Indeed  the  list  of  members  includes  names  from  America,  Austro- 
Hungary,  Belgium,  Denmark,  England,  Italy,  Russia,  Sweden,  Switzer- 
land, and  also  one  from  France.  According  to  v.  Bardeleben  the  present 
membership  shows  145  German  and  129  foreign  members.  In  view  of 
its  constituency  the  Society  might  perhaps  have  had  good  reason  to 
undertake  immediately  the  establishment  of  an  international  anatomical 
language.  A  Fr.ench  proverb  says :  "  Qui  trop  embrasse,  mal  etreint," 
therefore  in  1889  our  Society  contemplated  only  uniformity  among  the 
German  speaking  anatomists;  and  the  Commission  in  the  beginning  was 
composed  only  of  such.  But  as  my  opening  address  shows,'^  cooperation 
with  anatomists  of  other  nationalities  was  considered  especially  desirable. 

*  In  the  second  votings  on  Myology,  Krause  still  expressed  a  desire  to  give 
the  German  equivalents  of  the  accepted  Latin  terms.    Through  the  wish  of  the 
Commission  this  was  later  left  undone. 
^  1.  c.  p.  9. 


Indeed  Krause  in  his  first  volume  on  Myological  Terminology  has  given, 
besides  the  German  terms  of  Gegenbaur,  Henle,  Hyrtl,  Krause,  and 
Langer,  the  English  terms  by  Quain  and  the  French  terms  by  Sappey. 

In  1890,  when  the  Anatomical  Society  and  the  Anatomical  Section  of 
the  International  Medical  Congress  met  at  the  same  time  in  Berlin,  it 
was  but  a  natural  consequence  that  the  Commission  came  in  touch  with 
the  anatomists  of  other  countries  and  at  this  time  Sir  Wm.  Turner, 
Cunningham,  Romite  and  Leboucq  were  requested  to  join  the  Commis- 
sion. Later,  in  Vienna,  Thane  was  also  enlisted.  Especially  the  last 
three  of  these  gentlemen  have  taken  part  in  the  work  of  the  Commission 
with  the  greatest  zeal  and  interest  not  only  at  that  time  but  also  at 
subsequent  meetings  in  Munich,  Vienna,   Gottingen,  and  Strassburg. 

Desirable  as  it  is  to  have  a  scientific  language  which  is  the  same  in  all 
lands  of  culture,  it  seems  that  at  present  the  needs  of  the  various  coun- 
tries are  not  the  same  throughout,  and  we  shall  be  obliged  perhaps  for 
some  time  to  come  to  do  without  an  absolutely  uniform  terminology. 
Under  the  circumstances  our  efforts  must  be  toward  a  diminution  as 
far  as  possible  of  the  remaining  differences.  The  Anatomical  Society 
of  Great  Britain  appointed  a  special .  Commission  in  1893  for  the  pur- 
pose of  adapting  our  suggestions  to  the  English  needs."  Somewhat 
earlier  (1890)  a  Society  of  American  Anatomists  tried  its  hand  on  the 
question  of  terminology.  The  opinions  of  the  English  Commission  are 
not  yet  at  hand,  but  the  American  Commission  and  its  very  zealous 
member,  Mr.  Wilder,  have  published  a  series  of  small  papers  and 

The  object  pursued  by  the  American  Commission  is  the  same  as  ours, 
but  the  pathways  to  the  goal  are  essentially  different  from  those  which 
we  have  chosen.  The  principle  is  common  that  each  part  shall  have 
only  a  single  name  and  that  this  name  shall  be  as  simple  and  char- 
acteristic as  possible.  Wilder  and  his  colleagues  go  further  and  want 
pure  "  mononyms  "  only ;  i.  e.,  substantives  without  farther  additions. 
They  say  e.  g.  praecornu  and  postcornu,  instead  of  cornu  anterius  and 
cornu  posterius,  postcava  instead  of  vena  cava  posterior,  etc.     At  the 

«  Journal  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology.     1894.     Vol.  XXVII. 

'Among  the  writings  of  Wilder,  I  cite  as  the  principal  ones:  The  funda- 
mental principles  of  anatomical  nomenclature,  by  Burt  G.  Wilder,  M.  D.,  from 
the  Medical  News,  19  December  1891.  Fissural  diagrams  of  the  human  brain. 
Macroscopical  vocabulary  of  the  brain  presented  to  the  Assoc,  of  American 
anatomists  at  Boston,  Mass.,  29  Dec.  l8go.  —  American  Reports  upon  Ana- 
tomical Nomenclature,  1889-1890,  with  Notes  by  Wilder,  Cornell  University, 
S  Feb.  1892. 


present  time  we  have  Wilder's  revision  of  the  brain  nomenclature 
according  to  the  suggested  principles,  and  this  first  attempt  permits  us 
to  form  an  opinion  as  to  the  consequences  following  the  prevailing  effort 
to  use  mononyms  only.  We  fully  agree  that  the  word  Thalamus  could 
be  used  briefly  in  the  place  of  Thalamus  opticus;  we  even  do  not  object 
if  in  daily  life  Dura  be  used  for  Dura  mater  encephali;  in  all  cases  in 
which  misinterpretation  is  not  possible.  But  we  cannot  admit  that  words 
like  "  Medipedunculus "  for  Pedunculus  cerebelli  ad  pontem,  indicate 
either  linguistic  or  practical  progress.  The  contraction  of  several  words 
into  one  may  be,  under  certain  conditions,  a  simplification.  But  like  the 
abbreviated  telegraphic  code  it  may  lack  clearness  and  thus  its  purpose 
becomes  negative  because  such  coined  words  require  special  explanations 
to  be  comprehended.  Medipedunculus  without  qualification  is  incom- 
prehensible ;  it  should  be  at  least  Medipedunculus  cerebelli,  and  preferable 
to  this  would  be  Pedunculus  medius  cerebelli,  since  the  barbarously 
formed  word  Medipedunculus  might  be  used  equally  well  for  Pedunculus 
medius,  as  for  Pedunculus  medialis  or  for  Pars  media,  or  medialis, 

Wilder's  list  includes  many  ungrammatical  word  formations,  and  one 
need  not  be  a  philological  pedant  to  be  shocked  by  words  like  Terma 
instead  of  Lamina  terminalis;  Postramus  (for  Ramus  posterior  arboris 
cerebelli),  etc.  Many  words,  like  Cimbia  (Tractus  peduncularis  trans- 
versus)  ;  Coelia  (for  Cavitas  encephali);  Auhx  (for  Sulcus  Monroi), 
etc.,  are,  by  the  way,  entirely  new;  or  like  Isthmus  (for  Gyrus 
annectens)  used  in  a  different  sense  than  heretofore.  I  do  not  know  how 
wide  a  circle  of  American  colleagues  Wilder  has  behind  him,  At  any 
rate  his  method  leads  to  the  coining  of  an  entirely  new  and  for  the 
most  part  strangely  sounding  language.  On  these  grounds  our  Com- 
mission cannot  follow  him  without  renouncing  our  historical  principles. 

From  the  time  when  the  scope  of  our  undertaking  was  enlarged 
through  the  cooperation  of  English,  Italian  and  Belgian  colleagues,  we 
felt  the  need  of  collaboration  with  our  French  colleagues.  But  since 
the  latter  did  not  attend  our  meetings  we  could  bring  about  a  collabora- 
tion only  through  the  rather  cumbersome  medium  of  correspondence. 
We  corresponded  especially  with  Testut,  the  member  of  our  society.  I 
tried  during  my  stay  in  Paris  to  interest  Mathias  Duval  in  our  work, 
and  finally,  following  a  resolution  of  the  Commission  in  Gottingen  in 
1893,  we  officially  invited  Duval  and  Testut  to  cooperate  with  us  on  the 
nomenclature.  Only  Testut  answered,  saying  that  according  to  his  con- 
viction a  Commission  on  Nomenclature  could  expect  dignified  and  lasting 
results  only  if  it  were  really  international,  and  each  member  appointed 


an  official  delegate  by  his  government.  Thus  Testut  explained  that  he 
could  take  part  in  the  work  only  when  requested  to  do  so  by  the  Minister 
of  Pubhc  Instruction.  In  earlier  letters  Testut  had  expressed  the  same 
idea  and  suggested  that  the  German  Government  might  take  the  initiative 
in  this  matter ;  and  further  that  the  selection  of  suitable  anatomists  for 
members  of  the  Commission  might  be  delegated  to  the  Anatomical  Society 
by  the  various  governments. 

Two  considerations  caused  the  Commission  on  nomenclature  to  give 
no  further  thought  to  the  suggestions  of  Testut,  inviting  as  they  might 
appear  at  first  glance.  First,  our  Society,  which  solicited  and  accepted 
contributions  from  Academies  and  Scientific  Societies  for  the  accom- 
plishment of  its  plans,  is  obligated  to  finish  the  work  begun  and  cannot 
put  it  all  at  once  on  others  shoulders.  Besides  as  matters  stand  it  appears 
almost  hopeless  to  expect  to  reach  the  goal  through  the  intervention  of 

There  exists  a  precedent  for  international  adjustment  of  scientific 
terms  in  the  estabhshment  in  1881  of  units  of  electric  measurements. 
The  President  of  the  French  Republic,  at  the  time  of  the  Exposition, 
invited  foreign  countries  to  send  delegates  to  Paris  to  consider  the 
adoption  of  common  units  of  electrical  measurements.  The  expression 
"  volt,"  "  ohm,"  "  ampere,"  and  the  establishment  of  their  values,  common 
since  that  time,  are  a  result  of  that  conference  in  which  the  principal 
physicists  of  the  world  participated.  The  printed  report  on  the  Electrical 
Congress  shows  that  twenty-eight  countries  were  represented;  among 
them  were  Central  and  South  American:  Columbia,  Costa  Rica, 
Venezuela,  etc.,  and  Asiatic,  like  Japan,  totaling  about  250  delegates.  In 
our  opinion  the  matters  of  anatomical  terminology  are  essentially  dif- 
ferent from  the  affairs  decided  upon  at  that  time.  On  the  one  hand  it 
appears  at  the  moment  quite  improbable  that  the  various  governments 
would  take  a  sufficient  interest  in  anatomical  nomenclature  to  make  it  an 
object  for  common  consideration;  on  the  other  hand  the  work  of  revising 
thousands  of  names  is  so  extensive  that  its  accomplishment  by  an  Inter- 
national Commission  could  hardly  be  expected  in  a  reasonable  length  of 
time.  But  above  all  it  remains  to  be  emphasized  that  the  legal  fixing  of 
anatomical  names  for  any  period  is  impossible,  because  the  progress  of 
science  itself  requires  a  constant  development  of  anatomical  language. 
Science  must  be  free  in  its  language  and  has  no  reason  to  submit  to  the 
authority  of  the  government. 

Up  to  the  present  time  the  nomenclature  was  provided  by  individual 
writers  —  authors'  of  textbooks  and  monographs.  Many  newly  sug- 
gested words  never  came  into  use,  others  were  used  in  a  different  sense 
than  that  originally  proposed,  others  again  were  more  or  less  widely 


adopted.  The  success  of  a  word  has  always  been  justification  for  its 
introduction  into  science.  Not  rarely  fashion  came  into  play  and  names 
in  themselves  absolutely  correct  were  abruptly  replaced  by  others 
scarcely  as  significant.  If  now  the  Anatomical  Society  tries  to  bring 
order  into  the  existing  literature  it  cannot  a  priori  expect  more  than 
could  the  individual  writers.  It  also  will  have  to  look  finally  for  the 
justification  of  its  work  in  the  success  of  its  undertaking.  Its  lists  of 
names  must  merit  preference  through  their  usefulness,  their  precision  of 
expression  and  the  logical  connection  of  the  whole  system.  It  is  neces- 
sary that  the  advantages  of  the  suggested  nomenclature  be  satisfactory 
to,  and  accepted  by,  the  greatest  possible  number  of  anatomists  and 
physicians.  Upon  its  merits,  of  course,  depends  the  extent  of  its  adop- 
tion. But  the  Society  cannot  exercise  any  restraint  in  this  respect  even 
upon  its  own  members ;  it  can  only  recommend.  The  better  the  new 
terminology  is  adapted  to  the  existing  needs  of  teaching  and  research, 
the  surer  are  its  prospects  for  general  acceptance  and  lasting  success. 
But  even  the  best  possible  terminology,  which  conforms  to  the  needs  of 
the  present  day,  may  become  lacking  again  in  the  course  of  years,  and 
revision  at  certain  periods  will  be  an  unavoidable  necessity. 

To  return  to  the  above  mentioned  question  regarding  the  cooperation 
of  governments  in  the  establishment  of  anatomical  names,  such  would 
not  be  precluded  even  after  the  completion  of  the  work  of  the  Anatomical 
Society.  Indeed  the  Society  might  become  the  point  of  departure  of  a 
movement  by  one  or  another  of  the  governments.  If,  for  instance,  our 
French  colleagues  would  suggest  to  their  Ministry,  that  the  names 
accepted  by  the  Society  be  made  again  the  object  of  an  international 
council  of  government  appointees,  the  Society  surely  would  not  object 
and  much  less  would  it  consider  as  fruitless  its  six  years  of  work.  But 
even  the  most  formal  governmental  regulations  will  not  be  able  to 
prevent  the  dissolution  of  an  officially  established  language  as  soon  as 
the  same  no  longer  conforms  to  the  scientific  needs  of  the  times. 

The  Plan  and  Achievements  of  the  Undertaking. 

The  first  technical  plan  for  the  carrying  out  of  the  work  on  nomen- 
clature was  outlined  by  Krause  and  approved  by  the  Commission.  In 
order  to  get  a  definite  foundation  all  the  names  in  Gegenbaur's  text- 
book were  written  in  alphabetical  order  in  vertical  columns  *  and  the 

8  Gegenbaur's  textbook  was  used  as  the  basis  for  the  formation  of  the 
lists  of  names,  since  for  six  years  it  represented  the  latest  thorough  revision 
of  Anatomy. 


synonyms  from  a  number  of  other  widel3r  used  textbooks  placed  in 
separate  parallel  columns.  Comprehensive  tables  were  thus  prepared 
and  copies  were  sent  to  the  members  of  the  Commission.  The  members 
were  requested  to  underscore  the  most  suitable  of  the  names  enumerated 
in  each  division,  or  in  case  it  were  thought  best,  they  could  propose  new 
names.  Moreover  the  members  were  requested  to  add  to  the  printed 
lists  any  general  or  special  remarks  which  might  be  suggested  from  the 
inspection  of  the  tables  and  then  to  return  them  at  a  definite  time  to 
Krause.  The  first  written  vote  was  attempted  on  Myology  and  the  result 
was  encouraging,  in  that  by  the  first  vote  85%  of  the  names  in  question 
received  a  majority,®  (and  indeed  80%,  and  in  later  votings  85%  of 
Gegenbaur's  columns).  More  than  40%  were  accepted  unanimously; 
besides  about  100  new  names  were  suggested.  In  a  second  printed 
pamphlet  the  accepted,  undecided  and  newly  suggested  names  were  sent 
to  the  members  of  the  Commission  and  they  were  also  informed  of  the 
remarks  made  by  the  individual  members  of  the  Cojnmission  on  the 
occasion  of  the  first  vote.  Inasmuch  as  the  second  written  vote  also  left 
an  undigested  residuum  of  names,  these  were  to  be  disposed  of  in 
personal  sessions  of  the  Commission.  Thus  Myology  became  the  subject 
of  the  conference  of  the  Commission  at  Munich,  while  it  was  the  inten- 
tion to  finish  the  Osteology  and  Angiology  in  Vienna.  The  conferences 
of  the  Commission  were  held  immediately  following  the  yearly  meetings 
of  the  Anatomical  Society,  thereby  affording  an  opportunity  to  enlarge 
the  Commission  through  the  enlistment  of  additional  experts.  Thus  in 
Munich,  Braune,  Henke,  v.  Kupffer,  v.  Mihalkovics  and  Riidinger;  and 
in  Vienna,  Zuckerkandl,  became  members  of  the  Commission  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  deliberations. 

In  this  manner  we  had  progressed  so  far  with  the  Myology,  that  at 
the  close  of  the  Munich  conference  in  June,  1891,  a  pamphlet  could  be 
published  which  contained  a  total  of  about  300  names  accepted  by  the 
Commission.  The  method  which  had  led  to  rather  satisfactory  results 
in  Myology  proved  hardly  practicable  in  the  much  more  extensive  Oste- 
ology and  had  to  be  abandoned  entirely  in  the  other  subdivisions  of 

In  the  several  written  votes  it  was  demonstrated,  as  is  well  understood 
psychologically,  that  the  second  and  third  votes  on  the  undecided  names 
did  not  differ  essentially  from  the  first.  Likewise  it  appeared  that  the 
remarks  handed  in,  and  the  new  names  suggested  by  the  members  of 
the  Commission,  found  only  inadequate  consideration  and  therefore  were 

"  See  pp.  14  and  15. 


rejected  almost  entirely  without  further  investigation;  and  yet  just  these 
remarks  and  new  names  were  often  the  fruit  of  extensive  work  done  by 
those  who  had  special  knowledge  of  the  subject.  This  drawback  had 
to  be  overcome  and  the  Commission  resolved  accordingly  in  Vienna 
(1892)  to  discuss  verbally,  one  after  another,  all  the  remarks  recorded 
and  terms  suggested  by  its  members.  The  resolution  was  quickly  adopted 
but  less  quickly  executed.  In  Munich  hard  work  had  already  been 
exacted  from  the  members  of  the  Commission,  since  they  were  obliged, 
under  the  strict  rulings  of  v.  KoUiker,  to  listen  to  the  papers  and  demon- 
strations of  the  Anatomical  Society  from  8  :oo  A.  M.  to  6  :oo  P.  M.,  with 
only  a  short  intermission,  and  immediately  afterward  had  to  confer  on 
names  until  9  :oo  P.  M.  In  Vienna  the  sessions  on  nomenclature  extended 
still  further  into  the  night,  and  resulted  in  an  exhaustion  on  the  part  of 
most  who  were  present  which  was  very  unfavorable  for  such  deliberations. 
In  spite  of  all  efforts  the  Commission  found  itself  still  in  the  position  of 
having  finished  only  parts  of  its  task,  and  so  it  finally  adopted  the 
expedient  of  appointing  special  committees  and  assigning  to  them  sub- 
divisions of  the  work.  First,  in  Vienna,  Merkel,  Thane,  and  Toldt  were 
requested  to  arrange  the  names  of  the  vascular  system  (veins  and 
lymphatics).  Likewise  on  a  later  occasion  Merkel,  Riidinger,  and  Toldt 
were  apportioned  the  anatomy  of  the  regions.  The  working  over  of  the 
Syndesmology  was  assigned  to  Toldt  alone. 

The  appointment  of  a  special  editorial  committee  as  decided  upon  at 
Vienna  was  very  important  for  the  further  progress  of  affairs.  This 
committee  (His,  Krause,  Waldeyer)  was  authorized  to  see  that  the 
nomenclature  as  a  whole  be  given  a  uniform  character.  A  systematic 
working  together  into  a  whole  of  the  separately  finished  portions  seemed 
to  be  a  necessity  because  the  votes  taken  at  different  times,  often  after 
long  intervals  and  with  their  changing  majorities,  were  necessarily  fol- 
lowed by  contradiction  and  lack  of  uniformity.  It  also  happened  that 
some  indispensable  names  did  not  receive  a  majority  and  ran  the  risk 
of  disappearing  from  the  hst;  as  was  the  case,  at  the  first  vote  on 
Myology,  with  the  Tendo  m.  bicipitis,  Adminiculum  lineae  albae,  Plica 
cubiti  and  others. 

The  editorial  committee  when  it  started  work  soon  became  aware  that 
its  work  could  not  be  restricted  to  a  smoothing  out  of  irregularities,  but 
that  it  must  go  further.  If  it  satisfied  the  requirements  imposed  it  must 
everywhere  go  deeply  into  the  individual  questions  and  if  necessary  not 
shrink  from  a  complete  changing  of  the  names  already  assigned.  The 
Committee,  during  these  last  three  years,  has  worked  assiduously  and 
has  tried  to  clear  up  all  the  difficult  questions  and  to  bring  about  uni- 


formity,  partly  by  correspondence,  and  partly  by  personal  interview; 
often  through  consultation  with  specialists.  It  was  naturally  much  less 
easily  accomplished  in  the  domains  of  Neurology  and  Splanchnology 
than  in  Myology  and  Osteology,  v.  Kolliker  was  present  at  several 
meetings  of  the  committee.  His  expert  advice  was  also  sought  on  the 
detailed  anatomy  of  the  brain.  Colleague  Toldt  has  taken  part  in  the 
work  to  an  especially  great  extent.  The  harmoniously  worked  out  chapter 
on  Syndesmology  and  that  on  Bursae  are  exclusively  his  work.  Toldt 
also  rendered  great  service  in  all  other  portions  of  the  work  by  his 
critical  remarks  directed  toward  objective  and  formal  exactness. 

The  following  tabulation  may  serve  as  an  example  of  the  manner  in 
which  Krause  arranged  the  votes  from  the  collection  of  promiscuous 
votes  of  the  members  of  the  Commission.  The  figures  attached  to  the 
names  designate  the  votes  received. 






Vestibulum  labyrinthi 

Vestibulum  (7) 


Fenestra  ovalis  (12) 

Fenestra  vestibuli 

Fenestra  ovalis 

Recessus  sphaericus 

Recessus  sphaericus 


Recessus  ellipticus 

Recessus  ellipticus 


Sinus  sulci formis  (i) 

Crista  vestibuli  (14) 

Crista  vestibuli 

Crista  vestibuli 

Pyramis  (4) 

Pyramis  vestibuli  (6) 

Pyramis  vestibuli 

Recessus  cochlearis 

Recessus  cochlearis 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Oberer  Siebflecken 

Macula  cribrosa 
superior  (13) 

Obere  Macula 

Mittlerer  Siebflecken 

Macula  cribrosa 
media  (13) 

Mittlere  Macula 

Unterer  Siebflecken 

Macula  cribrosa 
inferior  (13) 

Untere  Macula 

Knockerne  Bogengange 

semicirculares  (2) 



Canalis  anterior  (5) 

Vorderer  verticaler 
Bogengang  (i) 

Oberer  Bogengang 

Canalis  externus  (4) 

Bogengang  (2) 

Aeusserer  Bogengang 

Canalis  posterior  (4) 

Hinterer  verticaler 
Bogengang  (i)         | 

Hinterer  Bogengang 





Various  Authors 



Vestibulum  osseum 

Fenestra  ovalis 

Fenestra  vestibuli 

Fenestra  ovalis,  Schwalbe, 
Fenestra  ovalis,  Q  u  a  i  n  , 
Fenetre  ovale,  Sappey,  Tes- 
tut.     Finestra  ovale. 

Recessus  sphaericus 


hemisphaericus  (2) 

Fovea  hemispherica,  Quain. 
Fossette  lieraispherique. 

Recessus  ellipticus 


hemiellipticus  (2) 

Fovea  hemielliptica,  Quain» 
Fossette  semiovoide.  Fos- 
sette  elliptique,  Testut. 

Sinus  sulciformis,  Morgagni. 
Fossula  sulciformis,  Sch- 
walbe  (i)  Recessus  laby- 
rinthi,  Reissner.  Fossette 
sulciforme  Sappey.  Gout- 
tiere   sulciforme,   Testut. 

Crista  vestibuli 

Crista  vestibuli 

Crista  pyramidalis.  Spina  vesti- 

Pyramis  vestibuli 

Eminentia  pyramidalis.  Pyra- 

Recessus  cochlearis 

Recessus  cochlearis,  Reichert. 
Fossette    cochleaire,    Testut. 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Maculae  cribrosae 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  major,  Tache  criblee 
anterieure,  Sappey.  Tache 
criblee  superieure,  Testut 
Macchia    cribrosa    anteriore. 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  minor.  Macula  major. 
Tache  criblee  moyenne, 
Sappey.  Tache  criblee  an- 
terieure, Testut.  Macchia 
cribrosa  mediana. 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  cribrosa 

Macula  minima.  Tache  crib- 
lee  posterieure,  Sappey, 

Macula  cribrosa 
recessus  cochlearis 

Macula  cribrosa  quarta.     Tache 
criblee  cochleaire,  Testut. 

Canales  semicirculares 
ossei  (10) 

Canalis  semicircularis 
superior  (6) 

Oberer  Bogengang 

Superior   canal.      Canal    demi- 
circulaire    superieur    Canale 
semicircolare   superiore. 

Canalis  semicircularis 
lateralis  (2) 


Canalis    semicircularis    medius. 
External  canal.      Canal  demi- 
circulaire    externe.        Canale 
semicircolare   esterno. 

Canalis  semicircularis 

Hinterer  Bogengang 

Canalis     semicircularis     in- 
tcrnus.         Posterior       canal. 
Canal      demicirculaire      pos- 
terieur.       Canale     semicirco- 
lare posteriore   (i). 


Quite  diflferent  from  the  originally  adopted  course  of  the  Commission^ 
has  been  the  procedure  during  the  past  three  years  which  is  as  follows : 
at  first  the  members  of  the  Commission  were  requested  to  send  in  their 
special  suggestions  and  remarks  on  the  unfinished  chapters  before  the 
first  vote  so  that  the  same  could  be  taken  into  consideration  at  the  time 
of  this  vote;  after  the  vote  and  after  the  results  were  compiled  by 
Krause,  the  committee  proceeded  partly  in  sessions  and  partly  through 
correspondence  to  the  consideration  of  the  single  chapters.  In  this  way 
the  merit  and  meaning  of  each  term  was  again  examined ;  doubtful  ques- 
tions were  decided  by  reference  to  the  literature  or  to  the  preparations 
and  in  this  way  a  uniform  arrangement  was  obtained  —  the  so-called 
final  editing  —  which  was  again  gone  over  by  the  Commission  partly  in 
oral  conferences  and  partly  by  correspondence. 

These  final  revisions  of  the  various  chapters  were  sent  to  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Commission  in  July,  1894.  They  in  turn  made  various  com- 
ments and  suggestions.  After  another  careful  working  over  of  these 
suggestions,  as  well  as  the  entire  work,  the  editorial  committee  is  now 
in  a  position  to  lay  before  the  members  of  the  Society  the  final  editing 
of  the  nomenclature.  At  its  meeting,  in  Basel,  the  Society  will  have  to 
decide  whether  it  will  accept  the  newly  arranged  nomenclature  as  its 
own  and  exert  its  full  influence  for  its  adoption. 

Rules  for  the  Assignment  of  Names. 

In  the  course  of  its  six  years  of  work  the  Commission  and  editorial 
committee  have  arrived  at  a  number  of  editorial  as  well  as  fundamental 
rules,  without  having  had  any  special  discussions  concerning  them.^  The 
more  definitely  these  rules  crystallized  the  more  they  could  be  made  the 
foundation  of  the  succeeding  work;  although  none  of  them  became  a 
rule  without  exception.  The  most  important  of  these  rules  are  the  fol- 
lov/ing:  Each  part  to  be  named  shall  have  only  one  name.  The 
names  must  be  in  Latin  and  be  grammatically  correct.  The  names  shall 
be  simply  memory  signs  and  need  not  be  explanations  or  speculative  in- 
terpretations. Related  terms,  as  far  as  possible,  shall  be  similar  (e.  g. 
Femur,  A.  femoralis,  V.  femoralis,  N.  femoralis).  Adjectives,  in  gen- 
eral, shall  be  arranged  with  their  antonyms  (e.  g.  dexter,  sinister;  major, 
minor;  superficialis,  profundus) 

Some  widely  current  names  have  forced  us  here  and  there  tO'  deviate 
from  the  rules  enumerated  above.  Such  a  one  as  M.  crotaphiticobucci- 
natorius  or  M.  petrosalpingostaphylinus  could  be  omitted  without  diffi- 
culty, but  there  could  not  be  found  a  shorter  term  for  the  very  popular 
M.  sternocleidomastoideus.     Of  the  two  synonyms  Valvula  mitralis  or 

>■  Compare    also    Krause,    Die    anatomische    Nomenclatur.      Internationale 
Mona,tsschrift  fiir  Anatomic  und  Physiologic.     Vol.  X,  p.  313. 


Valvula  bicuspidalis  neither  could  be  dropped  out  of  consideration  be- 
cause of  their  medical  usage.  Pyramis  and  Pars  petrosa  ossis  tem- 
poralis, Vola  and  Palma  manus,  Nates  and  Clunes  and  other  synonymous 
terms  had  to  be  used  together.  Moreover  the  A.  meningea  media 
must  still  pass  through  the  Foramen  spinosum  (instead  of  through  the 
Foramen  meningeus  medium) ;  the  Ramus  auricularis  vagi  traverses  the 
Canaliculus  mastoideus;  while  since  Henle's  time  the  Nervus  facialis 
has  had  its  Canalis  facialis. 

A  considerable  divergence  of  opinions  has  long  existed  concerning 
the  use  of  personal  names.  Such  personal  names  are  met  not  only  in 
anatomy  but  also  in  other  natural  sciences  and  in  medicine.  The  min- 
eralogists speak  of  Millerite,  of  Hausmanite,  etc.  The  pathologists  speak 
of  Stokes'  phenomenon,  of  Basedow's  or  Bright's  disease.  The  botanical 
and  zoological  names  of  species  are  rich  in  personal  names.  We  find 
here  a  Rhytina  Stell^ri,  an  Equus  Burchelli,  a  Capra  Falconeri  and  an 
unlimited  number  of  similarly  formed  names.  The  zoologists  and  botan- 
ists use  such  personal  names  even  if  the  person  referred  to  has  had  very 
remote  or  no  connection  with  the  species  in  question.  Besides  the  motive 
of  giving  honor  or  courtesy  to  a  deserving  specialist,  there  is  to  be  taken 
into  account  the  easiness  and  harmlessness  of  such  readily  obtained  com- 
pounds of  sounds. 

The  personal  names  used  in  anatomy  are  not  quite  so  harmless  as  the 
botanical  or  zoological  ones ;  they  in  general  are  supposed  to  refer  to 
those  investigators  who  discovered,  exactly  described,  or  at  least  made 
more  specific  the  general  knowledge  of  the  part  named  after  them. 
How  such  names  originate  we  have  daily  occasion  to  notice.  An  in- 
vestigator brings  new  light  into  a  region  which  up  to  the  time  was  only 
insufficiently  known;  and  until  his  investigations  have  been  verified  by 
others  and  have  become  common  scientific  property,  he  remains  authority 
for  the  structures  described  by  him.  Thus  Luschka  naturally  became 
the  sponsor  for  the  body  found  by  him  which  was  called  the  coccygeal 
gland,  and  even  now  when  the  significance  of  the  body  seems  doubtful 
and  its  name  has  been  changed  to  Glomus  coccygeum  one  willingly 
accompanies  it  with  the  proof  of  discovery  as  "  Luschka's  coccygeal 
gland."  Moreover  there  is  no  lack  of  examples  in  our  literature  of 
names  of  the  older  investigators  remaining  through  erroneous  interpreta- 
tions. The  Pancreas  Aselli  and  the  Ovula  Nabothi  remain  as  in  the 
records  of  their  first  describers  with  their  mistaken  meanings. 

From  the  above  indicated  erroneous  method  of  using  personal  names 
we  must  not  be  surprised  if  we  find  them  especially  profuse  in  those 
regions  where  exploratioti  is  making  rapid  strides.  Thus  we  have  had 
in  the  organ  of  hearing  for  a  long  time  the  cells  of  Corti,  the  cells  of 
Deiters,  the  cells  of  Claudius  and  others.    In  the  cerebrum  we  have  the 


bundle  of  Vicq  d'Azyr,  of  Mehnert,  of  Gudden;  the  nucleus  of  Luys, 
of  Schwalbe,  of  Bechterew  and  others.  Quite  frequently  we  find,  in 
just  such  newly  explored  regions,  that  two  structures  lying  in  close 
proximity  or  of  similar  function,  the  one  was  seen  and  described  first 
by  one  investigator  and  the  other  by  another;  in  such  cases,  during  the 
period  of  unsatisfactory  disentanglement  of  the  underlying  facts,  refer- 
ence to  the  authors  becomes  the  safest  means  of  proper  understanding. 
The  commissures  of  Gudden  and  Mehnert  in  the  base  of  the  dien- 
cephalon,  Hensen's  median  disc  and  Krause's  membrane  in  the  trans- 
versely striated  muscle  fibre,  furnish  examples  of  such  helpful  discrimi- 
nation through  appropriate  personal  designations.  Another  example  in- 
troduced by  Braune  is  the  differentiation  of  the  ligaments  of  Henle  and 
Hesselbach  at  the  margins  of  the  median  inguinal  groove.  By  these 
names  there  was  first  established  a  clear  separation  of  the  two  ligaments. 

Many  of  the  temporarily  appropriate  personal  names  in  anatomy  have 
become  superfluous  and  here  and  there  obsolete.  Today  one  scarcely 
speaks  of  Schneider's  membrane  of  the  nose,  or  of  a  Jacob's  membrane  of 
the  retina.  On  the  other  hand  the  Fossa  Sylvii,  the  Zonula  Zinni,  the 
Tuba  Eustachii  and  many  other  personal  names  have  become  a  lasting 
part  of  our  nomenclature  and  are  recognized  in  all  languages. 

Henle,  as  is  well  known,  was  the  first  to  declare  war  against  these 
remnants  of  an  originally  much  more  extended  personal  nomenclature, 
and  this  warfare  has  been  carried  on  very  vigorously  by  later  anatomists. 
Even  the  attempt  has  been  made  to  rename  the  tendon  of  Achilles 
which  is  beyond  the  range  of  priority  and  which  has  become  a  part  of 
popular  language,  and  to  provide  it  with  a  strictly  suitable  name.  The 
reasons  which  have  been  brought  forward  against  personal  names  are 
indeed  of  a  very  momentous  nature.  The  names  often  contain  historical 
injustices,  naming  not  the  real  discoverer  of  a  given  structure  but  a  later 
observer.  Many  personal  names  are  often  chosen  by  different  nations 
from  various  investigators.  Lieberkiihn's  glands  of  the  Germans  are 
called  by  the  Italians  glands  of  Galeati,  the  Vater's  corpuscles  of  the  Ger- 
mans are  for  the  Italians  the  bodies  of  Pacini,  etc.  Personal  names 
in  many  modern  writings,  more  particularly  in  the  literature  of  the  spe- 
cialties, occur  in  great  superabundance  and  there  are  here  found  affixed 
names  of  very  little  scientific  importance.  Yet  the  names  of  the  older  an- 
atomists are  perpetuated  only  in  a  desultory  way.  Some  very  great  names 
like  Vesal  and  Harvey  are  wanting  in  the  lists,  others  like  Eustachi  and 
Malpighi  are  often  repeated. 

There  is  much  truth  in  these  objections  to  personal  names,  yet  many 
of  us  anatomists  are  quite  averse  to  an  entire  abolition  of  such  names. 
On  a  former  occasion  I  have  expressed  my  opinions  concerning  the  same. 
I  should  regret  very  much  the  absence  of  all  personal  names  in  our 


scientific  language.  Considered  purely  objectively  they  form  almost 
always  very  good  mnemotechnic  material.  The  names  of  Poupart's, 
Gimbernat's,  and  Colles'  ligaments  are  remembered  by  every  student 
and  when  he  knows  the  names  he  has  a  desire  to  know  what  each  of 
these  names  signifies.  The  interest  in  a  Ligamentum  inguinale,  a  Lig. 
inguinale  reflexum,  and  a  Lig.  lacunare  is  considerably  less.  Our  daily 
experience  in  the  dissecting  room  teaches  how  easily  these  special  names 
are  memorized  and  how  they  become  certain  definite  orientation  points  to 
which  knowledge  may  be  added.  Still  more  than  this  eminently  practical 
view,  there  comes  into  consideration,  for  me  personally,  a  certain  feeling 
of  reverence.  This  may  sound  somewhat  antiquated,  but  it  goes  against 
me  to  sacrifice  to  an  arbitrarily  established  principle,  names  which  for 
centuries  have  proved  to.  be  good  and  useful.  Moreover  I  consider  it 
an  advantage  if  the  names  of  Falloppia,  Eustachi,  Malpighi  and  others 
are  impressed  upon  the  student  even  in  his  first  semester.  These  honor- 
able names  of  our  science  are  thereby  permanently  fixed  in  the  memory 
of  posterity,  and  through  them  there  is  awakened  in  the  student  a  certain 
historical  interest  which  stimulates  him  to  further  investigations.  Whether 
these  names  always  stand  in  their  proper  places  is  in  my  opinion  a  matter 
of  secondary  importance.  It  is  the  province  of  the  history  of  anatomy  to 
trace  the  course  of  the  individual  discoveries  and  to  award  to  each 
investigator  his  deserved  laurels.^ 

The  question  whether  or  not  personal  names  should  be  retained  could 
not  be  the  subject  of  a  vote.  We  have  finally  reached  a  compromise  in- 
stead of  using  authority  on  the  one  side  or  the  other.  We  have  given 
objective  names  to  all  parts  and  added  thereto,  within  brackets,  the  widely 
used  personal  names.  This  method  comes  in  direct  conflict  with  the  prin- 
ciple of  single  names,  but  it  has  the  advantage  of  leaving  to  time  the 
final  decision  of  the  present  differences.  As  far  as  the  results  of  our 
method  can  be  foreseen  certain  personal  names  will  be  completely  re- 
placed by  objective  ones,  while  others  will  remain.  The  adversaries  of 
personal  names  will  thus,  at  least  in  part,  achieve  their  ideals.^ 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  the  Commission  wanted  to  confine 
itself  exclusively  to  descriptive  macroscopic  anatomy  but  even  within 
its  bounds  there  is  offered  considerable  latitude  for  either  a  surplus  or 
paucity  of  names.  Our  first  endeavor  throughout  was  to  be  somewhat 
reluctant  and  not  to  add  at  most  any  more  names  than  might  be  expected 

2  Kollmann  speaks  in  like  manner  (Voting  lists  p.  143) :  "  I  not  only 
reject  the  authors'  names  but  also  recognize  them  as  the  only  means  of  remain- 
ing somewhat  in  contact  with  the  past." 

3  The  personal  names  added  are  placed  in  the  genetive  following  the  rules 
of  the  Commission  on  Zoological  Nomenclature.  International  Monatsschrift 
fiir  Anat.  und  Physiol.     1893.     Vol.  X,  p.  94,  Art.  4. 


from  students  during  their  early  semesters.  But  the  desire  for  com- 
pleteness meantime  has  carried  us  further  and  further  beyond  our  first 

An  especially  important  question  was  that  as  to  how  far  we  should 
take  into  consideration  the  anatomy  of  medical  specialties.  As  is  known 
the  medical  specialists  have  begun  in  a  very  commendable  way  to  work 
out  entirely  independently  the  anatomy  of  their  special  regions.  The 
most  brilliant  examples,  in  this  respect,  have  been  given  by  the  psychia- 
trists and  neurologists  (Meynert,  Gudden,  Flechsig,  Forel,  Edinger,  Ober- 
steiner  and  others).  They  were  followed  by  the  ophthalmologists 
(Leber),  the  otologists  (v.  Troltsch,  Pohtzer,  Siebenmann),  the  laryngolo- 
gists  and  others.  The  anatomical  terminology  and  interpretation  given 
by  these  specialists  sometimes  differs  very  markedly  from  the  traditional 
language  of  our  textbooks,  and  it  was  a  question  whether  we  should 
simply  remain  with  the  old,  or  whether  we  should  make  concessions  to 
the  era  of  specialization.  After  we  had  once  put  this  question  clearly 
before  us  there  could  be  no  doubt  as  to  our  decision.  Where  the  specialists 
had  created  a  special  terminology,  they  were  forced  to  do  so  through 
necessity  since  the  descriptions  in  our  textbooks  were  no  longer  sufficient. 
This  necessity  cannot  be  haughtily  ignored  by  us;  we  have  to  consider 
it  to  its  fullest  extent,  in  that  we  must  accept  the  terms  offered  when 
they  are  adequate,  or,  if  it  becomes  necessary,  replace  them  by  more 
suitable  ones.  The  student  who  passes  from  us  to  the  clinics,  has  the 
right  to  demand  that  he  be  furnished  the  view  points  and  the  language 
which  he  needs  in  his  further  studies  and  that  it  be  not  incumbent  upon 
him  to  learn  a  new  anatomy  in  the  place  of  an  obsolete  one.  We  have 
endeavored  through  conferences  to  obtain  the  necessary  contact  with 
specialists  in  various  lines  and  we  hope  that  in  this  respect  we  have 
found  a  suitable  basis  for  a  mutual  understanding.  Specialists  have  time 
and  time  again  assured  us  that  they  are  ready  to  accept  our  nomenclature 
as  soon  as  it  covers  their  needs.^ 

If  we,  at  first,  had  adopted  a  plan  to  proceed  strictly  conservatively 
and  to  select  from  the  current  textbooks  the  most  fitting  terms  and  to 
avoid  new  names,  we  should  have  been  obliged  in  the  course  of  time  to 
partly  abandon  this  plan.  There  is  in  the  literature  of  our  textbooks  a 
series  of  expressions  which  are  Obsolete  and  their  retention  is  senseless. 
Still  oftener  it  is  found  that  expressions  occur  in  the  textbooks  which 
are  used  by  some  in  one  sense,  by  others  in  another  sense ;  or  are  based 

*The  German  Surgical  Society  has  made  known, its  interest  in  our  under- 
taking in  a  special  way,  in  that  in  March  1894  in  Berlin  it  authorized  von 
Bardeleben  to  make  a  report  on  the  present  results  of  the  Commission 
on  Nomenclature.  The  list  of  names  submitted  by  von  Bardeleben  met  with 
very  few  objections  from  this  source. 



on  obscure  or  indefinite  opinions.  In  our  written  and  verbal  communica- 
tions we  have  frequently  found  that  we  disagreed  as  to  the  meaning  of  a 
name;  or  what  is  scarcely  better  were  doubtful.  In  such  cases  it  was 
necessary  to  turn  again  to  the  literature  and  preparations  or  possibly  to 
institute  special  investigations.  If  we  now  publish  the  results  of  our 
common  work,  only  in  the  form  of  a  list  of  names,  we  are  confronted 
with  the  probability  that  the  names  of  this  list  will  be  quite  differently 
interpreted.  The  confusion,  which  we  wished  to  prevent  is  not  thereby 
entirely  abolished.  This  is  the  reason  which  has  prompted  me,  in  agree-  • 
ment  with  my  colleagues  of  the  Commission,  to  write  the  supplemental  ex- 
planations through  which  the  names,  newly  introduced  by  us,  shall  be 
justified  and  the  meaning  of  ambiguous  words  shall  be  defined.  The 
next  thing  to  be  desired,  after  the  nomenclature  proposed  by  us  shall 
have  been  accepted,  is  a  textbook  with  authentic  explanations  for  the 
names  and  I  think  we  shall  not  be  obliged  to  wait  long  for  such  a  book. 

Collected  Documents. 

The  documents  of  the  Commission  on  nomenclature  consist  on  the  one 
hand  of  tables  and  added  remarks,  edited  by  Krause  and  sent  to  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Commission,  and  on  the  other  hand  of  a  written  exchange 
of  opinions  not  only  between  Krause  and  the  members  of  the  Commis- 
sion but  also  between  members  of  the  Commission.  The  printed  records 
only  can  be  spoken  of  here.  As  to  the  extent  of  the  written  documentary 
material  no  one  except  Krause  has  even  an  approximate  idea. 

The  members  of  the  Commission  received  in  all  20  pamphlets  on 
Nomenclature  with  pagination  up  to  942,  besides  an  unpaged  pamphlet 
on  myology.    They  are  in  order  as  follows : 

Part  I. 

Pages        1-68 

"      II. 


"      III. 


"      IV. 


"      V. 


"      VI. 


"      VII. 


"      VIII. 


"      IX. 


"     X. 


"     XL 


"     XII. 


"     XIII. 

.  4S9(to)- 

"     XIV. 



Osteology  (a) 
Osteology  (b) 
Osteology  (c) 
Heart  and  Arteries 
Veins  and  Lymphatics 

Heart  and  Arteries 

Veins. and  Lymphatics 
.474 (to)  Heart  and  Arteries 

Osteology  and  Angiology    Final  editing. 


Part  XV. 

Pages  483-518 


I.     Vote 

"     XVI. 

"      519-654 



"     XVII. 

"      655-864 



"     XVIII. 

"      865-872 


Final  editing. 

"     XIX. 

"      873-888 


Final  editing. 

"     XX. 

"      889^52 


Final  editing. 

and  Supplemental  suggestions  on  all  the  remaining  divisions  of  Anatomy. 

Independent  of  the  pamphlets  arranged  in  serial  order  for  the  vote, 
Krause,  two  years  ago,  in  the  International  Monatsschrift  fiir  Anatomic^ 
und  Physiologie,  gave  a  list  of  the  names  decided  upon  up  to  that  time. 

The  number  of  names  contained  in  the  20  pamphlets,  may  be  approxi- 
mately estimated  at  30,000.  Our  final  list  will  contain  scarcely  one-sixth 
that  number. 

Now,  as  we  glance  back  over  the  long  road  behind  us  we  are  able 
to  see  that  possibly  many  a  stretch  of  it  might  have  .been  shortened. 
The  second  and  third  vote  on  muscles,  bones  and  vessels  could  have  been 
dispensed  with.  Perhaps  we  could  have  reached  the  goal  quicker  and 
without  so  many  repetitions,  if  right  at  the  beginning  we  had  placed  be- 
fore us  an  arranged  list  of  names  instead  of  following  the  order  of  a 
certain  textbook  arranged  for  didactic  purposes.  This  is  easily  said 
today  since  we  have  full  retrospect  of  the  scope  and  difficulties  of  the 
work.  However,  I  am  not  certain  that  by  following  a  different  plan  we 
should  have  reached  the  goal  more  quickly  and  safely.  The  main  thing 
was  that  somebody  should  hold  constantly  in  his  hands  the  many  threads 
without  entangling  them.  Our  editor,  in  cooperation  with  our  colleague 
Waldeyer,  has  been  able  to  do  this  in  a  most  excellent  manner. 

iVol.  X,  p.  313,  1893. 



1  Nomina  anatomical 

2  Termini, 
situm  et  directionem  partium  corporis  indicantes 

4  Verticalis 

5  Horizontalis 

6  Medianus 

7  Sagittalis 

8  Frontalis 

9  Transversalisr 

10  Medialis 

11  Intermedius 

12  Lateralis 

3  Termini  generales 

13  Anterior 

14  Medius 

15  Posterior 

16  Ventralis 

17  Dorsalis 

18  Internus 

19  Externus 

20  Dexter 

21  Sinister 

22  Longitudinalis 

23  Transversus 

24  Cranialis 

25  Rostralis 

26  Caudalis 

27  Superior 

28  Inferior 

29  Superficialis  [sublimis] 

30  Profundus 

31  Termini  ad  extremitates  spectantes 

32  Proximalis 
ZZ  Distalis 
34  Radialis 

35  Ulnaris 

36  Tibialis 
2)7  Fibularis 

^In  all  our  lists  the  following  characters  are  adopted: 

1.  Oval  brackets  (     )  designate  variations   (Varietates  anatomicae). 

2.  Angular   brackets    [     ]    contain  explanatory  additions,   among    which  are 
included  double  names  and  personal  names. 

3.  Italics  are  used    for  ontogenetic  expressions  (e.  g,  M.  decidua,  A.  wmhili- 
calis,  etc.). 



1  Termini  generates 

2  Accessorius 

3  Acinus 

4  Aditus 

5  Ala 

6  Alveolus 

7  Ampulla 

8  Angulus 

9  Ansa 

10  Antrum 

11  Apertura 

12  Apex 

13  Appendix 

14  Arcus 

15  Area 

16  Basis 

17  Braohium 

18  Canaliculus 

19  Canalis 

20  Capsula 

21  Caput 

22  Capitulum 

23  Cartilage 

24  Caruncula 

25  Cauda 

26  Caverna 

27  Cavum 

28  Cellula 

29  Circulus 

30  Cisterna 

31  Collum 

32  Columna 

33  Commissura 

34  Cornu 

35  Corona 

36  Corpus 

■^y  Corpusculum 

38  Crista  ■ 

39  Crus 

40  Decussatio 

41  Dorsum 

42  Ductulus 

43  Ductus 

44  Eminentia 

45  Endothelium 

46  Epithelium 

47  Extremitas 

48  Facies 

49  Fascia 

50  Fasciculus 

51  Fibra 

52  Fibrocartilago 

53  Filum 

54  Fissura 

55  Flexura 

56  Folium 

57  Folliculus 

58  Foramen 

59  Formatio 

60  Fornix 

61  Fossa 

62  Fossula 

63  Fovea 

64  Foveola 

65  Frenulum 

66  Fundus 

67  Funiculus 

68  Geniculum 

69  Genu 

70  Glandula 

71  Glomerulus 

72  Glomus 

73  Hilus 

74  Humor 

75  Junctura 

76  Impressio 
"jy  Incisura 

78  Infundibulum 

79  Intestinum 

80  Isthmus 

81  Labium 

82  Lacuna 

83  Lamina 

84  Latus 

85  Ligamentum 

86  Limbus 
9)^  Limen 

88  Linea 

89  Liquor 

90  Lobulus 

91  Lobus 

92  Macula 

93  Margo 

94  Massa 

95  Meatus 

96  Medulla 

97  Membrana 

98  Membrum 

99  Mucus 
100  Musculus 



1  Nervus 

2  Modulus 

3  Nucleus 

4  Organon 

5  Orificium 

6  Os  [oris] 

7  Os  [ossis] 

8  Ostium 

9  Papilla 

10  Parenchyma 

11  Paries 

12  Perichondrium 

13  Periosteum 
14'  Plexus 

15  Plica 

16  Polus 

17  Processus 

18  Prominentia 

19  Punctum 

20  Radix 

21  Ramulus 

22  Ramus 

23  Raphe 

24  Recessus 

25  Regio 

26  Rete 

27  Rima 

28  Rudimentum 

29  Septulum 

30  Septum 

31  Sinus 

32  Spatium 

33  Spina 

34  Stratum 

35  Stria 

36  Stroma 

37  Substantia 

38  Succus 

39  Sulcus 

40  Taenia 

41  Tegmen 

42  Tela 

43  Tela  conjunctiva 

44  Tela  elastica 

45  Torus 

46  Trabecula 

47  Tractus 

48  Trigonum 

49  Trochlea 

50  Truncus 

51  Tuber 

52  Tuberculum 

53  Tubulus 

54  Tunica 

55  Tunica  propria 

56  Umbo 

57  Uvula 

58  Vagina 

59  Vallecula 

60  Vallum 

61  Valvula 

62  Vas 

63  Velum 

64  Vertex 

65  Vesica 

66  Vesicula 

67  Vestibulum 

68  Villus 

69  Viscus  [viscera] 

70  Vortex 

71  Zona 



1  Partes  corporis  human! 

2  Caput 

3  C  o  1 1  u  m 

4  Truncus 

5  Extremitates 

6  Caput 
7  Cranium 

8  Vertex 

9  Sinciput 

lo  Frons 
II  Occiput 

i6  O  c  u  1  u  s 

17  Palpebra  superior 

18  Palpebra  inferior 

19  Rima  palpebrarum 

20  Bulbus  oculi 

21  Supercilium 

C2  Sulcus  infrapalpebralis 
23  N  a  s  u  s 

24  Dorsum  nasi 

25  Apex  nasi 

26  Ala  nasi 

12  Tempora 

13  Auris 

14  Auricula 

15  Facias 

27  Os 

28  Sulcus  nasolabialis 

29  Philtrum 

30  Labium  superius 

31  Labium  inferius 

32  Rima  oris 

33  Cavum  oris 

34  Lingua 

35  Fauces 

36  Bucca  [Mala] 

37  Sulcus  mentolabialis 

38  Mentum 

39  Collum 

40  Cervix 

41  Larynx 

42  Prominentia  laryngea 

46  Truncus 

47  Thorax 

48  Cavum  thoracis 

49  Pectus 

50  Mamma 

51  Papilla  mammae 

56  Cavum  abdominis 

57  Scrobiculus  cordis 

58  Umbilicus 

55  Abdomen 

43  Pharynx 

44  Trachea 

45  Oesophagus 

52  Dorsum 

53  Columna  vertebralis 

54  Canalis  spinalis 

59  Latus 

60  Lumbus 

61  Inguen 



I  Pelvis 

2  Cavum  pelvis 

6  Anus 

3  Mons  pubis 

7  Crena  ani 

4  Coxa 

8  Perineum 

5  Nates  [Clunes] 

9  Extremitas 




29  Metacarpus 

II  Plica  axillaris  anterior 

30  Dorsum  manus 

12  Plica  axillaris  posterior 

31  Vola  manus  [Palma] 



32  Thenar 



33  Hypothenar 

15  Facies  anterior 

34  Digiti  manus 

16  Facies  posterior 

35  Pollex  [Digitus    I] 

17  Facies  lateralis 

36  Index    [       „        II] 

18  Facies  medialis 

2,7  Digitus  medius  [Digitus 


Sulcus  bicipitalis  lateralis 



Sulcus  bicipitalis  medialis 

38  Digitus  annularis   [Digi- 



tus  IV] 



39  Digitus  minimus  [Digitus 

23  Facies  dorsalis 


24  Facies  volaris 

40  Facies  dorsales 

25  Margo  radialis 

41  Facies  volares 

26  Margo  ulnaris 

42  Margines  radiales 


28  Carpus 

43  Margines  ulnares 

44  Extremitas 




61  Tarsus 

46  Facies  anterior 

62  Metatarsus 

47  Facies  posterior 

63  Dorsum  pedis 

48  Facies  lateralis 

64  Planta 

49  Facies  medialis 

65  Margo  pedis  lateralis 


Sulcus  glutaeus 

66  Margo  pedis  medialis 



67  Calx 

52  Poples 

68  Digiti  pedis 

53  Patella 

69  Hallux  [Digitus  I] 



70  Digiti  II— IV 

55  Facies  anterior 

71  Digitus   minimus    [Digi- 

56 Facies  posterior 

tus  V] 

57  Sura 

72  Facies  dorsales 

58  Malleolus  lateralis 

73  Facies  plantares 

59  Malleolus  medialis 

74  Margines  laterales 



75  Margines  mediales 



2  Os  longum 

3  Os  breve 

4  Os  planum 

5  Os  pneumaticum 

6  Epiphysis 

7  Diaphysis 

1    Osteologia 

8  Synchondrosis   epi- 


9  Apophysis 

10  Facias  articularis 

1 1  Substantia  compacta 

12  Substantia  corticalis 

13  Substantia  spongiosa 

14  Cavum  medullare 

15  Medulla  ossium 

16  Medulla  ossium  flava 

17  Medulla  ossium  rubra 

18  Foramen  nutricium 

19  Canalis  nutricius 

20  Columna  vertebralis 

21  Vertebrae  cervicales 

22  Vertebrae  thoracales 

23  Vertebrae  lumbales 

24  Vertebrae  sacrales 

25  Vertebrae  coccygeae 

26  Corpus  vertebrae 

27  Fovea  costalis  superior 

28  Fovea  costalis  inferior 

29  Canalis  vertebralis 

30  Foramen  vertebrale 

31  Arcus  vertebrae 

32  Radix  arcus  vertebrae 

33  Incisura  vertebralis  superior 

34  Incisura  vertebralis  inferior 

35  Foramen  intervertebrale 

36  Sulcus  n.  spinalis 
27  Processus  spinosus 

38  Vertebra  prominens 

39  Processus  transversus 

40  Fovea  costalis  transversalis 

41  Tuberculum     anterius     [verte- 

brarum  cervicalium] 

42  Tuberculum  caroticum  [verte- 

brae cervicalis  VI] 

43  Foramen  transversarium 

44  Tuberculum  posterius    [verte- 

brarum  cervicalium] 

45  Processus  articulares   supe- 


46  Facies  articulares  superiores 

47  Processus  articulares  inferiores 

48  Facies  articulares  inferiores 

49  Processus  costarius 

50  Processus   accessorius    [vferte- 

brarum  lumbalium] 

51  Processus  mamillaris 

52  Atlas 

53  Massa  lateralis 

54  Arcus  anterior 

55  Tuberculum  anterius 

56  Foveae  articulares  superiores 

57  Facies  articulares  inferiores 

58  Fovea  dentis 

59  Arcus  posterior 

60  Sulcus  arteriae  vertebralis 

61  Tuberculum  posterius 



I  Epistropheus 

2  Dens 

3  Facies  articularis  anterior 

4  Facies  articularis  posterior 

5  Os  sacrum 

6  Facies  dorsalis 

7  Facies  pelvina 

8  Basis  OSS.  sacri 

9  Processus  articularis  superior 

10  Promontorium 

11  Pars  lateralis 

12  Facies  auricularis 

13  Tuberositas  sacralis 

14  Foramina  intervertebralia 

15  Foramina  sacralia  anteriora 

16  Lineae  transversae 

17  Foramina  sacralia  posteriora 

18  Crista  sacralis  media 

19  Cristae  sacrales  laterales 

20  Cristae  sacrales  articulares 

21  Cornua  sacralia 

22  Canalis  sacralis 

23  Hiatus  sacralis 

24  Apex  OSS.  sacri 

25  Os  coccygis 

26  Cornua  coccygea 

27  Thorax 
28  Costae 

29  Costae  verae 

30  Costae  spuriae 

31  Os  costale 

32  Cartilago  costalis 

33  Capitulum  costae 

34  Facies  articularis  capituli  costae 

35  Crista  capituli 

36  Corpus  costae 

37  Tuberculum  costae    ■ 

38  Facies  articularis  tuberculi  cos- 


39  Collum  costae 

40  Crista  colli  costae 

41  Angulus  costae 

42  Tuberculum  scaleni  [Lisfranci] 

43  Sulcus  subclaviae 

44  Tuberositas  costae  II 

45  Sulcus  costae 

46  Sternum 

47  Manubrium  sterni 

48  Angulus  sterni 

49  Synchondrosis  sternalis 

50  Corpus  sterni 

51  Planum  sternale 

52  Processus  xiphoideus 

53  Incisura  clavicularis 

54  Incisura  jugularis 

55  Incisurae  costales 

56  (Ossa  suprasternalia) 

57  Thorax 

58  Cavum  thoracis 

59  Apertura  thoracis  superior 

60  Apertura  thoracis  inferior 

61  Arcus  costarum 

62  Spatia  intercostalia 
6^  Angulus  infrasternalis 
64  Sulcus  pulmonalis 

65  Ossa  cranii 

66  Os  basilare 

67  Os  occipitale 

68  Foramen  occipitale  magnum 

69  Pars  basilaris 

70  Sulcus  petrosus  inferior 

71  Pars  lateralis 

72  Squama  occipitalis 

73  Margo  mastoideus 

74  Margo  lambdoideus 

75  (Os  interparietale) 



1  Clivus 

2  Tuberculum  pharyngeum 

3  Condylus  occipitalis 

4  Canalis  condyloideus 

5  Canalis  hypoglossi 

6  Tuberculum  jugulare 

7  Incisura  jugularis 

8  Processus  jugularis 

9  Fossa  condyloidea 

ID  Processus  intrajugularis 

11  Planum  occipitale 

12  Planum  nuchale 

13  Protuberantia  occipitalis  externa 

14  (Torus  occipitalis) 

15  Crista  occipitalis  externa 

16  Linea  nuchae  suprema 

17  Linea  nuchae  superior 

18  Linea  nuchae  inferior 

19  Eminentia  cruciata 

20  Protuberantia  occipitalis  interna 

21  Sulcus  sagittalis 

22  Sulcus   transversus 

23  (Processus  paramastoideus) 

24  Os  sphenoidale 

25  Corpus 

26  Sella  turcica 

27  Fossa  hypophyseos 

28  Dorsum  sellae 

29  Tuberculum  sellae 

30  Processus  clinoideus  medius 

31  Processus  clinoideus  posterior 

32  Sulcus  caroticus 

33  Lingula  sphenoidalis 

34  Crista  sp'henoidalis 

35  Rostrum  sphenoidale 

36  Sinus  sphenoidalis 

37  Septum  sinuum  sphenoidalium 

38  Apertura  sinus  sphenoidalis 

39  Conchae  sphenoidales 

40  Clivus 

41  Ala  p  arva 

42  Sulcus  chiasmatis 

43  Foramen  opticum 

44  Processus  clinoideus  anterior 

45  Fissura  orbitalis  superior 

46  Ala  magna 

47  Facies  cerebralis 

48  Facies  temporalis 

49  Facies  sphenomaxillaris 

50  Facies  orbitalis 

51  Margo  zygomaticus 

52  Margo  frontalis 

53  Angulus  parietalis 

54  Margo  squamosus 

55  Crista  infratemporalis 

56  Foramen  rotundum 

57  Foramen  ovale 

58  Foramen  spinosum 

59  Spina  angularis 

60  Processus  pterygoideus 

61  Lamina      lateralis    '  processus 


62  Lamina     medialis     processus 


63  Fissura  pterygoidea 

64  Fossa  scaphoidea 

65  Processus  vaginalis 

66  Hamulus  pterygoideus 

(yy  Sulcus  hamuli  pterygoidei 

68  Fossa  pterygoidea 

69  Canalis  pterygoideus  [Vidii] 

70  Canalis  pharyngeus 

71  Canalis  basipharyngeus 

72  Sulcus  tubae  auditivae 
Ti,  Sulcus  pterygopalatinus 

74  (Processus   pterygospinosus 

75  Os  temporale 

76  Pars  mastoidea 
'jj  Margo  occipitalis 

78  Processus  mastoideus 

79  Incisura  mastoidea 

80  Sulcus  sigmoideus 



1  Sulcus  a.  occipitalis 

2  Foramen  mastoideum 

3  Pars  petrosa  [Pyramis] 

4  Facies  anterior  pyramidis 

5  Facies   posterior   pyramidis 

6  Facies  inferior  pyramtdis 

7  Apex  pyramidis 

8  Angulus  superior  pyramidis 

9  Angulus  anterior  pyramidis 

10  Angulus  posterior  pyramidis 

11  Sulcus  petrosus  superior 

12  Tegmen  tympani 

13  Eminentia  arcuata 

14  Canalis  facialis  [Falloppii] 

15  Hiatus  canalis  facialis 

16  Geniculum  canalis  facialis 

17  Sulcus    n.    petrosi    superficialis 


18  Sulcus    n.    petrosi    superficialis 


19  Impressio  trigemini 

20  Porus  acusticus  internus 

21  Meatus  acusticus  internus 

22  Fossa  subarcuata 

23  Aquaeductus  vestibuli 

24  Apertura    externa    aquaeductus 


25  Sulcus  petrosus  inferior 

26  Incisura  jugularis 

27  Processus  intrajugularis 

28  Fossa  jugularis 

29  Canaliculus  mastoideus 

30  Sulcus  canaliculi  mastoidei 

31  Processus  styloideus 

32  Vagina  processus  styloidei 

33  Foramen  stylomastoideum 

34  Fossula  petrosa 

35  Canaliculus  tympanicus 

36  Sulcus  tympanicus 

37  Apertura      inferior      canaliculi 


38  Apertura     superior     canaliculi 


39  Canaliculus  cochleae 

40  Apertura      externa      canaliculi 


41  Canalis  caroticus 

42  Canaliculi  caroticotympanici 

43  Canalis  musculotubarius 

44  Semicanalis  m.   tensoris  tym- 


45  Semicanalis  tubae  auditivae 

46  Septum  canalis  musculotubarii 

47  Cavum    tympani    (v.    Organon 


48  Canaliculus  chordae  tympani 

49  Fissura  petrotympanica   [Gla- 


50  Fissura  petrosquamosa 

51  Pars  tympanica 

52  Annulus  tympanicus 

53  Meatus  acusticus  externus 

54  (Spina  supra  meatum) 

55  Fissura  tympanomastoidea 

56  Spina  tympanica  major 

57  Spina  tympanica  minor 

58  Porus  acusticus  externus 

59  Squama  temporalis 

60  Margo  parietalis 

61  Incisura  parietalis 

62  Margo  sphenoidalis 

63  Facies  temporalis 

64  Processus  zygomaticus 

65  Fossa  mandibularis 

66  Facies  articularis 
6y  Tuberculum  articulare 

68  Facies  cerebralis 

69  Sulcus  a.  temporalis  mediae 

70  Os  parietale 

71  Facies  cerebralis 

72  Facies  parietalis 
y^  Margo  occipitalis 

74  Margo  squamosus 

75  Margo  frontalis 

76  Margo  sagittalis 

77  Angulus  frontalis 

78  Angulus  occipitalis 

79  Angulus  sphenoidalis 

80  Angulus  mastoideus 

81  Foramen  parietale 



1  Tuber  parietale 

2  Linea  temporalis  inferior 

3  Linea  temporalis  superior 

4  Sulcus  sagittalis 

5  Sulcus  transversus 

6  Os  frontale 

7  Squama  frontalis 

8  Facias  frontalis 

9  Marge  supraorbitalis 
ID  Pars  orbitalis 

11  Incisura  ethmoidalis 

12  Pars  nasalis 

13  Spina  frontalis 

14  Margo  nasalis 

15  Margo  parietalis 

16  Processus  zygomaticus 

17  Facies  temporalis 

18  Linea  temporalis 

19  Tuber  frontale 

20  Arcus  superciliaris 

21  Glabella 

22  Foramen    sive    Incisura   supra- 


23  Incisura  sive  Foramen  frontale 

24  Facies  orbitalis 

25  (Spina  trochlearis) 

26  Fovea  trochlearis 

27  Foramen  ethmoidale  anterius 

28  Foramen  ethmoidale  posterius 

29  Fossa  glandulae  lacrimalis 

30  Facies  cerebralis 

31  Crista  frontalis 

32  Sulcus   sagittalis 

33  Foramen  caecum 

34  Sinus  frontalis 

35  Septum  sinuum  frontalium 

36  Os  ethmoidale 

37  Lamina  cribrosa 

38  Crista  galli 

39  Processus  alaris 

40  Lamina  perpendicularis 

41  Labyrinthus  ethmoidalis 

42  Cellulae  ethmoidales 

43  Infundibulum  ethmoidale 

44  Hiatus  semilunaris 

45  Bulla  ethmoidalis 

46  Lamina  papyracea 

47  Foramina  ethmoidalia 

48  (Concha  nasalis  suprema) 

49  Concha  nasalis  superior 

50  Concha  nasalis  media 

51  Processus  uncinatus 

52  Concha  nasalis  inferior 

53  Processus  lacrimalis 

54  Processus  maxillaris 

55  Processus  ethmoidalis 

56  Os  lacrimale 

57  Crista  lacrimalis  posterior 

58  Sulcus  lacrimalis 

59  Hamulus  lacrimalis 

60  Fossa  sacci  lacrimalis 

61  Os  nasale 

62  Foramina  nasalia 

63  Sulcus  ethmoidalis 

64  Vomer 

65  Ala  vomeris 

66  Ossa  faciei 
67  Maxilla 

68  Corpus  maxillae 

69  Facies  anterior 

70  Facies  nasalis 

71  Facies  orbitalis 

72  Facies  infratemporalis 

73  Sinus  maxillaris 

74  Margo  infraorbitalis 

75  Canalis  infraorbitalis 

76  Sulcus  infraorbitalis 
Tj  Foramen  infraorbitale 

78  Sutura  infraorbitalis 

79  Fossa  canina 



1  (Fossa  praenasalis) 

2  Incisura  nasalis 

3  Tuber  maxillare 

4  Foramina  alveolaria 

5  Canales  alveolares 

6  Planum  orbitale 

7  Margo  lacrimalis 

8  Sulcus  lacrimalis 

9  Canalis  nasolacrimalis 
ID  Crista  conchalis 

11  Processus  frontalis 

12  Crista  lacrimalis  anterior 

13  Incisura  lacrimalis 

14  Crista  ethmoidalis 

15  Processus  zygomaticus 

16  Processus  palatinus 

17  Crista  nasalis 

18  Spina  nasalis  anterior 

19  Os  incisivutn 

20  Canalis  incisivus 

21  Sutura  incisiva 

22  Spinae  palatinae 

23  Sulci  palatini 

24  Processus  alveolaris 

25  Limbus  alveolaris 

26  Alveoli  dentales 

27  Septa  interalveolaria 

28  Juga  alveolaria 

29  Hiatus  maxillaris 

30  Foramen  incisivum 

31  Os  palatinum 

32  Pars    perpendicularis 

33  Facies  nasalis 

34  Facies  maxillaris 

35  Incisura  sphenopalatina 

36  Sulcus  pterygopalatinus 
Sy  Processus  pyramidalis 

38  Foramen  palatinum  maj 

39  Foramina  palatina  minora 

40  Canales  palatini 

41  Crista  conchalis 

42  Crista  ethmoidalis 

43  Processus  orbitalis 

44  Processus  sphenoidalis 

45  Pars    horizontalis 

46  Facies  nasalis 

47  Facies  palatina 

48  Spina  nasalis  posterior 

49  Crista  nasalis 

50  Os  zygomaticum 

51  Facies  malaris 

52  Facies  temporalis 

53  Facies  orbitalis 

54  Processus  temporalis 

55  Processus  frontosphenoidalis 

56  (Processus  marginalis) 

57  Foramen  zygomaticoorbitale 

58  Foramen  zygomaticofaciale 

59  Foramen  zygomaticotemporale 

60  Mandibula 
61  Corpus  mandibulae 

62  Basis  mandibulae 

63  Protuberantia  mentalis 

64  Tuberculum  mentale 

65  Spina  mentalis 

66  Foramen  mentale 

67  Linea  obliqua 

68  Fossa  digastrica 

69  Linea  mylohyoidea 

70  Sulcus  mylohyoideus 

71  Juga  alveolaria 

72  Ramus  mandibulae 

73  Angulus  mandibulae 

74  (Tuberositas  masseterica) 

75  (Tuberositas  pterygoidea) 

76  (Crista  buccinatoria) 
^7  Incisura  mandibulae 

78  Processus  condyloideus 

79  Capitulum  [proc.  condyl.] 


80  Collum   [proc.  condyloidei] 


81  Fovea  pterygoidea  proc.  con- 


82  Processus  coronoideus 



1  Foramen  mandibulare 

2  Lingula  mandibulae 

3  Canalis  mandibulae 

4  Fovea  sublingualis 

5  (Fovea  submaxillaris) 

6  Pars  alveolaris 

7  Limbus  alveolaris 

8  Alveoli  dentales 

9  Septa  interalveolaria 

10  Os  hyoideum 

11  Corpus  OSS.  hyoidei 

12  Cornu  minus 

13  Cornu  majus 

14  Cranium 

15  Calvaria 

16  Pericranium 

17  Lamina  externa 

18  Diploe 

19  Canales  diploid  [Brescheti] 

20  Lamina  interna 

21  Facies  [ossea] 

22  Cranium  cerebrale 

23  Cranium  viscerale 

24  Vertex 

25  Frons 

26  Occiput 

27  Basis  cranii  interna 

28  Basis  cranii  externa 

29  Fossa  cranii  anterior 

30  Fossa  cranii  media 

31  Fossa  cranii  posterior 

32  Juga  cerebralia 

33  Impressiones  digitatae 

34  Sulci  venosi 

35  Sulci  arteriosi 

36  (Foveolae      granulares      [Pac- 


37  (Ossa  suturarum) 

38  Planum  temporale 

39  Fossa  temporalis 

40  Arcus  zygomaticus 

41  Fossa  infratemporalis 

42  Fossa  pterygopalatina 

43  Canalis    pterygopalatinus 

44  Foramen  sphenopalatinum 

45  Apertura  piriformis 

46  Cavum  nasi 

47  Septum  nasi  osseum 

48  Meatus  nasi  communis 

49  Meatus  nasi  superior 

50  Meatus  nasi  medius 

51  Meatus  nasi  inferior 

52  Meatus  nasopharyngeus 

53  Choanae 

54  Recessus  sphenoethmoidalii 

55  Foramen  jugulare 

56  Fissura  sphenopetrosa 

57  Fissura  petrooccipitalis 

58  Fissura  sphenooccipitalis 

59  Foramen  lacerum 

60  Fibrocartilago  basalis 

61  Palatum  durum 

62  (Torus  palatinus) 

63  Orbita 

64  Aditus  orbitae 

65  Margo  supraorbitalis 

66  Margo  infraorbitalis 

67  Paries  superior 

68  Paries  inferior 

69  Paries  lateralis 

70  Paries  medialis 

71  Fissura  orbitalis  superior 
yz  Fissura  orbitalis  inferior 

73  Suturae  cranii 

74  Sutura 

75  Sutura 

76  Sutura 
yy   Sutura 

78  Sutura 

79  Sutura 

80  Sutura 

81  Sutura 

82  Sutura 












1  Sutura  squamosa 

2  (Sutura  frontalis) 

3  Sutura  parietomastoidea 

4  (Sutura  squamosomastoidea) 

5  Sutura  nasofrontalis 

6  Sutura  frontoethmoidalis 

7  Sutura  frontomaxillaris 

8  Sutura  frontolacrimalis 

9  Sutura  zygomaticofrontalis 

10  Sutura  zygomaticomaxillaris 

11  Sutura  ethmoideomaxillaris 

12  Sutura  sphenozygomatica 

13  (Sutura  sphenomaxillaris) 

14  Sutura  zygomaticotemporalis 

15  Sutura  internasalis 

16  Sutura  nasomaxillaris 

17  Sutura  lacrimomaxillaris 

18  Sutura  lacrimoconchalis 

19  Sutura  intermaxillaris 

20  Sutura  palatomaxillaris 

21  Sutura  palatoethmoidalis 

22  Sutura  palatina  mediana 

23  Sutura  palatina  transversa 

24  Synchondroses  cranii 

25  Synchondrosis  sp'henooccipitalis 

26  Synchondrosis  sphenopetrosa 

27  Synchondrosis  petrooccipitalis 

28  Synchondrosis  intraoccipitalis 


29  Synchondrosis  intraoccipitalis 


30  Synchondrosis  intersphenoidalis 

31  Fonticulus  frontalis   [major'] 

32  Fonticulus  occiptalis  [minor] 

33  Fonticulus  mastoideus 

34  Fonticulus  sphenoidalis 

35  Ossa  extremitatis 

36   Cingulum      extremi- 
tatis   superioris 
37  Scapula 

38  Facies  costalis 

39  Lineae  musculares 

40  Fossa  subscapularis 

41  Facies  dorsalis 

42  Spina  scapulae 

43  Fossa  supraspinata 

44  Fossa  infraspinata 

45  Acromion 

46  Facies  articularis  acromii 

47  Margo  vertebralis 

48  Margo  axillaris 

49  Margo  superior 

50  Angulus  inferior 

51  Angulus  lateralis 

52  Angulus  medialis 

53  Cavitas  glenoidalis 

54  Collum  scapulae 

55  Tuberositas  infraglenoidalis 

56  Tuberositas  supraglenoidalis 

57  Incisura  scapulae 

58  Processus  coracoideus 

59  Clavicula 

60  Extremitas  sternalis 

61  Facies  articularis  sternalis 

62  Tuberositas  costalis 

63  Extremitas  acromialis 

64  Facies  articularis  acromialis 

65  Tuberositas  coracoidea 

66  Skeleton    extremitatis 

superioris    liberae 

67  Humerus 

68  Caput  humeri 

69  Collum  anatomicura 

70  Collum  chirurgicum 

71  Tuberculum  majus 

72  Tuberculum  minus 

73  Sulcus  intertubercularis 

74  Crista  tuberculi  majoris 

75  Crista  tuberculi  minoris 
"^  Corpus  humeri 



1  Facies  anterior  medialis 

2  Facies  anterior  lateralis 

3  Facies  posterior 

4  Margo  medialis 

5  Margo  lateralis 

6  Tuberositas  deltoidea 

7  Sulcus  n.  radialis 

8  Sulcus  n.  ulnaris 

9  Capitulum  humeri 

10  Trochlea  humeri 

11  Epicondylus  medialis 

12  Epicondylus  lateralis 

13  Fossa  olecrani 

14  Fossa  coronoidea 

15  Fossa  radialis 

16  (Processus   supracondyloideus) 

17  Radius 

18  Corpus  radii 

19  Capitulum  radii 

20  Fovea  capituli  radii 

21  Collum  radii 

22  Circumferentia  articularis 

23  Tuberositas  radii 

24  Crista  interossea 

25  Facies  dorsalis 

26  Facies  voiaris 
2"^  Facies  lateralis 

28  Margo  dorsalis 

29  Margo  voiaris 

30  Processus  styloideus 

31  Incisura  ulnaris 

32  Facies  articularis  carpea 

33  Ulna 

34  Corpus  ulnae 

35  Olecranon 

36  Processus  coronoideus 

37  Tuberositas  ulnae 

38  Incisura  semilunaris 

39  Incisura  radialis 

40  Crista  interossea 

41  Facies  dorsalis 

42  Facies  voiaris 

43  Facies  medialis 

44  Margo  dorsalis 

45  Margo  voiaris 

46  Crista  m.  supinatoris 

47  Capitulum  ulnae 

48  Circumferentia  articularis 
49  Processus  styloideus 

50  Carpus 

51  O  ss  a  carpi 

52  (Os  centrale) 

53  Os  naviculare  manus 

54  Tuberculum  oss.  navicu- 

55  Os  lunatum 

56  Os  triquetrum 

57  Os  pisiforme 

58  Os  multangulum  majus 

59  Tuberculum  oss.  multang. 

60  Os  multangulum  minus 

61  Os  capitatum 

62  Os  hamatum 

63  Hamulus  oss.  hamati 

64  Eminentia  carpi  radialis 

65  Eminentia  carpi  ulnaris 

66  Sulcus  carpi 

67   Metacarpus 

68  Ossa  metacarpalia  I — V 

69  Basis 

70  Corpus 

71  Capitulum 
^2.  Os  metacarpale  III 

73  Processus  styloideus 

74  Phalanges  digitorum  manus 

75  Phalanx  prima 

76  Phalanx  secunda 
TJ  Phalanx  tertia 
78  Basis  phalangis 



1  Corpus  phalangis 

2  Trochlea  phalangis 

3  Tuberositas  unguicularis 

4  Ossa  sesamoidea 

5  Ossa  extremitatis 

•6Cingulum     extremi- 
tatis   inferioris 

7  Os  coxae 

8  Foramen  obturatum 

9  Acetabulum 

10  Fossa  acetabuli 

11  Incisura  acetabuli 

12  Facies  lunata 

13  Sulci  paraglenoidales 

14  Os  ilium 

15  Corpus  OSS.  ilium 

16  Ala  OSS.  ilium 

17  Linea  arcuata 

18  Crista  iliaca 

19  Labium  externum 

20  Linea  intermedia 

21  Labium  internum 

22  Spina  iliaca  anterior  superior 

23  Spina  iliaca  anterior  inferior 

24  Spina  iliaca  posterior  superior 

25  Spina  iliaca  posterior  inferior 

26  Linea  glutaea  anterior 
2"]  Linea  glutaea  posterior 

28  Linea  glutaea  inferior 

29  Facies  auricularis 

30  Tuberositas  iliaca 

31  Fossa  iliaca 

32  Os  ischii 

33  Corpus  OSS.  ischii 

34  Ramus  superior  oss.  ischii 

35  Ramus  inferior  oss.  ischii 

36  Tuber  ischiadicum 

37  Spina  ischiadica 

38  Incisura  ischiadica  major 

39  Incisura  ischiadica  minor 

40  Os  pubis 

41  Corpus  oss.  pubis 

42  Pecten  oss.  pubis 

43  Eminentia  iliopectinea 

44  Tuberculum  pubicum 

45  Crista  obturatoria 

46  Sulcus  obturatorius 

47  Tuberculum  obturatorium  an- 


48  (Tuberculum  obturatorium 


49  Ramus  inferior  oss.  pubis 

50  Ramus  superior  oss.  pubis 

51  Facies  symphyseos 

52  Pelvis 

53  Symphysis  ossium  pubis 

54  Arcus  pubis 

55  Angulus  pubis 

56  Pelvis  major 

57  Pelvis  minor 

58  Linea  terminalis 

59  Pars  sacralis 

60  Pars  iliaca 

61  Pars  pubica 

62  Apertura  pelvis  [minoris]  su- 


63  Apertura  pelvis   [minoris]   in- 


64  Axis  pelvis 

65  Conjugata 

66  Diameter  transversa 
dj  Diameter  obliqua 
68  Inclinatio  pelvis 

69Skeleton   extremitatis 
inferioris    liberae 

70  Femur 

71  Caput  femoris 

72  Fovea  capitis  femoris 
^2)  Collum  femoris 



1  Corpus  femoris 

2  Trochanter  major 

3  Fossa  trochanterica 

4  Trochanter  minor 

5  (Trochanter  tertius) 

6  Linea  intertrochanterica 

7  Crista  intertrochanterica 

8  Linea  aspera 

9  Labium  laterale 
lO  Labium  mediale 

11  Linea  pectinea 

12  Tuberositas  glutaea 

13  Fossa  intercondyloidea 

14  Linea  intercondyloidea 

15  Planum  popliteum 

16  Condylus  medialis 

17  Condylus  lateralis 

18  Facies  patellaris 

19  Epicondylus  lateralis 

20  Epicondylus  medialis 

21  Tibia 

22  Facies  articularis  superior 
2^  Corpus  tibiae 

24  Condylus  medialis 

25  Condylus  lateralis 

26  Fossa  intercondyloidea  anterior 

27  Fossa  intercondyloidea  posterior 

28  Eminentia  intercondyloidea 

29  Tuberculum  intercondyloideum 


30  Tuberculum  intercondyloideum 


31  Margo  infraglenoidalis 

32  Tuberositas  tibiae 

33  Facies  medialis 

34  Facies  posterior 

35  Facies  lateralis 

36  Margo  medialis 

37  Crista  anterior 

38  Crista  interossea 

39  Linea  poplitea 

40  Malleolus  medialis 

41  Incisura  fibularis 

42  Sulcus  malleolaris 

43  Facies  articularis  inferior 

44  Facies  articularis  malleolaris 

45  Fibula 

46  Corpus  fibulae 

47  Crista  interossea 

48  Crista  anterior 

49  Crista  lateralis 

50  Crista  medialis 

51  Facies  medialis 

52  Facies  lateralis 

53  Facies  posterior 

54  Capitulum  fibulae 

55  Facies  articularis  capituli 

56  Apex  capituli  fibulae 

57  Malleolus  lateralis 

58  Facies  articularis  malleoli 

59  Patella 

60  Basis  patellae 

61  Apex  patellae 

62  Facies  articularis 

63  Tarsus 

64  0ssa    tarsi 

65  Talus 

66  Caput  tali 

67  Corpus  tali 

68  Collum  tali 

69  Trochlea  tali 

70  Facies  superior 

71  Facies     malleolaris     me- 


72  Facies  malleolaris  lateralis 

73  Sulcus  tali 

74  Processus  lateralis  tali 

75  Facies  articularis  calcanea  pos- 




1  Facies       articularis       calcanea 


2  Sulcus  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

3  Facies  articularis  navicularis 

4  Facies  articularis   calcanea  an- 


5  Processus  posterior  tali 

6  (Os  trigonum) 

7  Calcaneus 

8  Corpus   calcanei 

9  Tuber  calcanei 

lO  Processus    medialis    tu- 

beris  calcanei 
II  Processus    lateralis    tu- 
beris  calcanei 

12  Sustentaculum  tali 

13  Sulcus  m.  flexoris  hallucis  longi 

14  Sulcus  calcanei 

15  Sinus  tarsi 

16  Facies  articularis  anterior 

17  Facies  articularis  media 

18  Facies  articularis  posterior 

19  Sulcus  m.  peronaei 

20  (Processus  trochlearis) 

21  Facies  articularis  cuboidea 

22  Os  naviculare  pedis 

2^  Tuberositas    oss.    navicularis 

24  Os  cuneiforme  primum 

25  Os  cuneiforme  secundum 

26  Os  cuneiforme  tertium 

27  Os  cuboideum 

28  Sulcus  m.  peronaei 

29  Tuberositas  oss.  cuboidei 

30  Metatarsus 

31  Ossa  metatarsalia  I — V 

32  Basis 

33  Corpus 

34  Capitulum 

35  Tuberositas  oss.  metatarsalis  I 

36  Tuberositas  oss.  metatarsalis  V 

37  Phalanges  digitorum  pedis 

38  Phalanx  prima 

39  Phalanx  secunda 

40  Phalanx  tertia 

41  Tuberositas  unguicularis 

42  Basis  phalangis 

43  Corpus  phalangis 

44  Trochlea  phalangis 

45  Ossa  sesamoidea 



1    Syndesmologia 

2  Junctura  ossium 

3  Synarthrosis 

4  Sutura 

5  Sutura  serrata 

6  Sutura  squamosa 

7  Harmonia 

8  Gomphosis 

9  Synchondrosis 
10  Symphysis 

II  Diarthrosis 

12  Articulatio 

13  „  simplex 

14  „  composita 

15  Arthrodia 

16  Articulatio  sphaeroidea 

17  Enarthrosis 

18  Ginglymus- 

19  Articulatio  cochlearis 

20  „  ellipsoidea 

21  „  trochoidea 

22  „  sellaris 

23  Amphiarthrosis 

24  Syndesmosis 

25  Cartilago  articularis 

26  Cavum  articulare 

27  Discus  articularis 

28  Laibrum  glenoidale 

29  Meniscus  articularis 

30  Capsula  articularis 

31  Stratum  fibrosum 

32  Stratum  synoviale 

33  Plica  synovialis 

34  Villi  synoviales 

35  Synovig, 

36  Ligamenta  columnae  verte- 

bralis  et  cranii 

37  Fibrocartilagines   interverte- 


38  Annulus  fibrosus 

39  Nucleus  pulposus 

40  Ligg.  flava 

41  Capsulae  articulares 

42  Ligg.  intertransversaria 

43  Ligg.  interspinalia 

44  Lig.  supraspinal 

45  Lig.  nuchae 

46  Lig.  longitudinale  anterius 

47  Lig.  longitudinale  posterius 

48  Symphysis  sacrococcygea 

49  Lig.  sacrococcygeum  posterius 


50  Lig.  sacrococcygeum  posterius 


51  Lig.  sacrococcygeum  anterius 

52  Lig.  sacrococcygeum  laterale 

53  Lig.  pterygospinosum 

54  Lig.  stylohyoideum 



1  Articulatio  atlantooccipi- 

2  Capsulae  articulares 

3  Membrana  atlantooccipitalis  an- 


4  Membrana  atlantooccipitalis 


5  Articulatio  atlantoepis- 

6  Capsulae  articulares 

7  Ligg.  alaria 

8  Lig.  apicis  dentis 

9  Lig.  transversum  atlantis 
10  Lig.  cruciatum  atlantis 
n  Membrana  tectoria 

12  Articulationes    costoverte- 



Articulationes     capitulorum 

Capsulae  articulares 
Lig.  capituli  costae  radiatum 
Lig.  capituli  costae  interarticu- 

17  Articulationes  costo- 

18  Capsulae  articulares    . 

19  Lig.  tu'berculi  costae 

20  Lig.  colli  costae 

21  Lig.  costotransversarium    ante- 


22  Lig.  costotransversarium     pos- 


23  Lig.  lumbocostale 

24  Foramen  costotransversarium 

25  Articulationes  sterno- 

26  Capsulae  articulares 

27  Lig.    sternocostale    interarticu- 


28  Ligg.  sternocostalia  radiata 

29  Membrana  sterni 

30  Ligg.  costoxiphoidea 

31  Ligg.  intercostalia 

32  Ligg.  intercostalia  externa 

33  Ligg.  intercostalia  interna 
34  Articulationes  interchondrales 

35  Articulatio  mandibularis 

36  Capsula  articularis 

37  Discus  articularis 

38  Lig.  temporomandibulare 

39  Lig.  sphenomandibulare 

40  Lig.  stylomandibulare 

41  Ligg.    cinguli   extremitatis 


42  Lig.  coracoacromiale 

43  Lig.  transversum  scapulae  su- 


44  Lig.  transversum  scapulae  in- 


45  Articulatio  acromio- 

46  Capsula  articularis 

47  Lig.  acromioclaviculare 

48  (Discus  articularis) 

49  Lig.  coracoclaviculare 

50  Lig.  trapezoideum 

51  Lig.  conoideum 

52  Articulatio  sterno- 

53  Capsula  articularis 

54  Discus  articularis 

55  Lig.  sternoclaviculare 

56  Ligf.  costoclaviculare 

57  Lig.  interclaviculare 

58  Articulatio  humeri 

59  Capsula  articularis 

60  Labrum  glenoidale 

61  Lig.  coracohumerale 

62  Articulatio  cubiti 

63  Articulatio  humeroulnaris 

64  Articulatio  humeroradialis 

65  Articulatio  radioulnaris  proxi- 


66  Capsula  articularis 

67  Lig.  collaterale  ulnare 

68  Lig.  collaterale  radiale 

69  Lig.  annulare  radii 



1  Recessus  sacciformis 

2  Membrana  interossea  anti- 


3  Chorda  obliqua 

4  Articulatio  radioulnaris 

5  Capsula  articularis 

6  Discus  articularis 

7  Recessus  sacciformis 

8  Articulatio  manus 

9  Articulatio  radiocarpea 
ID  Articulatio  intercarpea 

11  Capsula  articularis 

12  Lig.  radiocarpeum  dorsale 

13  Lig.  radiocarpeum  volare 

14  Lig.  carpi  radiatum 

15  Lig.  collaterale  carpi  ulnare 

16  Lig.  collaterale  carpi  radiale 

17  ■ 


Ligg.  intercarpea  dorsalia 
Ligg.  intercarpea  volaria 
Ligg.  intercarpea  interossea 

20  Articulatio  ossis  pisiformis 

21  Capsula  articularis 

22  Lig.  pisohamatum 

23  Lig.  pisometacarpeum 

24  Canalis  carpi 

25  Articulationes  carpometa- 

26  Capsulae  articulares 

27  Ligg.  carpometacarpea  dorsalia 

28  Ligg.  carpometacarpea  volaria 

29  Articulatio  carpometacarpea 


30  Capsula  articularis 

31  Articulationes    intermeta- 

32  Capsulae  articulares 

33  Ligg.   basium   [oss.  metacarp.] 


34  Lig.    basium 


[oss.    metacarp.] 

35  Lig.  basium    [oss.  metacarp.] 


36  Spatia  interossea  metacarpi 

37  Articulationes    metacarpo- 


38  Capsulae  articulares 

39  Ligg.  collateralia 

40  Ligg.  accessoria  volaria 

41  Ligg.  capitulorum  [oss.  meta- 

oarpalium]  transversa 

42  Articulationes  digitorum 

43  Capsulae  articulares 

44  '-i&g'-  collateralia 

45  Ligg.    cinguli   extremitatis 


46  'Membrana  obturatoria 

47  Canalis  obturatorius 

48  Lig.  iliolumbale 

49  Lig.  sacrotuberosum 

50  Processus  falciformis 

51  Lig.  sacrospinosum 

52  Foramen  ischiadicum  majus 

53  Foramen  ischiadicum  minus 

54  Articulatio  sacroiliaca 

55  Ligg.  sacroiliaca  anteriora 

56  Ligg.  sacroiliaca  interossea 

57  Lig.     sacroiliacum'     posterius 


58  Lig.     sacroiliacum     posterius 


59  Symphysis  ossium  pubis 

60  Lig.  pubicum  superius 

61  Lig.  arcuatum  pubis 

62  Lamina  fibrocartilaginea  inter- 


63  Articulatio  coxae 

64  Capsula  articularis 

65  Labrum  glenoidale 

66  Lig.  transversum  acetabuli 
dy  Lig.  teres  femoris 

68  Zona  orbicularis 

69  Lig.  iliofemorale 



1  Lig.  ischiocapsulare 

2  Lig.  pubocapsulare 

3  Articulatio  genu 

4  Capsula  articularis 

5  Meniscus  lateralis 

6  'Meniscus  medialis 

7  Lig.  transversum  genu 

8  Ligg.  cruciata  genu 

9  Lig.  cruciatum  anterius 
lo  Lig.  cruciatum  posterius 

11  Plica  synovialis  patellaris 

12  Plicae  alares 

13  Lig.  coUaterale  fibulare 

14  Lig.  collaterale  tibiale 

15  Lig.  popliteum  obliquum 

16  Lig.  popliteum  arcuatum 

17  Retinaculum  lig.  arcuati 

18  Lig.  patellae 

19  Retinaculum  patellae  mediale 

20  Retinaculum  patellae  laterale 

21  Articulatio  tibiofibularis 

22  Capsula  articularis 

23  Ligg.  capituli  fibulae 

24  Membrana  interossea  cruris 

25  Syndesmosis  tibiofibularis 

26  Lig.  malleoli  lateralis  anterius 

27  Lig.  malleoli  lateralis  posterius 

28  Articulationes  pedis 

29  Articulatio  talo- 

30  Capsula  articularis 

31  Lig.  deltoideum 

32  Lig.  tibionaviculare 

33  Lig.  calcaneotibiale 

34  Lig.  talotibiale  anterius 

35  Lig.  talotibiale  posterius 
36  Lig.  talofibulare  anterius 

37  Lig.  talofibulare  posterius 

38  Lig.  calcaneofibulare 

39  Articulationes  inter- 


40  Articulatio  talocal- 


41  Articulatio  talocalcanea 

42  Capsula  articularis 

43  Lig.  talocalcaneum  laterale 

44  Lig.  talocalcaneum  mediale 

45  Lig.  talocalcaneum  anterius 

46  Lig.  talocalcaneum  posterius 

47  Articulatio  tarsi  transversa 


48  Articulatio    talonavicularis 

49  Capsula  articularis 

50  Articulatio  calcan- 


51  Capsula  articularis 

52  Articulatio  cuneonavicu- 


53  Ligg.  tarsi  interossea 

54  Lig.     talocalcaneum     interos- 


55  Lig.   cuneocuboideum   interos- 


56  Ligg.  intercuneiformia  interos- 


57  Ligg.  tarsi  dorsalia 

58  Lig.  talonaviculare  [dorsale] 

59  Lig.  cuneocuboideum  dorsale 

60  Lig.    cuboideonaviculare    dor- 

oi  Lig.  bifurcatum 

62  Pars  calcaneonavicularis 

63  Pars  calcaneocuboidea 

64  Lig.  calcaneonaviculare  dorsale 

65  Ligg.   navicularicuneiformia 


66  Ligg.  tarsi  plantaria 

67  Lig.  plantare  longum 

68  Ligg.  tarsi  profunda 

69  Lig.    calcaneocuboideum 


70  Lig.  calcaneonaviculare 




1  Fibrocartilago   navicularis 

2  Ligg.  navicularicuneiformia 


3  Lig.         cu'boideonaviculare 


4  Ligg.      intercuneiformia     plan- 


5  Lig.  cuneocuboideum  plantare 

6  Articulationes  tarso- 

7  Capsulae  articulares 

8  Ligg.  tarsometatarsea  dorsalia 

9  Ligg.  tarsometatarsea  plantaria 
lo  Ligg.  cuneometatarsea  interos- 


11  Articulationes  intermeta- 

12  Capsulae  articulares 

13  Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metatars.] 


14  Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metatars.] 


15  Ligg.  basium  [oss.  metatars.] 


16  Spatia  interossea  metatarsi 

17  Articulationes  metatarso- 

18  Capsulae   articulares 

19  Ligg.  collateralia 

20  Ligg.  accessoria  plantaria 

21  Ligg.  capitulorum  [oss.  meta- 

tars.] transversa 

22  Articulationes  digitorum 

23  Capsulae  articulares 

24  Ligg.  collateralia 







33  Aponeurosis 








sculus  fusiformis 
,            unipennatus 
,           bipennatus 

34  Perimysium 

35  Fascia 

36  Fascia  superficialis 
37  Inscriptio  tendinea 



38  Arcus  tendineus 



39  Ligamentum  vaginale 



40  Vagina  fibrosa  tendinis 



41  Vagina  mucosa  tendinis 



42  Trochlea  muscularis 




43  Bursa  mucosa 

14  Musculi  dorsi 

15  M.  trapezius 

16  (iM.  transversus  nuchae) 

17  M.  latissimus  dorsi 

18  „     rhomboideus  major 
rhomboideus  minor 
levator  scapulae 
serratus   posterior   inferior 
serratus  posterior  superior 
sple^ius  cervicis 
splenius  capitis 

26  M.  iliocostalis 

27  M.  iliocostalis  lumborum 

28  „     iliocostalis  dorsi 

29  „     iliocostalis  cervicis 
30  iM.  longissimus 

31  M.  longissimus  dorsi 

32  „     longissimus  cervicis 

19  ., 

20  „ 

21  „ 

22  „ 

22     .. 

24  „ 

25  » 

44  M.  longissimus  capitis 
45  M.  spinalis 

46  M.  spinalis  dorsi 

47  „     spinalis  cervicis 

48  „     spinalis  capitis 
49  M.  semispinalis 

50  M:  semispinalis  dorsi 

51  „     semispinalis  cervicis 

52  „     semispinalis  capitis 

53  M.  multifidus 

54  Mm.  rotatores 

56  M.  rotatores  longi 

57  „     rotatores  breves 

58  M.  interspinales 

59  Mm.  intertransversari'i 

60  Mm.  intertransversarii 


61  Mm.  intertransversarii 


62  Mm.  intertransversarii 


63  Mm.  intertransversarii 

64  M.     rectus     capitis     posterior 



1  iM.     rectus     capitis     posterior 


2  M.  rectus  capitis  lateralis 

3  „     obliquus  capitis  superior 

4  „     obliquus  capitis  inferior 

5  Fascia  lumbodorsalis 

6  Fascia  nuchae 

7  Musculi  capitis 

8  M.  epicranius 

9  M.  frontalis 

10  „     occipitalis 

11  „     procerus 
12  M.  nasalis 

13  Pars  transversa 

14  Pars  alaris 

15  M.  depressor  septi 

16  M.  orbicularis  oculi 

17  Pars  palpebralis 

18  Pars  orbitalis 

19  Pars  lacrimalis  [Horneri] 

20  M.  auricularis  anterior 

21  „     auricularis  superior 

22  „     auricularis  posterior 

23  M.  orbicularis  oris 

24  „     triangularis 

25  (M.  transversus  menti) 

26  M.  risorius 

27  „     zygomaticus 

28  M.  quadratus  labii  superioris 

29  Caput  zygomaticum 

30  Caput  infraorbital 

31  Caput  angulare 

32  M.  quadratus  labii  inferioris 

33  -M.  caninus 

34  „     buccinator 

35  iMm.  incisivi  labii  superioris 

36  „       incisivi  labii  inferioris 

37  M.  mentalis 

38  „     masseter 

39  „     temporalis 

40  „     pterygoideus  externus 

41  M.  pterygoideus  internus 

42  Galea  aponeurotica 

43  Fascia  buccopharyngea 

44  Fascia  parotideomasseterica 

45  Fascia  temporalis 

46  Musculi  OSS.  hyoidei 

47  M.  digastricus 

48  Venter  anterior 

49  Venter  posterior 

50  M.  stylohyoideus 

51  „     mylohyoideus 

52  „     geniohyoideus 

53  Musculi  colli 

54  Platysma 

55  M.  sternocleidomastoideus 

56  „     sternohyoideus 

57  M.  omohyoideus 

58  Venter  superior 

59  Venter  inferior 

60  M.  sternothyreoideus 

61  „     thyreohyoideus 

62  (M.  levator  glandulae  thyreoi- 


63  „     longus  colli 

64  „     longus  capitis 

65  „     rectus  capitis  anterior 

66  „     scalenus  anterior 

67  „     scalenus  medius 

68  „     scalenus  posterior 

69  (M.  scalenus  minimus) 

70  Fascia  colli 

71  Fascia  praevertebralis 

72  Musculi  thoracis 

73  (M.  sternalis) 

74  M.  pectoralis  major 

75  Pars  clavicularis 

76  Pars  sternocostalis 

77  Pars  abdominalis 

78  M.  pectoralis  minor 

79  M.  subclavius 



1  M.  serratus  anterior 

2  Mm.  levatores  costarum 

3  Mm.  levatores        costarum 


4  „      levatores        costarum 


5  Mm.  intercostales  extern! 

6  „       intercostales  interni 

7  „      subcostales 

8  M.  transversus  thoracis 

9  Diaphragma 

10  Pars  lum'balis 

11  Crus  mediale 

12  Crus  intermedium 

13  Crus  laterale 

14  Pars  costalis 

15  Pars  sternalis 

16  Hiatus  aorticus 

17  Hiatus  oesophageus 

18  Centrum  tendineum 

19  Foramen  venae  cavae 

20  Arcus    lumbocostalis    medialis 


21  Arcus     lumbocostalis     lateralis 


22  Fascia  pectoralis 

23  Fascia  coracoclavicularis 

41  Lig.  inguinale  [Pouparti] 

42  Lig.  lacunare  [Gimbernati] 

43  Lig.  inguinale  reflexum   [Col- 


44  Annulus    inguinalis    subcuta- 


45  Crus  superius 

46  Crus  inferius 

47  Fibrae  intercrurales 

48  Trigonum  lumbale  [Petiti] 

49  Linea  semilunaris  [Spige] 

50  Fascia  transversalis 

51  Canalis  inguinalis 

52  Annulus  inguinalis  abdominalis 

53  Lig.     interfoveolare     [Hessel- 


54  Plica  epigastrica 

55  Fovea  inguinalis  lateralis 

56  Fovea  inguinalis  medialis 

57  Fovea  supravesicalis 

58  Musculi  coccygei 

59  M.  coccygeus 

60  M.  sacrococcygeus  anterior 

61  M.  sacrococcygeus  posterior 

24  Musculi  abdominis 

25  M.  rectus  abdominis 

2$  Falx  [aponeurotica]  inguinalis 

27  M.  pyramidalis 

28  „     obliquus    externus    abdom- 


29  „     obliquus    internus     abdom- 


30  „     cremaster 

31  „     transversus  abdominis 

32  „     quadratus  lumborum 

33  Annulus  umhilicalis 

34  Linea  alba 

35  Adminiculum  lineae  albae 
36  Inscriptiones  tendineae 
^^y  Lig.  suspensorium  penis  s.  cli- 


38  Lig.  fundiforme  penis 

39  Vagina  m.  recti  abdominis 

40  Linea  semicircularis  [Douglasi] 

62  Musculi  extremitatis 

63  M.  deltoideus 

64  M.  supraspinatus 

65  „     infraspinatus 

66  „     teres  minor 

67  „     teres  major 

68  „     subscapularis 

69  M.  biceps  brachii 

70  Caput  longum 

71  Vagina   mucosa   intertu- 


72  Caput  breve 

73  Lacertus  fibrosus 

74  M.  coracobrachialis 

75  „     brachialis 

'j6  M.  triceps  brachii 
yy  Caput  longum 

78  Caput  laterale 

79  Caput  mediale 



1  M.  anconaeus 

2  (iM.  epitrochleoanconaeus) 

3  M.  pronator  teres 

4  Caput  humerale 

5  Caput  ulnare 

6  M.  flexor  carpi  radialis 

7  „     palmaris  longus 

8  M.  flexor  carpi  ulnaris 

9  Caput  humerale 
lo  Caput  ulnare 
II  M.  flexor  digitorum  sublimis 

12  Caput  humerale 

13  Caput  radiale 

14  M.  flexor  digitorum  profundus 

15  „     flexor  pollicis  longus 

16  „     pronator  quadratus 

17  „     brachioradialis 

18  „     extensor  carpi  radialis  longus 

19  „     extensor  carpi  radialis  brevis 

20  M.  extensor     digitorum     com- 

21  Juncturae  tendinum 

22  M.  extensor   digiti    quinti   pro- 


23  „     extensor  carpi  ulnaris 

24  „     supinator 

25  „     abductor  pollicis  longus 

26  „     extensor  pollicis  brevis 

27  ,,     extensor  pollicis  longus 

28  „     extensor  indicis  proprius 

29  „     palmaris  brevis 

30  „     abductor  pollicis  brevis 

31  „     flexor  pollicis  brevis 

32  „     opponens  pollicis 

33  „     adductor  pollicis 

34  „     abductor  digiti  quinti 

35  „     flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 

36  „     opponens  digiti  quinti 

37  Mm.  lumbricales 

38  „      interossei  dorsales 

39  „      interossei  volares 

40  Fascia  axillaris 

41  Fascia  subscapularis 

42  Fascia  supraspinata 

43  Fascia  infraspinata 

44  Fascia  brachii 

45  Septum    intermusculare     [hu- 

meri] mediale 

46  Septum    intermusculare     [hu- 

meri] laterale 

47  Sulcus  bicipitalis  medialis 

48  Sulcus  bicipitalis  lateralis 

49  Fascia  antibraohii 

50  Fascia  dorsalis  manus 

51  Lig.  carpi  dorsale 

52  Aponeurosis  palmaris 

53  Fasciculi  transversi 

54  Lig.  carpi  transversum 

55  Lig.  carpi  volare 

56  Chiasma  tendinum 

57  Vinculum  tendinum 

58  Vaginae  mucosae 

59  Ligg.       vaginalia       digitorum 


60  Ligg.      annularia      digitorum 


61  Ligg.  cruciata  digitorum  manus 

62  Musculi  extremitatis 

63  M.  iliopsoas 

64  „     iliacus 

65  „    psoas  major 

66  „    psoas  minor 

6y   „    glutaeus  maximus 

68  „     glutaeus  medius 

69  „     glutaeus  minimus 

70  „     tensor  fasciae  latae 

71  ,,     piriformis 

72  „    obturator  internus 
72,    ,,     gemellus  superior 

74  „     gemellus  inferior 

75  „    quadratus  femoris 

76  „     sartorius 

77  M.  quadriceps  femOris 

78  M.  rectus  femoris 

79  „    vastus  lateralis 



1  M.  vastus  intermedius 

2  M.  vastus  medialis 

3  M.  articularis  genu 

4  „     pectineus 

5  „     adductor  longus 

6  „     gracilis 

7  „     adductor  brevis 

8  „     adductor  magnus 

9  „  adductor  minimus 
ID  „  obturator  externus 
II  M.  biceps  femoris 

12  Caput  longum 

13  Caput  breve 

14  M.  semitendinosus 

15  „     semimembranosus 

16  „    tibialis  anterior  • 

17  „     extensor  digitorum  longu 

18  „     peronaeus  tertius 

19  „     extensor  hallucis  longus 

20  „    peronaeus  longus 

21  „     peronaeus  brevis 

22  M.  triceps  surae 

23  M.  gastrocnemius 

24  Caput  laterale 

25  Caput  mediale 
26  M.  soleus 

27  Arcus  tendineus  m.  solei 

28  Tendo  calcaneus  [Achillis] 

29  iM.  plantaris 

30  „     popliteus 

31  „     tibialis  posterior 

32  „     flexor  digitorum  longus 

33  „     flexor  hallucis  longus 

34  „     extensor  hallucis  brevis 

35  „     extensor  digitorum  brevis 

36  „     abductor  hallucis 

37  „     flexor  hallucis  brevis 

38  M.  adductor  hallucis 

39  Caput  obliquum 

40  Caput  transversum 

41  M.  abductor  digiti  quinti 

42  iM.  flexor  digiti  quinti  brevis 

43  „     opponens  digiti  quinti 

44  M.  flexor  digitorum  brevis 

45  „     quadratus  plantae 

46  Mm.  lumbricales 

47  „      interossei  dorsales 

48  „       interossei  plantares 

49  Fascia  lata 

50  Tractus  iliotibialis  [Maissiati] 

51  Septum  intermusculare    [fem- 

oris] laterale 

52  Septum   intermusculare    [fem- 

oris] mediale 

53  Canalis  adductorius  [Hunteri] 

54  Hiatus     tendineus     [adducto- 


55  Fascia  iliaca 

56  Fascia  iliopectinea 

57  Lacuna  musculorum 

58  Lacuna  vasorum 

59  Trigonum  femorale  [Fossa 

Scarpae  major] 

60  Fossa  iliopectinea 

61  Fascia  pectinea 

62  Canalis  femoralis 

63  Annulus  femoralis 

64  Septum  femorale  [Clo- 


65  Fossa  ovalis 

66  Margo  falciformis 

67  Cornu  superius 

68  Cornu  inferius 
69  Fascia  cribrosa 

70  Fascia  cruris 

71  Septum    intermusculare    ante- 

rius  [fibulare] 

72  Septum  intermusculare  poste- 

rius  [fibulare] 

73  Lig.  transversum  cruris 

74  Lig.  laciniatum 

75  Lig.  cruciatum  cruris 

76  Retinaculum  mm.  peronaeorum 

"JJ  Retinaculum  mm.  peronaeorum 



1  Fascia  dorsalis  pedis 

2  Aponeurosis  plantaris 

3  Fasciculi    transversi 
neurosis  plantaris 


4  Vaginae  mucosae 

5  Ligg.  annularia 

6  Ligg.  vaginaKa 

7  Ligg.  cruciata 

8   Bursae  et  Vaginae  mucosae 

9  Bursa  mucosa  subcutanea 

10  Bursa  mucosa  submuscularis 

11  Bursa  mucosa  subfascialis 

12  Bursa  mucosa  subtendinea 

13  Vagina  mucosa  tendinis 

14  B.  musculi  trochlearis 

15  B.  m.  tensoris  veli  palatini 

16  B.  subcutanea  praementalis 

17  B.      subcutanea     prominentiae 


18  B.  m.  sternoihyoidei 

19  B.  m.  thyreohyoidei 

20  B.  subcutanea  sacralis 

21  B.  coccygea 

22  B.  subcutanea  acromialis 

23  B.  subacromialis 

24  B.  subdeltoidea 

25  B.  m.  coracobrachialis 

26  B.  m.  infraspinati 

27  B.  m.  subscapularis 

28  B.  m.  teretis  majoris 

29  B.  m.  latissimi  dorsi 

30  B.  subcutanea  olecrani 

31  B.  intratendinea  olecrani 

32  B.  subtendinea  olecrani 

33  B.  subcutanea  epicondyli    [hu- 

meri] lateralis 

34  B.    subcutanea   epicondyli  [hu- 

meri] medialis 

35  B.  bicipitoradialis 

36  B.  cubitalis  interossea 

37  Vagina  tendinum  mm.  abduc- 

tori?    longi     et     extensoris 
brevis  pollicis 

38  Vagina  tendinum  mm.  exten- 

sorum  carpi  radialium 

39  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris 

pollicis  longi 

40  Vagina  tendinum  mm.  exten- 

soris digitorum  communis  et 
extensoris  indicis 

41  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris 

digiti  minimi 

42  Vagina  tendinis  m.  extensoris 

carpi  ulnaris 

43  B.  m.  extensoris  carpi  radialis 


44  Bursae   subcutaneae   metacar- 

pophalangeae  dorsales 

45  Bursae  subcutaneae  digitorum 


46  B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  ulnaris 

47  B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  radialis 

48  Vagina   tendinum   mm.    flexo- 

rum  communium 

49  Vag.  tendinis  m.  flexoris  polli- 

cis longi 

50  Bursae  intermetacarpophalan- 


51  Vaginae  tendinum  digitales 

52  B.  trochanterica  subcutanea 

53  B.    trochanterica    m.    glutaei 


54  B.  troch.  m.  glutaei  medii  ante- 




1  B.  troch.  m.  glutaei  medii  pos- 


2  B.  troch.  m.  glutaei  minimi 

3  B.  m.  piriformis 

4  B.  m.  obturatorii  interni 

5  Bursae  glutaeofemorales 

6  B.  ischiadica  m.  glutaei  maximi 

7  B.  m.  recti  femoris 

8  B.  iliopectinea 

9  B.  iliaca  subtendinea 

10  B.  m.  pectinei 

11  B.  m.  bicipitis  femoris  superior 

praepatellaris  subcutanea 
praepatellaris  subfascialis 
praepatellaris  subtendinea 
infrapatellaris  subcutanea 
infrapatellaris  profunda 
subcutanea    tuberositatis 

m.  sartorii  propria 

,  anserina 

,  m.  bicipitis  femoris  inferior 

,  m.  poplitei 

,  bicipitogastrocnemialis 

.  m.  gastrocnemii  lateralis 



























25  B.  m.  gastrocnemii  medialis 

26  B.  m.  semimembranosi 

27  B.  subcutanea  malleoli  lateralis 

28  B.  subcutanea  malleoli  medialis 

29  Vag.  tendinis  m.  tibialis  ante- 


30  Vag.    tendinis    m.    extensoris 

hallucis  longi 

31  Vaginae    tendinum    m.    exten- 

soris digitorum  pedis  longi 
22  Vaginae  tendinum  m.  flexoris 
digitorum  pedis  longi 

33  Vag.  tendinis  m.  tibialis  pos- 


34  Vag.  tendinis  m.  flexoris  hallu- 

cis longi 

35  Vag.  tendinum  mm.  peronaeo- 

rum  communis 

36  Bursa  sinus  tarsi 

37  B.  subtendinea  m.  tibialis  an- 


38  B.  subtendinea  m.  tibialis  pos- 


39  B.  subcutanea  calcanea 

40  B.  tendinis  calcanei  [Achillis] 

41  Vag.  tendinis  m.  peronaei  longi 


42  Bursae    intermetatarsophalan- 


43  Bursae  mm.  lumbricalium  pedis 

44  Vaginae     tendinum     digitales 




1    Splanchnologia 

2  Tunica  albuginea 

3  Tunica  fibrosa 

4  Tunica  adventitia 

5  Tunica  mucosa 

6  Lamina  propria  mucosae 

7  Lamina    muscularis     mu- 


8  Tela  submucosa 

9  Plica  mucosa 
ID  Mucus 

11  Tunica  muscularis 

12  Tunica  serosa 

13  Tela  subserosa 

14  Plica  serosa 

15  Ligamentum  serosum 

16  Serum 

17  Epithelium 

18  Endothelium 

19  Organon  parenchymatosum 

20  Parenchyma 

21  Stroma 

22  Glandula 

23  Lobus 

24  Lobulus 

25  Glandula  mucosa 

26  Musculus  viscerum 

27  Apparatus  digestorius 

28  Cavum  oris 

29  Bucca 

30  Corpus  adiposum  buccae 

31  Vestibulum  oris 

32  Cavum  oris  proprium 

33  Rima  oris 

34  Labia  oris 

35  Labium  superius 

36  Labium  inferius 

37  Commissura  labiorum 

38  Angulus  oris 

39  Palatum 

40  Palatum  durum 

41  Palatum  molle 
42  Raphe  palati 

43  Tunica  mucosa  oris 

44  Frenulum  labii  superioris 

45  Frenulum  labii  inferioris 

46  Gingiva 

47  Caruncula  sublingualis 

48  Plica  sublingualis 

49  Plicae  palatinae  transversae 

50  Papilla  incisiva 



I  Glandulae   oris 

2  Gl.  labiales 

3  Gl.  .buccales 

4  Gl.  molares 

5  Gl.  palatinae 

6  Gl.  linguales 

7  Gl.    lingualis    anterior     [Blan- 

dini,  Nuhni] 

8  Gl.  sublingualis 

9  Ductus  sublingualis  major 

10  Ductus  sublinguales  minores 

11  Gl.  submaxillaris 

12  Ductus    submaxillaris     [Whar- 


13  Gl.  parotis 

14  Processus     retromandibu- 

15  Gl.  parotis  accessoria 

16  Ductus  parotideus   [Stendnis] 

17  Saliva 

18  Dentes 

19  Corona  dentis 

20  Tubercula  [coronae]  dentis 

21  Collum  dentis 

22  Radix  [Radices]  dentis 

23  Apex  radicis  dentis 

24  Facies  masticatoria 

25  Facies  labialis  [buccalis] 

26  Facies  lingualis 

27  Facies  contactus 

28  Facies  medialis   "Identium    indsi- 

,        -  .         ?Trorum  et  canin- 

29  Facies  lateralis  J  onim 

30  Facies  anterior    ^  dentlum  praem- 

31  Facies  posterior  JfiA^r  ^'  °"" 

32  Cavum  dentis 

33  Pulpa  dentis 

34  Papilla  dentis 

35  Canalis  radicis  dentis 

36  Foramen  apicis  dentis 

37  Substantia  eburnea 

38  Substantia  adamantina 

39  Substantia  ossea 

40  'Canaliculi  dentales 

41  Spatia  interglobularia 

42  Prismata  adamantina 

43  Cuticula  dentis 

44  Periosteum  alveolare 

45  Arcus  dentalis  superior 

46  Arcus  dentalis  inferior 

47  Dentes  incisivi 

48  Dentes  canini 

49  Dentes  praemolares 

50  Dentes  molares 

51  Dens  serotinus 

52  Dentes  permanentes 

53  Dentes  decidui 

54  Lingua 

55  D(>rsum  linguae 

56  Radix  linguae 

57  Corpus  linguae 

58  Facies  inferior  [linguae] 

59  Plica  fimbriata 

60  Margo  lateralis  [linguae] 

61  Apex  linguae 

62  Tunica  mucosa  linguae 

63  Frenulum  linguae 

64  Papillae  linguales 

65  Papillae  filiformes 

66  Papillae  conicae 

67  Papillae  fungiformes 

68  Papillae  lenticulares 

69  Papillae  vallatae 

70  Papillae  foliatae 

71  Sulcus  medianus  linguae 

72  Sulcus  terminalis 

73  Foramen  caecum  linguae 


74  (Ductus  lingualis) 

75  Ductus  thyreoglossus 

76  Tonsilla  lingualis 

yy  Folliculi  linguales 
78  Septum  linguae 



Musculi  linguae 
2  M.  genioglossus 


3  iM.  hyoglossus 

4  M.  chondroglossus 

5  M.  styloglossus 

6  M.  longitudinalis  superior 

7  M.  longitudinalis  inferior 

8  'M.  transversus  linguae 

9  M.  verticalis  linguae 

10  Fauces 

11  Isthmus  faucium 

12  Velum  palatinum 
13'  Uvula  [palatina] 
14  Arcus  palatini 

15  Arcus  glossopalatinus 

16  Arcus  pharyngopalatinus 

17  Plica  salpingopalatina 

18  Tonsilla  palatina 

19  Fossulae  tonsillares 

20  Sinus  tonsillaris 

21  Plica  triangularis 

22  Fossa  supratonsillaris 

23  Musculi  palati  et  faucium 

24  M.  levator  veli  palatini 

25  M.  tensor  veli  palatini 

26  M.  uvulae 

2y  M.  glossopalatinus 
28  M.  pharyngopalatinus 

29  Pharynx 

30  Cavum  pharyngis 

31  Fornix  pharyngis 

32  Pars  nasalis 

33  Pars  oralis 

34  Pars  laryngea 

35  Ostium  pharyngeum  tubae 

36  Labium  anterius 

37  Labium  posterius 

38  Torus  tubarius 

39  Plica  salpingopharyngea 

40  Recessus    pharyngeus    [Rosen- 


41  (Bursa  pharyngea) 

42  Recessus  piriformis 

43  M.  stylopharyngeus 

44  Fascia  pharyngobasilaris 

45  Tunica  mucosa 

46  GI.  pharyngeae 

47  Tonsilla  pharyngea 

48  Fossulae  tonsillares 

49  Tela  submucosa 

50  Tunica  muscularis  pharyngis 

51  Raphe  pharyngis 

52  Raphe  pterygomandibularis 

53  M.  constrictor  pharyngis  supe- 


54  M.  pterygopharyngeus 

55  M.  buccopharyngeus 

56  M.  mylopharyngeus 

57  M.  glossopharyngeus 

58  M.  salpingopharyngeus 

59  'M.  constrictor  pharyngis  me- 

6p  M.  chondropharyngeus 
61  M.  ceratopharyngeus 
62  M.  constrictor  pharyngis  infe- 

63  M.  thyreopharyngeus 

64  M.  cricopharyngeus 

65  Tubus  digestorius 

66  Oesophagus 

6y  Pars  cervicalis 

68  Pars  thoracalis 

69  Pars  abdominalis 

70  Tunica  adventitia 

71  Tunica  muscularis 

72  M.  bronohooesophageus 

73  M.  pleurooesophageus 

74  Tela  submucosa 

75  Tunica  mucosa 

76  Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
yy  Gl.  oesophageae 

78  Ventriculus 


79  Paries  anterior 

80  Paries  posterior 



1  Curvatura  ventriculi  major 

2  Curvatura  ventriculi  minor 

3  Cardia 

4  Fundus  ventriculi 

5  Corpus  ventriculi 

6  Pylorus 

7  Pars  cardiaca 

8  Pars  pylorica 

9  (Antrum  cardiacum) 

10  Antrum  pyloricum 

11  Tunica  serosa 

12  Tunica  muscularis 

13  Stratum  longitudinale 

14  Ligg.  pylori 

15  Stratum  circular e 

16  M.  sphincter  pylori 

17  Fibrae  obliquae 

18  Valvula  pylori 

19  Tela  submucosa 

20  Tunica  mucosa 

21  Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 
23  Areae  gastricae 

23  Plicae  villosae 

24  Foveolae  gastricae 

25  Glandulae  gastricae  [propriae] 

26  Glandulae  pyloricae 

27  Noduli  lymphatici  gastrici 

28  Succus  gastricus 

29  Intestinum  tenue 

30  Tunica  serosa 

31  Tunica  muscularis 

32  Stratum  longitudinale 

33  Stratum  circulare 

34  Tela  submucosa 

35  Tunica  mucosa 

36  Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 

37  Plicae   circulares    [Kerkringi] 

38  Villi  intestinales 

39  Gl.  intestinales  [Lieberkuehni] 

40  Noduli  lymphatici  solitarii 

41  Noduli     lymphatici     aggregati 


42  Ohymus 

43  Chylus 

44  Succus  entericus 

45  Duodenum 

46  Pars  superior 

47  Pars  descendens 

48  Pars  inferior 

49  Pars     horizontalis      [in- 

50  Pars  ascendens 

51  Flexura  duodeni  superior 

52  Flexura  duodeni  inferior 

53  Flexura  duodenojejunalis 

54  M.  suspensorius  duodeni 

55  Plica  longitudinalis  duodeni 

56  Papilla  duodeni  [Santorini] 

57  Gl.  duodenales  [Brunneri] 

58  Intestinum    tenue    me- 


59  Intestinum  jejunum 

60  Intestinum  ileum 

61  Intestinum  crassum 

62  Intestinum     caecum 

63  Valvula  coli 

64  Labium  superius 

65  Labium  inferius 

66  Frenula  valvulae  coli 

67  Processus    vermiformis 

68  (Valvula      processus      vermi- 


69  Noduli     aggregati     processus 


70  Colon 

71  Colon  ascendens 

72  Flexura  coli  dextra 

73  Colon  transversum 

74  Flexura  coli  sinistra 

75  Colon  descendens 

76  Colon  sigmoideum 

yy  Plicae  semilunares  coli 

78  Haustra  coli 

79  Tunica  serosa 

80  Appendices  epiploicae 

81  Tunica  muscularis 

82  Taeniae  coli 



1  Taenia  mesocolica 

2  Taenia  omentalis 

3  Taenia  libera 

4  Tela  submucosa 

5  Tunica  mucosa 

6  Lam.  muscularis  mucosae 

7  Gl.  intestinales   [Lieberkuehni] 

8  Noduli  lymphatici  solitarii 

9  Intestinum  rectum 
ID  Flexura  sacralis 

11  Flexura  perinealis 

12  Ampulla  recti 

13  Tunica  muscularis 

14  M.  sphincter  ani  internus 

15  M.  rectococcygeus 

16  Tela  submucosa 

17  Tunica  mucosa 

18  Lam.  m.  mucosae 

19  Gl.    intestinales    [Lieber- 


20  Noduli  lymphatici 

21  Plicae  transversales  recti 

22  Pars   analis   recti 

23  Columnae  rectales  [Morgagnii] 

24  Sinus  rectales 

25  Annulus   haemorrhoidalis 

26  Pancreas 

zj  Caput  pancreatis 

28  Processus  uncinatus   [Pancreas 


29  Incisura  pancreatis 

30  Corpus  pancreatis 

31  Facies  anterior 

32  Facies  posterior 

33  Facies  inferior 

34  Margo  superior 

35  Margo  anterior 

36  iMargo  posterior 

37  Tuber  omentale 

38  Cauda  pancreatis 

39  Ductus      pancreaticus       [Wir- 


40  Ductus    pancreaticus    accesso- 

rius  [Santorini] 

41  (Pancreas  accessorium) 

42  Su'ccus  pancreaticus 

43  Hepar 

44  Facies  superior 

45  Facies  posterior 

46  Facies  inferior 

47  Margo  anterior 

48  Incisura  umbilicalis 

49  Fossae  sagittales  dextrae 

50  Fossa  vesicae  felleae 

51  Fossa  venae  cavae 
52  Fossa  sagittalis  sinistra 

53  Fossa  venae  umbilicalis 

54  Fossa  ductus  venosi 

55  Tunica  serosa 

56  Lig.  teres  hepatis 

57  Lig.  venosum  [Arantii] 

58  Porta  hepatis 

59  Lobus  hepatis  dexter 

60  Lobus  quadratus 

61  Lobus  caudatus  [Spigeli] 

62  Processus  papillaris 

63  Processus  caudatus 
64  Lobus  hepatis  sinister 

65"  (Appendix  fibrosus  hepatis) 

66  Impressio  cardiaca 

67  Tuber  omentale 

68  Impressio  oesophagea 

69  Impressio  gastrica 

70  Impressio  duodenalis 

71  Impressio  colica 

72  Impressio  renalis 

73  Impressio  suprarenalis 

74  Lobuli  hepatis 

75  Capsula  fibrosa  [Glissoni] 

76  Rami  arteriosi  interlobulares 
Tj  Venae  interlobulares 

78  Venae  centrales 



1  Ductus  biliferi 

2  Ductus  interlobulares 

3  Ductus  hepaticus 

4  Vasa  aberrantia  hepatis 

5  Pel  [Bills] 

6  Vesica    fellea 

7  Fundus  vesicae  felleae 

8  Corpus  vesicae  felleae 

9  'Collum  vesicae  felleae 

10  Ductus  cysticus 

11  Tunica  serosa  vesicae  felleae 

12  Tunica  muscularis   vesicae   fel- 


13  Tunica  mucosa  vesicae  felleae 

14  Plicae  tun.  mucosae  v.  fel- 

15  Valvula  spiralis  [Heisteri] 

16  Ductus  choledochus 

17  Gl.  mucosae  biliosae 

18  Lien 

19  Facies  diaphragmatica 

20  Facies  renalis 

21  Facies  gastrica 

22  Extremitas  superior 

23  Extremitas  inferior 

24  Margo  posterior 

25  Margo  anterior 

26  Hilus  lienis 

27  Tunica  serosa 

28  Tunica  albuginea 

29  Trabeculae  lienis 

30  Pulpa  lienis 

31  Rami    lienales    [arteriae    lien- 

32  Penicilli 

33  Noduli      lymphatici      lienales 


34  (Lien  accessorius) 

35  Apparatus  respiratorius 

36  Cavum  nasi 

^7  Nares 

38  Choanae 

39  Septum  nasi 

40  Septum  cartilagineum 

41  Septum  membranaceum 

42  Vestibulum  nasi 

43  Limen  nasi 

44  Sulcus  olfactorius 

45  (Concha  nasalis  suprema  [San- 


46  Concha  nasalis  superior 

47  Concha  nasalis  media 

48  Concha  nasalis  inferior 

49  Membrana  mucosa  nasi 

50  Plexus  cavernosi  concharum 

51  Agger  nasi 

52  Recessus  sphenoethmoidalis 

53  Meatus  nasi     • 

54  Meatus  nasi  superior 

55  Meatus  nasi  medius 

56  Atrium  meatus  medii 

57  Meatus  nasi  inferior 

58  Meatus  nasi  communis 

59  Meatus   nasopharyngeus 

60  Regio  respiratoria  '' 

61  Regio  olfactoria 

62  Gl.  olfactoriae 

63  Sinus  paranasales 

64  Sinus   maxillaris    [High- 


65  Sinus  sphenoidalis 

66  Sinus  frontalis 

67  Cellulae  ethmoidales 

68  Bulla  ethmoidalis 

69  Infundibulum  ethmoidale 

70  Hiatus  semilunaris 
71  Gl.  nasales 

72  Nasus  extemus 

73  Basis  nasi 

74  Radix  nasi 


1  Dorsum  nasi 

2  Margo  nasi 

3  Apex  nasi 

4  Ala  nasi 

5  Septum  mobile  nasi 

6  Cartilagines      nasi 

7  Cartilago  septi  nasi 

8  Processus         sphenoidalis 
septi   cartilaginei 
9  Cartilago  nasi  lateralis 
lo  Cartilago  alaris  major 

11  Crus  mediale 

12  Crus  laterale 

13  Cartilagines  alares  minores 

14  Cartilagines  sesamoideae  nasi 

15  Organon  vomeronasale   [Jacob- 


16  Cartilago     vomeronasalis     [Ja- 


17  (Ductus  incisivus) 

18  Larynx 

19  Prominentia  laryngea 

20  Cartilagines    laryngis 

21  Cartilago  thyreoidea 

22  Lamina    [dextra   et    sinis- 


23  Incisura     thyreoidea     su- 


24  Incisura     thyreoidea     in- 


25  Tuberculum    thyreoideum 


26  Tuberculum    thyreoideum 

2y  (Linea  obliqua) 

28  Cornu  superius 

29  Cornu  inferius 

30  (Foramen  thyreoideum) 

31  Lig.  hyothyreoideum  laterale 

32  Cartilago  triticea 

33  Lig.  hyothyreoideum  medium 

34  Membrana  hyothyreoidea 

35  Cartilago  cricoidea 

36  Arcus    [cartilaginis    crico- 

■^j  Lamina  [cartilaginis  crico- 


38  Facies    articularis    arytae- 


39  Facies   articularis   thyreo- 


40  Articulatio  cricothyreoidea 

41  Capsula    articularis    cricothy- 


42  Ligg.  ceratocricoidea  lateralia 

43  Lig.  ceratocricoideum  anterius 

44  Ligg.     ceratocricoidea     poste- 


45  Lig.     cricothyreoideum     [me- 


46  Lig.  cricotracheale 

47  Cartilago  arytaenoidea 

48  Facies  articularis 

49  Basis     [cartilaginis    ary- 


50  Crista  arcuata 

51  Colliculus 

52  Fovea  oblonga 

53  Fovea  triangularis 

54  Apex     [cartilaginis    ary- 


55  Processus  vocalis 

56  Processus  muscularis 

57  Cartilago     corniculata      [San- 


58  Synchondrosis  arycorniculata 

59  Articulatio  cricoarytaenoidea 

60  Lig.  cricopharyngeum 

61  Lig.  corniculopharyngeum 
(>2  Lig.  ventriculare 

63  Lig.  vocale 

64  (Cartilago  sesamoidea) 

65  Capsula    articularis    cricoary- 


66  Lig.   cricoarytaenoideum   pos- 


67  Epiglottis 

68  Petiolus  epiglottidis 

69  Tuberculum  epiglotticum 

70  Cartilago  epiglottica 

71  Lig.  thyreoepiglotticum 

72  Lig.  hyoepiglotticum 

73  Cartilago   cuneiformis    [Wris- 


74  Tuberculum  cuneiforme  [Wris- 


75  Tuberculum  corniculatum 

76  Musculi  laryngis 
"]•]  M.  aryepiglotticus 
78  M.  cricothyreoideus 

79  Pars  recta 



I  Pars  obliqua 

2  M.  cricoarytaenoideus  posterior 

3  (M.  ceratocricoideus) 

4  M.  cricoarytaenoideus  lateralis 

5  M.  ventricularis 

6  M.  vocalis 

7  M.  thyreoepiglotticus 

8  M.  thyreoarytaenoideus        [ex- 


9  M.  arytaenoideus  obliquus 
lo  M.  arytaenoideus  transversus 

II  Cavum  laryngis 

12  Vallecula  epiglottica 

13  Aditus  laryngis 

14  Vestibulum  laryngis 

15  Rima  vestibuli 

16  Labium  vocale 

17  Glottis 

18  Rima  glottidis 

19  Pars  intermembranacea 

20  Pars  intercartilaginea 

21  Ventriculus      laryngis       [Mor- 
22  Appendix  ventriculi  laryn- 

23  Tunica  mucosa  laryngis 

24  Membrana  elastica  laryngis 

25  Conus  elasticus 
26  Plica  glossoepiglottica  mediana 
2"]  Plica  glossoepiglottica  lateralis 

28  Plica  aryepiglottica 

29  Plica  nervi  laryngei 

30  Plica  ventricularis 

31  Plica  vocalis 

32  Macula  flava 

33  Aditus  glottidis  inferior 

34  Aditus  glottidis  superior 

35  Incisura   interarytaenoidea 

36  Gl.  laryngeae 

37  Gl.  laryngeae  anteriores 

38  Gl.  laryngeae  mediae 

39  Gl.  laryngeae  posteriores 
40  Noduli  lymphatici  laryngei 

41  Trachea  et  Bronchi 

42  Cartilagines  tracheales 

43  Ligg.  annularia  [trachealia] 

44  Paries  membranacea 

45  Gl.  tracheales 

46  Bifurcatio  tracheae 

47  Bronchus  [dexter  et  sinister] 

48  Rami  bronchiales 

49  Ramus  bronchialis  epar- 


50  Rami  bronchiales  hypar- 


51  Tunica  muscularis 

52  Tela  submucosa 

53  Tunica  mucosa 

54  Gl.  tracheales 

55  Gl.  bronchiales 

N  56  Pulmo 

57  Basis  pulmonis 

58  Apex  pulmonis 

59  Sulcus  subclavius 

60  Facies  costalis 

61  Facies  mediastinalis 

62  Facies  diaphragmatica 

63  Margo  anterior 

64  Margo  inferior 

65  Hilus  pulmonis 

66  Radix  pulmonis 

67  Incisura  cardiaca 

68  Lobus  superior 

69  Lobus  medius 

70  Lobus  inferior 

71  Incisura  interlobaris 

72  Lobuli  pulmonum 

73  Rami  bronchiales 

74  Bronchioli 

75  Bronchioli  respiratorii 

76  Ductuli  alveolares 
J7  Alveoli  pulmonum 

78  Lymphoglandulae  bronchiales 

79  Noduli  lymphatici  bronchiales 

80  Lymphoglandulae  pulmonales 



1  Cavum  thoracis 

2  Fascia  endothoracica 

3  Cavum     pleurae 

4  Pleura 

5  Cupula  pleurae 

6  Pleura  pulmonalis 

7  Plettra  parietalis 

8  Pleura  mediastinalis 

9  Laminae       mediasti- 

lo  Pleura  pericardiaca 

11  Pleura  costalis 

12  Pleura  diaphragmatica 
13  Sinus  pleurae 

14  Sinus  phrenicocostalis 

15  Sinus  costomediastinalis 

16  Lig.  pulmonale 

17  Plicae  adiposae 

18  Villi  pleurales 

19  Septum  mediastinale 

20  Cavum  mediastinale  ante- 


21  Cavum  mediastinale  pos- 


22  Gl.  thyreoidea 

23  Isthmus  gl.  thyreoideae 

24  (Lobus  pyramidalis) 

25  Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 

26  Lobuli  gl.  thyreoideae 

27  Stroma, gl.  thyreoideae 

28  (Gl.  thyreoideae  accessoriae) 

29  (Gl.  thyreoidea  accessoria 


30  Glomus  caroticum 

31  Thymus 

32  Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 

33  Tractus  centralis 

34  Lobuli  thymi 

35  Apparatus  urogenitalis 

36  Organa  uropoetica 

37  Ren 

38  Margo  lateralis 

39  Margo  medialis 

40  Hilus  renalis 

41  Sinus  renalis 

42  Facies  anterior 

43  Facies  posterior 

44  Extremitas  superior 

45  Extremitas  inferior 

46  (Impressio  muscularis) 

47  (Impressio  hepatica) 

48  (Impressio  gastrica) 

49  Capsula  adiposa 

50  Tunica  fibrosa 

51  Tunica  muscularis 

52  Tubuli   renales 

53  Tubuli  renales  contorti 

54  Tubuli  renales  recti 

55  Substantia  corticalis 

56  Substantia  medullaris 

57  Lobi  renales 

58  Pyramides  renales  [Malpighii] 

59  Basis  pyramidis 

60  Papillae  renales 

61  Area  cribrosa 

62  Foramina  papillaria 

63  Columnae  renales  [Bertini] 

64  Lobuli  corticales 

65  Pars  radiata    [Processus 

^  Pars    convoluta 
dy  iCorpuscula  renis  [Malpighii] 
68  Glomeruli 

69  Capsula  glomeruli 

70  Pelvis    renalis 

71  Calyces  renales 



1  Calyces   renales   majores 

2  Calyces  renales  minores 
3  Gl.  pelvis  renalis 

4  Arteriae  renis 

Aa.  interlabares  renis 

6  Arteriae  arciformes 

7  Arteriae  interlobulares 

8  Vas  afferens 

9  Vas  efferens 

10  Rami  capsulares 

11  Arteriolae  rectae 

12  Aa.  nutriciae  pelvis  renalis 

38  Stratum  medium 

39  Stratum  internum 

40  M.  pubovesicalis 

41  M.  rectovesicalis 

42  Tela  submucosa 

43  Tunica  mucosa 

44  Gl.  vesicales 

45  Noduli  lymphatici  vesicales 

46  Trigonum  vesicae  [Lieutaudi] 

47  Uvula  vesicae 

48  Plica  ureterica 

49  Orificium  ureteris 

50  Orificium  urethrae  internum 

51  Annulus  urethralis 

13  Venae  renis 

14  Vv.  interlobares 

15  Venae  arciformes 

16  Venae  interlobulares 

17  Venulae  rectae 

18  Venae  stellatae 

19  Ureter 

20  Pars  abdominalis 

21  Pars  pelvina 

22  Tunica  adventitia 

23  Tunica  muscularis 

24  Stratum  externum 

25  Stratum  medium 

26  Stratum  internum 

27  Tunica  mucosa 

28  Gl.  mucosae  ureteris 

52  Glandula  supra- 

53  Substantia  corticalis 

54  Substantia  medullaris 

55  Hilus  gl.  suprarenalis 

56  Facies  anterior 

57  Facies  posterior 

58  Basis  gl.  suprarenalis 

59  Apex    suprarenalis    [gl.    dex- 


60  Margo  superior 

61  Margo  medialis 

62  Vena  centralis 

63  (Gl.  suprarenales  accessoriae) 

64  Organa  genitalia 

65  Organa  genitalia 


29  Vesica  urinaria 

30  Vertex  vesicae 

31  Corpus  vesicae 

32  Fundus  vesicae 

^^  Lig.  umbilicale  medium 

34  Urachus 

35  Tunica  serosa 

36  Tunica  muscularis 

^y  Stratum  externum 

66  Testis 

6y  Extremitas  superior 

68  Extremitas  inferior 

69  Facies  lateralis 

70  Facies  medialis 

71  Margo  anterior 

72  Margo  posterior 

73  Tunica  albuginea 

74  Mediastinum    testis 


75  Septula  testis 




1  Lobuli  testis 

2  Parenchyma  testis 

3  Tubuli  seminiferi    contorti 

4  Tubuli  seminiferi  recti 

5  Tunica  propria 

6  Rete  testis   [Halleri] 

7  Ductuli  efferentes  testis 

8  Sperma  [Semen] 

9  Epididymis 

10  Caput  epididymidis 

11  Corpus  epididymidis 

12  Cauda  epididymidis 

13  Lobuli  epididymidis 

14  Ductus  epididymidis 

15  Ductuli  aberrantes 

16  (Ductulus  aberrans  superior) 

17  Appendices  testis 

18  Appendix      testis      [Mor- 


19  (Appendix  epididymis) 

20  Paradidymis 

21  Ductus     deferens 

22  Ampulla  ductus  deferentis 

23  Diverticula  ampullae 

24  Tunica  adventitia 

25  Tunica   muscularis 

26  Stratum  externum 

27  Stratum  medium 

28  Stratum  internum 
29  Tunica  mucosa 

30  Ductus  ejaculatorius 

31  Vesicula  seminalis 

32  Corpus  vesiculae  seminalis 

33  Tunica  adventitia 

34  Tunica  muscularis 

35  Tunica  mucosa 

36  Ductus  excretorius 

37  Funiculus  spermaticus  et  tunicae 
testis  et  funiculi  spermatid 

38  (Rudimentum    processus    vagi- 


39  Tunica  vaginalis  propria  testis 

40  Lamina  parietalis 

41  Lamina  visceralis 

42  Lig.  epididymidis  superius 

43  Lig.  epididymidis  inferius 

44  Sinus  epididymidis 

45  Tunica     vaginalis     communis 

[testis  et  funiculi  spermatici] 

46  M.  cremaster 

47  Fascia  cremasterica  [Cooperi] 

48  Descensus  testis 

49  Gubernaculum  testis  [Hunteri] 

50  Prostata 

51  Basis  prostatae 

52  Apex  prostatae 

53  Facies  anterior 

54  Facies  posterior 

55  Lobus  [dexter  et  sinister] 

56  Isthmus  prostatae 

57  (Lobus  medius) 

58  Corpus  glandulare 

59  Ductus  prostatici 

60  Succus  prostaticus 

61  M.  prostaticus 

62  Glandula  bulbourethralis 

63  Corpus  gl.  bulbourethralis 

64  Ductus  excretorius 

65  Partes  genitales 

66  Penis 

67  Radix  penis 

68  Corpus  penis 

69  Crus  penis 

70  Dorsum  penis 

71  Facies  urethralis 

72  Glans  penis 

73  Corona  glandis 

74  Septum  glandis 

75  Collum  glandis 



1  Praeputium 

2  Frenulum  praeputii 

3  Raphe  peniy 

4  Corpus  cavernosum  penis 

5  Corpus  cavernosum  urethrae 

6  Bulbus  urethrae 

7  Hemisphaeria     bulbi     ure- 


8  Septum  bulbi  urethrae 

9  Tunica      albuginea      corporum 

10  Septum  penis 

11  Trabeculae    corporum    caverno- 


12  Cavernae     corporum     caverno- 


13  Arteriae  helicinae 

14  Venae  cavernosae 

15  Lig.  suspensorium  penis 

16  Fascia  penis 

17  Gl.  praeputiales 

18  Smegma  praeputii 

19  Urethra  virilis 

20  Pars     prostatica 

21  Crista  urethralis 

22  Colliculus  seminalis 

23  Utriculus  prostaticus 

24  Pars  membranacea 

25  Pars  cavernosa 

26  Fossa  navicularis  urethrae 


27  (Valvula  fossae  navicularis) 

28  Orificium  urethrae  externum 

29  Lacunae  urethrales 


30  Gl.  urethrales  [Littrei] 

31  Scrotum 

32  Raphe  scroti 

33  Septum  scroti 

34  Tunica  dartos 

35  Organa  genitalia  muliebria 
36  Ovarium 

37  Hilus  ovarii 

38  Facies  niedialis 

39  Facies  lateralis 

40  Margo  liber 

41  Margo  mesovaricus 

42  Extremitas  tubaria 

43  Extremitas  uterina 

44  Stroma  ovarii 

45  Folliculi  oophori  primarii 

46  Folliculi  oophori  vesiculosi 


47  Theca  folliculi 

48  Tunica  externa 
^■g  Tunica  interna 

50  Liquor  folliculi 

51  Stratum  granulosum 

52  Cumulus  oophorus 

53  Ovulum 

54  Corpus  luteum 

55  Corpus  albicans 

56  Lig.  ovarii  proprium 

57  Tuba  uterina  [Falloppii] 

58  Ostium  abdominale  tubae  ute- 


59  Infundibulum  tubae  uterinae 

60  Fimbriae  tubae 

61  Fimbria  ovarica 

62  Ampulla  tubae  uterinae 

63  Isthmus  tubae  uterinae 

64  Pars  uterina 

65  Ostium  uterinum  tubae 

66  Tunica  serosa 

67  Tunica  adventitia 

68  Tunica  muscularis 

69  Stratum  longitudinale 

70  Stratum  circulare 

71  Tela  submucosa 

72  Tunica  mucosa 
^2  Plicae  tubariae 

74  Plicae  ampullares 

75  Plicae  isthmicae 

76  Uterus 

yy  Corpus  uteri     ' 



'  I  Fundus  uteri 

2  Margo  lateralis 

3  Facies  vesicalis 

4  Facies  intestinalis 

5  Cavum  uteri 

6  Orificium  internum  uteri 

7  Cervix  [uteri] 

8  Portio  supravaginalis  [cervicis]' 

9  Portio  vaginalis  [cervicis] 
lo  Orificium  externum  uteri 

11  Labium  anterius 

12  Labium  posterius 

13  Canalis  cervicis  uteri 

14  Plicae  palmatae 

15  Gl.  cervicales  [uteri] 

16  Parametrium 

17  Tunica  serosa  [Perimetrium] 

18  Tunica  muscularis 

19  Tunica  muscularis  cervicis 

20  Tunica  mucosa 

21  Gl.  uterinae 

22  M.  rectouterinus 

23  Lig.  teres  uteri 

24  (Processus      vaginalis      perito- 


25  Vagina 

26  Fornix  vaginae 
2"^  Paries  anterior 

28  Paries  posterior 

29  Hymen   [femininus] 

30  Carunculae  hymenales 

31  Tunica  muscularis 

32  Tunica  mucosa 

33  Noduli  lymphatici  vaginales 

34  Rugae  vaginales 

35  Columnae  rugarum 

36  Columna   rugarum   poste- 


37  Columna    rugarum    ante- 


38  Carina      urethralis      [va- 


39  Epoophoron 

40  Ductus  epoophori  longitudinalis 

41  Ductuli  transversi 
42  Appendices    vesiculosi    [Mor- 

43  Paroophoron 

44  Partes  genitales 

45  Pudendum  muliebre 

46  Labium  majus  pudendi 

47  Commissura  labiorum  anterior 

48  Commissura    laibiorum    poste- 


49  Frenulum  labiorum  pudendi 

50  Rima  pudendi 

51  Fossa     navicularis     [vestibuli 


52  Labium  minus  pudendi 

53  Vestibulum  vaginae 

54  Bulbus  vestibuli 

55  Gl.  sebaceae 

56  Gl.  vestibulares  minores 

57  Orificium  vaginae 

58  Gl.  vestibularis  major 

59  Clitoris 

60  Crus  clitoridis 

61  Conpus  clitoridis 

62  Glans  clitoridis 

63  Frenulum  clitoridis 

64  Praeputitum  clitoridis 

65  Smegma  clitoridis 
66  Corpus  cavernosum  clitoridis 
&j  Septum     corporum     caverno- 


68  Fascia  tlitoridis 

69  Lig.  suspensorium  clitoridis 

70  Urethra  muliebris 

71  Orificium  urethrae  externum 

72  Corpus  spongiosum  urethrae 

73  Tunica  muscularis 

74  Stratum  circulare 

75  Stratum  longitudinale 
76  Tunica  submucosa 

"JJ  Tunica  m-ucosa 



I  Gl.  urethrales 

2  Crista  urethralis 

3  (Ductus  paraurethrales) 
4Termini     ontogenetici 
5  Membranae  deciduae 

6  Decidua  vera 

7  Decidua  capsularis 

8  Decidiia  basalts 
9  Placenta 

10  Placenta  uterina 

II  Placenta  foetalis 

12  Funiculus  umbilicalis 

13  Corpus  Wolffi 

14  Ductus  Wolffi 

15  Ductus  Muelleri 

16  Sinus  urogenitalis 

17  Perineum 

i§  Raphe  perinei 

19  Musculi     perinei 

20  Diaphragma     pelvis 

21  M.  levator  ani 

22  Arcus  tendineus  m.  leva- 
toris  ani 

23  M.  coccygeus  [S.  47] 

24  M.  sphincter  ani  externus 

25  Lig.  anococcygeum 
26  Fascia  pelvis 

27  Fascia  endopelvina 

28  Fascia  diaphragmatis  pel- 

vis superior 

29  Arcus     tendineus     fasciae 


30  Lig.  puboprostaticum  [pu- 

bovesicale]  medium 

31  Lig.  puboprostaticum  [pu- 

bovesicale]   laterale 

32  Fascia  diaphragmatis  pelvis  in- 


33  Diaphragma       urogeni- 


34  iM.     transversus     perinei    pro- 


35  M.     sphincter    urethrae    mem- 


2,6  Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogeni- 
talis superior 

^7  Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogeni- 
talis Inferior 

38  Lig.  transversum  pelvis 

39  Fascia  prostatae 

40  Fascia  obturatoria 

41  Fossa  ischiorectalis 

42  M.  transversus  perinei  super- 


43  M.  ischiocavernosus 

44  M.  bulbocavernosus 

45  Fascia  superficialis  perinei 

46  Peritonaeum 

47  Tunica  serosa 

48  Tela  subserosa 

49  Peritonaeum  parietale 

50  Peritonaeum  viscerale 

51  Cavum  peritonaei 

52  Mesenterium  commune 

53  Mesenterium 

54  Radix  mesenterii 

55  Lamina    mesenterii    pro- 

56  Mesocolon 

57  Mesocolon  transversum 

58  Mesocolon  ascendens 

59  Mesocolon  descendens 

60  Mesocolon  sigmoideum 

61  Mesorectum 

62  Mesenteriolum  processus  ver- 


63  Mesogastrium 

64  Omentum  minus 

65  Lig.  hepatogastricum 

66  Lig.  hepatoduodenale 

67  (Lig.  hepatocolicum) 

68  Lig.  gastrolienale 

69  Lig.  gastrocolicum 

70  Omentum  majus 

71  Bursa  omentalis 

72  Vestibulum  bursae  omen- 


73  Recessus  superior  omen- 


74  Recessus   inferior   omen- 


75  Recessus  lienalis 

yS  Plica  gastropancreatica 
yy  Foramen  epiploicum 



1  Lig.  pihrenicocolicum 

2  Lig.  phrenicolienale 

3  Lig.  falciforme  hepatis 

4  Lig.  coronarium  hepatis 

5  Lig.  triangulare   dextrum 

6  Lig.  triangulare  sinistrum 

7  Lig.  hepatorenale 

8  (Lig.  duodenorenale) 

9  Recessus  duodenojejunalis 

10  Plica  duodenojejunalis 

11  (Plica  duodenomesocolica) 

12  Recessus  intersigmoideus 

13  Recessus  ileocaecalis  superior 

14  Recessus  ileocaecalis  inferior 

15  Plica  ileocaecalis 

16  Fossa  caecalis 

17  Recessus  retrocaecalis 

18  Plica  caecalis 

19  Recessus  paracolici 

20  (Fossa  iliacosubfascialis) 

21  (Recessus  phrenicohepatici) 

22  Plica  urabilicalis  media 

23  Plica  umbilicalis  lateralis 

24  Plica  epigastrica 

25  Plica  pubovesicalis 

26  Plica  vesicalis  transversa 
2y  Mesorchium 

28  Processus  vaginalis  peritonaei 

29  Lig.  latum  uteri 

30  Mesometrium 

31  Mesosalpinx 

32  Mesovarium 

33  Bursa  ovarica 

34  Lig.  suspensorium  ovarii 

35  Plica  rectouterina  [Douglasi] 

36  Excavatio  rectouterina  [Cavum 


37  Excavatio  vesicouterina 

38  Excavatio  rectovesicalis 

39  Spatium  retroperitonaeale 



1    Angiologia 

2  Vas  collaterale 

3  Vas  anastomoticum 

4  Ramus  communicans 

5  Plexus  vasculosus 

6  Rete  vasculosum 

7  Rete  mirabile 

8  Arteria 

9  Arteriola 

10  Vena 

11  Vena  cutanea 

12  Vena  comitans 

13  Venula 

14  Plexus  venosus 

15  Rete  venosum 

16  Sinus   [venosus] 

17  Emissarium 

18  Corpus  cavernosum 

19  Vas  capillare 

20  Vas  lymp'haticum 

21  Plexus  lymphaticus 

22  Lymphoglandula 

23  Nodulus  lymphaticus 

24  Cisterna 

25  Tunica  externa  [adventicia] 

26  Tunica  media 
2^  Tunica  intima 

28  Vasa  vasorum 

29  Vagina  vasorum 

30  Sanguis, 

31  Lympha 

32  Cor 

33  Basis   cordis 

34  Facies  sternocostalis 

35  Facies  diaphragmatica 

36  Apex  cordis 

■^"^  Incisura  [apicis]  cordis 

38  Sulcus  longitudinalis  anterior 

39  Sulcus  longitudinalis  posterior 

40  Sulcus  coronarius 

41  Pericardium 

42  Liquor  pericardii 

43  Ligg.   sternopericardiaca 

44  Sinus   transversus   pericardii 

45  Epicardium 

46  Myocardium 

47  Endocardium 

48  Ventriculus   cordis 

49  'Septum  ventriculorum 

50  Septum    musculare    ven- 


51  Septum     membranaceum 


52  Atrium  cordis 

53  Auricula  cordis 

54  Septum  atriorum 

55  Pars  membranacea  septi 

56  Ostium  venosum 

57  Ostium  arteriosum 

58  Trabeculae  carneae 

59  Vortex  cordis 

60  Mm.  papillares 

61  Chordae  tendineae 

62  Trigona  fibrosa 
•63  Annuli  fibrosi 



I  Atrium  dextrum 

2  Mm.  pectinati 

3  Sulcus  terminalis  atrii  dextri 

4  Crista  terminalis 

5  Sinus   venarum    [cavarum] 

6  Limbus    fossae    ovalis    [Vieus- 


7  Auricula   dextra 

8  Tuberculum  intervenosum 


9  Valvula    venae    cavae    inferioris 


10  Fossa  ovalis 

11  Valvula    sinus   coronarii    [The- 


12  Foramina  venarum  minimarum 


13  Ventriculus  dexter 

14  Valvula  tricuspidalis 

15  Cuspis  anterior 

16  Cuspis  posterior 

17  Cuspis  medialis 

18  Crista   supraventricularis 

19  Conus   arteriosus 

20  Valvulae    semilunares   a.    pul- 

21  Valvula    semilunaris    an- 


22  Valvula  semilunaris  dex- 


23  Valvula  semilunaris  sin- 


24  Noduli    valvularum    semiluna- 


25  Lunulae     valvularum      semilu- 


26  Atrium  sinistrum 

27  Auricula  sinistra 

28  Valvula  foraminis  ovalis 

29   Ventriculus   sinister 

30  Valvula  bicuspidalis  [mitralis] 

31  Cuspis  anterior 

32  Cuspis  posterior 

22  Valvulae  semilunares  aortae 

34  Valvula  semilunaris  pos- 


35  Valvula  semilunaris  dex- 


36  Valvula  semilunaris  sin- 


37  Noduli    valvularum    semiluna- 

rium  [Arantii] 

38  Lunulae      valvularum      semilu- 


39  Arteriae 

40  A.  pulmonalis 

41  Ramus  dexter 

42  Ramus  sinister 

43  Ductus  arteriosus  [Botalli] 

44  Ligamentum  arteriosum 

45  Aorta 

46  Aorta  ascendens 

47  Bulbus  aortae 

48  Sinus  aortae  [Valsalvae] 

49  Arcus  aortae 

50  Isthmus   aortae 

51  Aorta  descendens 

52  A.  coronaria    [cordis]    dextra 

53  Ramus   descendens  poste- 

54  A.  coronaria  [cordis]  sinistra 

55  Ramus  circumflexus 

56  Ramus  descendens  ante- 


57  A.  anonyma 

58  (A.  thyreoidea  ima) 

59  A.  carotis  communis 

60  A.  carotis  externa 
61  A.  thyreoidea  superior 

62  Ramus  hyoideus 

63  Ramus  sternocleidomastoideus 

64  A.  laryngea  superior 

65  Ramus  cricothyreoideus 



1  Ramus  anterior 

2  Ramus  posterior 

3  Rami  glandulares 

4  A.  pharyngea  ascendens 

5  A.  meningea  posterior 

6  Rami  pharyngei 

7  A.  tympanica  inferior 

8  A.  lingualis 

9  Ramus   hyoideus 

10  A.  sublingualis 

11  Rami  dorsales  linguae 

12  A.  profunda  linguae 

13  A.  maxillaris  externa 

14  A.  palatina  ascendens 

15  Ramus  tonsillaris 

16  A.  submentalis 

17  Rami  glandulares 

18  A.  labialis  inferior 

19  A.  labialis  superior 

20  A.  angularis 

21  A.  sternocleidomastoidea 

22  A.  occipitalis 

23  Ramus  mastoideus 

24  Ramus  auricularis 

25  Rami  musculares 

26  Ramus  descendens 

27  (Ramus  meningeus) 

28  Rami  occipitales 

29  A.  auricularis  posterior 

30  A.  stylomastoidea 

31  A.  tympanica  posterior 

32  Rami  mastoidei 

33  Ramus  stapedius 

34  Ramus  auricularis 

35  Ramus  occipitalis 

36  A.  temporalis  superficialis 

37  Rami  parotidei 

38  A.  transversa  faciei 

39  Rami  auriculares  anteriores 

40  A.  zygomaticoorbitalis 

41  A.  temporalis  media 

42  Ramus  frontalis 

43  Ramus  parietalis 

44  A.  maxillaris  interna 

45  A.  auricularis  profunda 

46  A.  tympanica  anterior 

47  A.  alveolaris  inferior 

48  R.  mylohyoideus 

49  A.  mentalis 

50  A.  meningea  media 

51  (Ramus    meningeus    accesso- 


52  Ramus    petrosus    super- 


53  A.  tympanica  superior 

54  A.  masseterica 

55  A.  temporalis  profunda  poste- 


56  A.    temporalis    profunda    an- 


57  Rami  pterygoidei 

58  A.  buccinatoria 

59  A.    alveolaris     superior     pos- 


60  A.  infraorbitalis 

61  Aa.      alveol.      superiores 

62  A.  palatina  descendens 

63  A.  canalis  pterygoidei   [Vidii] 

64  A.  palatina  major 

65  Aa.  palatinae  minores 

66  A.  sphenopalatina 

67  Aa.   nasales   posteriores   later- 

ales  et  septi 

68  A.  carotis  interna 

69  Ramus  caroticotympanicus 

70  A.  ophthalmica 

71  A.  centralis  retinae 

72  A.  lacrimalis 

73  Aa.  palpebrales  laterales 

74  Rami  musculares 

75  Aa.  ciliares  posteriores  breves 

76  Aa.  ciliares  posteriores  longae 



1  Aa.  ciliares   anteriores 

2  Aa.  conjunctivales    anteriores 

3  Aa.  conjunctivales  posteriores 

4  Aa.  episclerales 

5  A.  supraorbitalis 

6  A.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

7  A.  ethmoidalis  anterior 

8  A.  meningea  anterior 

9  Aa.   palpebrales   mediales 
ID  Arcus  tarseus  superior 

11  Arcus  tarseus  inferior 

12  A.  frontalis 

13  A.  dorsalis  nasi 

14  Aa.  cerebri 

15  A.  communicans   posterior 

16  A.  chorioidea 

17  A.  cerebri  anterior 

18  A.  communicans  anterior 

19  A.  cerebri  media 

20  A.  subclavia 

21  A.  vertebralis 

22  Rami  spinales 

23  A.  spinalis  posterior 

24  A.  spinalis  anterior 

25  Ramus  meningeus 

26  A.  cerebelli  inferior  posterior 

27  A.  basilaris 

28  A.  cerebelli  inferior  anterior 

29  A.  auditiva  interna 

30  Rami  ad  pontem 

31  A.  cerebelli  superior 

32  A.  cerebri  posterior 

33  Circulus   arteriosus    [Willisi] 

34  A.  mammaria  interna 

35  Aa.  mediastinales  anteriores 

36  Aa.  thymicae 

37  Rami  bronchiales 

38  A.  pericardiacophrenica 

39  Rami  sternales 

40  Rami  perforantes 

41  Rami  mammarii 

42  Rami  musculares 

43  Rami  cutanei 

44  (Ramus  costalis  lateralis) 

45  Rami  intercostales 

46  A.  musculophrenica 

47  A.  epigastrica  superior 

48  Truncus  thyrec 


49  A.  thyreoidea  inferior 

50  A.  laryngea  inferior 

51  Rami  pharyngei 

52  Rami  oesophagei 

53  Rami  tracheales 

54  Rami  glandulares 

55  A.  cervicalis  ascendens 

56  Rami  spinales 

57  Rami  musculares 

58  Ramus  profundus 

59  A.  cervicalis  superficialis 

60  A.  transversa  scapulae 

61  Ramus  acromialis 

62  Truncus  costocervicalis 

63  A.  intercostalis  suprema 

64  Rami  dorsales 

65  Rami  spinales 
66  A.  cervicalis  profunda 

67  A.  transversa  colli 

68  Ramus  ascendens 

69  Ramus  descendens 

70  A.  axillaris 

71  Rami   subscapulares 



I    A.   thoracalis   suprema 

2   A.   thoracoacromialis 

3  Ramus  acromialis 

4  Rete  acromiale 

5  Ramus  deltoideus 

6  Rami  pectorales 

7  A.  thoracalis  lateralis 

8  Rami  mammarii  externi 

9  A.  subscapularis 

10  A.  thoracodorsalis 

11  A.  circumflexa  scapulae 

12  A.  circumflexa  humeri  anterior 

13  A.  circumflexa  humeri  posterior 

14  A.  brachialis 

15  A.  profunda  brachii 

16  Aa.  nutriciae  humeri 

17  R.  deltoideus 

18  A.  collateralis  media 

19  A.  collateralis  radialis 

20  A.  collateralis  ulnaris  superior 

21  A.   collateralis   ulnaris   inferior 

36  A.  ulnaris 

2,7  Aa.  recurrentes  ulnares 

38  Rete  articulare  cubiti 

39  A.  interossea  communis 

40  A.  interossea  dorsalis 

41  A.  interossea  recurrens 

42  A.  interossea  volaris 

43  A.  mediana 

44  Rami  musculares 

45  Ramus  carpeus  dorsalis 

46  Ramus  carpeus  volaris 

47  Ramus  volaris  profundus 

48  Arcus  volaris  superficialis 

49  Aa.     digitales     volares     com- 


50  Aa.  digitales  volares  propriae 

51  Aorta  thoracalis 

52  Rami    viscerales 

53  Aa.  'bronchiales 

54  Aa.  oesophageae 

55  Rami  pericardiaci 

56  Rami    parietales 

57  Rami  mediastinales 

58  Aa.  phrenicae  superiores 

22  A.  radialis 

23  A.  recurrens  radialis 

24  Rami  musculares 

25  Ramus  carpeus  volaris 

26  Ramus  volaris  superficialis 

27  Ramus  carpeus  dorsalis 

28  Rete  carpi  dorsale 

29  Aa.  metacarpeae  dorsales 

30  Aa.  digitales  dorsales 

31  A.  princeps  pollicis 

32  A.   volaris  indicis  radiaUs 

33  Arcus  volaris  profundus 

34  Aa.  metacarpeae  volares 

35  Rami  perforantes 

59  Aa.  intercostales 

60  Rami  posteriores 

61  Ramus  spinalis 

62  Rami  musculares 

63  Ramus    cutaneus    medi- 


64  Ramus    cutaneus     later- 

65  Rami  anteriores 

66  Rami  musculares 

67  Rami     cutanei     laterales 

[pectorales  et  ab- 
68  Ramus  posterior 



1  Ramus  anterior 

2  Rami  mammarii  laterales 

3  Rami  cutanei  anteriores  [pec- 
torales  et  abdominales] 
4  Rami  mammarii  mediates 

5  Aorta  abdominalis 

6Ranii    parietales 
7  A.  phrenica  inferior 
8  Rami  suprarenales  superiores 
g  Aa.  lumbales 

10  Ramus  dorsalis 

11  Ramus  spinalis 

12.  A.  sacralis  media 

13  A.  lumbalis  ima 

14  Glomus  coccygeum 

15  Rami    viscerales 

16.  A.  coeliaca 

17  A.   gastrica   sinistra 

18  Rami  oesophagei 

19.  A.  hep  a  t  ica 

20.  A.  gastrica  dextra 
21  A.  hepatica  propria 

22  Ramus  dexter 

23  A.  cystica 

24  Ramus  sinister 
25  A.  gastroduodenalis 

26  A.  pancreaticoduoden.  super- 

27  Rami  pancreatici 

28  Rami  duodenales 

29  A.  gastroepiploica  dextra 
30  Rami  epiploici 

31  A.     1  i  enalis 

32  Rami  pancreatici 

33  A.  gastroepiploica  sinistra 

34  Aa.  gastricae  breves 

35  Rami  lienales 

36  A.  mesenterica  superior 

T^y  Aa.  intestinales 

38  A.  pancreaticoduodenalis  in- 


39  Aa.  jejunales 

40  Aa.  ileae 

41  A.  ileocolica 

42  A.  appendicularis 

43  A.  colica  dextra 

44  A.  colica  media 

45  A.  mesenterica  inferior 

46  A.  colica  sinistra 

47  Aa.  sigmoideae 

48  A.'haemorrhoidalis  superior 

49  A.  suprarenalis  media 

50  A.  renalis 

51  A.  suprarenalis  inferior 

52  A.  spermatica  interna 

53  A.  testicularis 

54  A.  ovarica 

55  A.  iliaca  communis 

56  A.  hypogastrica 

57  Rami    parietales 
58  A.  iliolumbalis 

59  Ramus  lumbalis 

60  Ramus  spinalis 

61  Ramus  iliacus 

62  A.  sacralis  lateralis 
63  Rami  spinales 

64  A.  obturatoria 

65  Ramus  pubicus 

66  Ramus  anterior 

67  Ramus  posterior 

68  A.  acetabuli 



1  A.  glutaea  superior 

2  Ramus  superior 

3  Ramus  inferior 

4  A.  glutaea  inferior 

5  A.  comitans  n.  ischiadici 

6  Rami      viscerales 

7  A.  umbilicalis 

8  Aa.  vesicales  superiores 

9  [Lig-amentum  umbilicale  later- 


10  A.  vesicalis  inferior 
II  A.  deferentialis 

12  A.  uterina 

13  A.  vaginalis 

14  Ramus  ovarii 

15  Ramus  tubarius 

16   A.   haemorrhoidalis   media 

17  A.  pudenda  interna 

18  A.  haemorrhoidalis  inferior 

19  A.  perinei 

20  Aa.  scrotales  posteriores 

21  Aa.  labiales  posteriores 

22  A.  penis 

23  A.  urethralis 

24  A.  bulbi  urethrae 

25  A.  bulbi  vestibuli  [vaginae] 

26  A.  profunda  penis 

27  A.  dorsalis  penis 

28  A.  clitoridis 

29  A.  profunda  clitoridis 

30  A.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

31  A.  iliaca  externa 
32  A.  epigastrica  inferior 
33  Ramus  pubicus 

34  Ramus  obturatorius 

35  A.  spermatica  externa 

36  A.  lig.  teretis  uteri 

37  A.  circumflexa  ilium  profunda      ' 

38  A.  femoralis 

39  A.  epigastrica  superficialis 

40  A.  circumflexa  ilium  superfici- 


41  Aa.  pudendae  externae 

42  Aa.  scrotales  anteriores 

43  Aa.  labiales  anteriores 

44  Rami  inguinales 

45  A.  profunda   femoris 

46  A.  circumflexa    femoris    medi- 


47  Ramus  superficialis 

48  Ramus  profundus 

49  Ramus  acetabuli 

50  A.  circumflexa  femoris  lateralis 

51  Ramus  ascendens 

52  Ramus  descendens 

53  A.  perforans  prima 

54  A.  nutricia  femoris  superior 

55  A.  perforans  secunda 

56  A.  perforans  tertia 

57  A.  nutricia  femoris  inferior 

58  Rami  musculares 

59  A.  genu   suprema 

60  Rami  musculares 

61  Ramus  saphenus 
(yz  Rami  articulares 

63  A.  poplitea 

64  A.  genu  superior  lateralis 

65  A.  genu  superior  medialis 

66  A.  genu  media 

67  Aa.  surales 

68  A.  genu  inferior  lateralis 

69  A.  genu  inferior  medialis 

70  Rete  articulare  genu 

71  Rete  patellae 



I  A.  tibialis  anterior 

2  (A.  recurrens  tibialis  posterior) 

3  A.  recurrens  tibialis  anterior 

4  A.  malleolaris  anterior  lateralis 

5  A.  malleolaris  anterior  medialis 

6  Rete  malleolare  mediale 

7  Rete  malleolare  laterale 

8  A.  dorsalis  pedis 

9  A.  tarsea  lateralis 

10  Aa.  tarseae  mediales 

11  A.  arcuata 

12  Rete  dorsale  pedis 

13  Aa.  metatarseae  dorsales 

14  Aa.  digitales  dorsales 

15  Ramus  plantaris  profundus 

16  A.  tibialis  posterior 

17  Ramus  fibularis 

18  A.  peronaea 

19  A.  nutritia  fibulae 

20  Ramus  perforans 

21  Ramus  communicans 

22  A.  malleolaris  posterior  later- 


23  Rami  calcanei  laterales 

24  A.  nutricia  tibiae 

25  A.  malleolaris  posterior  medi- 


26  Rami  calcanei  mediales 

27  Rete  calcaneum 

28  A.  plantaris  medialis 

29  Ramus  profundus 

30  Ramus  superficialis 

31  A.  plantaris  lateralis 

32  Arcus  plantaris 

33  Aa.  metatarseae  plantares 

34  Rami  perforantes 

35  Aa.  digitales  plantares 

36  Venae 

37  Venae  pulmonales 

38  Vv.  pulmonales  dextrae 

39  Vv.  pulmonales  sinistrae 

40  Vv.  cordis 

41  Sinus  Goronarius 

42  V.  cordis  magna 

43  V.  posterior  ventriculi  sinistri 

44  V.  obliqua   atrii  sinistri    [Mar- 

shall! ] 

45  Lig.  V.  cavae  sinistrae 

46  V.  cordis  media 

47  V.  cordis  parva 

48  Vv.  cordis  anteriores 

49  Vv.  cordis  minimae 

50  Vena  cava  superior 

51  Vv.  anonymae  dextra  et 

52  Vv.  thyreoideae  inferiores 

53  V.  thyreoidea  ima 

54  Plexus  thyreoideus  impar' 

55  V.  laryngea  inferior 

56  Vv.  thymicae 

57  Vv;  pericardiacae 

58  Vv.  phrenicae  superiores 

59  Vv.  mediastinals  anteriores 

60  Vv.  bronchiales  anteriores 

61  Vv.  tracheales 

62  Vv.  oesopbageae 
6^  V.  vertebralis 

64  V.  cervicalis  profunda 

65  V.  mammaria  interna 

66  Vv.  subcutaneae  abdominis 

67  V.  epigastrica  superior 

68  V.  intercostalis  suprema 

69  V.  jugularis  interna 

70  Bulbus  venae  jugularis  superior 

71  V.  canaliculi  cochleae 



1  Bulbus  V.  jugularis  inferior 

2  Plexus  pharyngeus 

3  Vv.  pharyngeae 

4  Vv.  meningeae 

5  Vv.  canalis  pterygoidei  [Vidii] 

6  V.  lingualis 

7  Vv.  dorsales  linguae 

8  V.  sublingualis 

9  V.  comitans  n.  hypoglossi 

10  (Vv.  thyreoideae  superiores) 

11  V.  sternocleidomastoidea 

12  V.  laryngea  superior 

13  Sinus   durae   matris 

14  Sinus  transversus 
i|tConfluens  sinuum 
18  Vv.  auditivae  internae 

17  Sinus  occipitalis 

18  Plexus  basilaris 

19  Sinus  sagittalis  superior 
2a  Sinus  sagittalis  inferior 

21  Sinus  rectus 

22  Sinus  petrosus  inferior 

23  Sinus  petrosus  superior 

24  Sinus  cavernosus 

25  Sinus  intercavernosus  anterior 

26  Sinus  intercavernosus  posterior 

27  Sinus  circularis 

28  Sinus  sphenoparietalis 

29  Venae  diploicae 

30  V.  diploica  frontalis 

31  V.  diploica  temporalis  an- 


2,2  V.  diploica  temporalis  pos- 

33  V.  diploica  occipitalis 

34  Emissarium  parietale 

35  Emissarium  mastoideum 

36  Emissarium  condyloideum 

37  Emissarium  occipitale 

38  Rete  canalis  hypoglossi 

39  Rete  foraminis  ovalis 

40  Plexus  venosus  caroticus  inter- 


41  Venae  cerebri 

42  Vv.  cerebri  superiores 

43  V.  cerebri  media 

44  Vv.  cerebri  inferiores 

45  Vv.  cerebelli  superiores 

46  Vv.  cerebelli  inferiores 

47  Vv.  cerebri  internae 

48  V.  cerebri  magna  [Galeni] 

49  V.  septi  pellucidi 

50  V.  terminalis 

51  V.  basalis  [Rosenthali] 

52  V.  chorioidea 

53  V.  opihthalmomeningea 

54  V.  ophthalmica  superior 

55  V.  nasofrontalis 

56  V.  ethmoidalis  anterior 

57  V.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

58  V.  lacrimalis 

59  Vv.  musculares 

60  Vv.  vorticosae 

61  Vv.  ciliares  posteriores 

62  Vv.  ciliares  anteriores 

63  V.  centralis  retinae 

64  Vv.  episclerales 

65  Vv.  palpebrales 

66  Vv.  conjunctivales  anteriores 

67  Vv.  conjunctivales  posteriores 

68  V.  ophthalmica  inferior 

69  V.  facialis  communis 

70  V.  facialis  anterior 

71  V.  angularis 

72  Vv.  frontales 

73  V.  supraorbitalis 

74  V.  palpebrales  superiores 

75  V.  nasales  externae 

76  V.  palpebrales  inferiores 
y7  V.  labialis  superior 



1  V.  labialis  inferior 

2  Vv.  massetericae 

3  Vv.  parotideae  anteriores 

4  V.  palatina 

5  V.  submentalis 

6  V.  facialis  posterior 

7  Vv.  temporales  superficiales 

8  Vv.  auriculares  anteriores 

9  Vv.  parotideae  posteriores 

10  Vv.  articulares  mandibulae 

11  Vv.  tympanicae 

12  V.  stylomastoidea 

13  V.  transversa  faciei 

14  V.  temporalis  media 

15  Plexus  pterygoideus 

16  Vv.  meningeae  mediae 

17  Vv.  temporales  profundae 

18  V.  thyreoidea  superior 

19  V.  jugularis  externa 

20  V.  occipitalis 

21  V.  auricularis  posterior 

22  V.  jugularis  anterior 

23  Arcus  venosus  juguli 

24  (V.  mediana  colli) 

25  V.  transversa  scapulae 

26  V.  subclavia 

27  V.  thoracoacromialis 

28  Vv.  transversae  colli 

29  V.  axillaris 

30  V.  thoracalis  lateralis 

31  Vv.  costoaxillares 

32  Vv.  thoracoepigastricae 

33  Plexus  venosus  mamillae 

34  Vv.  brachiales 

35  Vv.  radiales 

36  Vv.  ulnares 

37  V.  cephalica 

38  V    cephalica  accessoria 

39  V.  basilica 

40  V.  mediana  cubiti 

41  (V.  mediana  antibrachii) 

42  (V.  mediana  basilica) 

43  (V.  mediana  cephalica) 

44  Rete  venosum  dorsale  manus 

45  Vv.  intercapitulares 

46  Arcus   volaris   venosus   super- 


47  Arcus    volaris    venosus     pro- 


48  Vv.     digitales     volares     com- 


49  Vv.  metacarpeae  dorsales 

50  Vv.  metacarpeae  volares 

51  Vv.  digitales  volares  propriae 

52  Arcus  venosi  digitales 

S3  V.  azygos 

54  V.  hemiazygos 

55  V.  hemiazygos  accessoria 

56  Vv.  intercostales 

57  Ramus  dorsalis 

58  Ramus  spinalis 

59  Vv.  oesophageae 

60  Vv.  bronchiales  posteriores 

61  V.  lumbalis  ascendens 

62  Vv.  basivertebrales 

63  Plexus  venosi  vertebrales  ex- 


64  Plexus  venosi  vertebrales 


65  Plexus  venosi  vertebrales 

66  Plexus   venosi   vertebrales   in- 
67  Retia  venosa  vertebrarum 

68  Sinus     vertebrales     longitudi- 


69  Vv.  intervertebrales 

70  Vv.    spinales    externae    ante- 




37  Vena  iliaca  communis 

1  Vv.  spinales     externae  ,  poste- 


o  \T^r    ^^; 1       ■   i  38  V.  sacralis  media 

2  rVv.  spinales  internae 

3  V.  cava  inferior 

4Radices   parietales 

5  V.  phrenica  inferior 

6  Vv.  lumbales 

7  Radices  viscerales 

8  Vv.  hepaticae 

9  Vv.  renales 

10  Vv.  suprarenales 

11  V.  spermatica 

12  V.  testicularis 

13  V.  ovarica 

14  Plexus  pampiniformis 

15  Vena  portae 

16  V.  coronaria  ventriculi 

17  V.  mesenterica  superior 

18  Vv.  intestinales 

19  V.  gastroepiploica  dextra 

20  Vv.  pancreaticae 

21  V.  ileocolica 

22  Vv.  colicae  dextrae 

23  V.  colica  media 

24  Vv.  pancreaticoduodenales 

25  Vv.  duodenales 
26  V.  mesenterica  inferior 

27  V.  colica  sinistra 

28  Vv.  sigmoideae 

29  V.  haemorrhoidalis    supe- 

30  V.  lienalis 

31  Vv.  gastricae  breves 

32  V.  gastroepiploica  sinistra 
I        33  V.  cystica 

34  Vena  umbilicalis 

35  Ductus  venosus  [Arantii] 

36  Vv.  parumbilicales   [Sappeyi] 

39  V.  hypogastrica 

40  Vv.  glutaeae  superiores 

41  Vv.  glutaeae  inferiores 

42  Vv.  obturatoriae 

43  Vv.  sacrales  laterales 

44  V.  iliolumbalis 

45  Plexus  sacralis  anterior 

46  Plexus  haemorrhoidalis 

47  Plexus  vesicalis 

48  Plexus  pudendalis 

49  V.  dorsalis  penis 

50  Vv.  profundae  penis 

51  Vv.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

52  Vv.  profundae  clitoridis 

53  Vv.  uterinae 

54  Plexus  uterovaginalis 

55  V.  haemorrhoidalis  media 

56  Vv.  haemorrhoidales  inferiores 

57  Vv.  scrotales  posteriores 

58  V.  iliaca  externa 

59  V.  epigastrica  inferior 

60  V.  circumflexa  ilium  profunda 

61  V.  femoralis 

62  Vv.  dorsales  penis  subcutaneae 

63  Vv.  scrotales  anteriores 

64  Vv.  pudendae  externae 

65  V.  epigastrica  superficialis 

66  V.  saphena  magna 

67  V.  saphena  accessoria 

68  V.  circumflexa  ilium  superfici- 


69  Vv.  circumflexae  femoris  me- 


70  Vv.  circumflexae  femoris  later- 


71  Vv.  comitantes 

72  Vv.  profundae  femoris 

73  Vv.  perforantes  * 



I  V.  saphena  parva 

2  V.  femoropoplitea 

3  Vv.  peronaeae 

4  Vv.  popliteae 

5  Vv.  tibiales  posteriores 

6  Vv.  tibiales  anteriores 

7  Rete  venosum  dorsale  pedis 

8  Arcus  venosus  dorsalis  pedis 

9  Vv.  digitales  communes  pedis 

10  Vv.  metatarseae  dorsales  pedis 

11  Vv.  intercapitulares 

12  Rete  venosum  plantare 

13  Arcus  venosus  plantaris 

14  Vv.  metatarseae  plantares 

15  Vv.  digitales  pedis  dorsales 

16  Vv.  digitales  plantares 

17  Systema  lymphaticum 

18  Vasa  lymphatica 

19  Vasa  lymphatica  superficialia 

20  Vasa  lymphatica  profunda 

21  Truncus  jugularis 

22  Truncus  subclavius 

23  Truncus  bronchomediastinalis 


24  Ductus  lymphaticus  dexter 

25  Ductus  thoracicus 

26  Trunci  lumbales 

27  Truncus  intestinalis 

28  Cisterna  chyli 

29  Lymphoglandulae 

30  Vasa  afferentia 

31  Vasa  efferentia 

32  Substantia  corticalis 

33  Substantia  medullaris 

34  Hilus 

35  Lymphoglandulae  occipitales 





auriculares  posteriores 

auriculares   anteriores 


faciales  profundae 


cervicales  superficiales 

42  Lymphoglandulae  cervicales 

profundae  superiores 

43  Lymphoglandulae  cervicales 

profundae  inferiores 

44  Lymphoglandulae  linguales 

45      . 

,       axillares 

46      , 


47      , 

,      pectorales 

48      , 

,      epigastricae 

49      , 

,       cubitales  superficiales 

50      , 

,       cubitales  profundae 

SI      , 

,  ■     tracheales 

52      , 

,      bronchiales 

S3      , 

,       intercostales 

54      , 

,       mediastinales   posteriores 

55      , 

,       mediastinales  anteriores 

56      , 

,       sternales 

57      . 

,       iliacae 

58      , 

,      lumbales 


,       coeliacae 

60      , 

,      gastricae  superiores 

61      , 

,       gastricae  inferiores 

62      , 


63      , 

,      pancreaticolienales 

64      , 


65      . 

,      mesocolicae 

66      , 




I  Lymphoglandulae  sacrales 

9  Plexus  axillaris 

2  „      inguinales 

3  „      subinguinales      superfici- 


4  „       subinguinales   profundae 

5  „      popliteae 

6  (Lymphoglandula  tibialis  ante-  ^4 


7  Plexus  lymphatic! 

8  Plexus  jugularis 

lO          , 

,       mammarius 

II'      , 

,       lumbalis 

12          , 

,       aorticus 

13       . 

,       sacralis  medius 

14       , 

,       hypogastricus 

15       , 

,       coeliacus 

i6       , 

,       iliacus  externus 

17       , 

,       inguinalis 



1    Neurologia 

2  Nervus 

3  Ganglion 

4  Substantia  alba 

5  Substantia  grisea 

6  Substantia  gelatinosa 

7  Taenia  telarum 

8  Ependyma  ventriculorum 

9  Sulcus  limitaiis  ventriculorum 
ID  Nuclei  nervorum  cerebralium 

11  Nuclei  originis 

12  Nuclei  terminales 

13  Ramus  communicans 

14  Ramus  anastomoticus 

15  Ramus  muscularis 

16  Nervus  cutaneus 

17  Nervus  articularis 

18  Plexus  nervorum  spinalium 

19  Systema  nevorum  centrale 

20  Medulla  spinalis  39  Sectiones  meduUae  spinalis 

40  Canalis  centralis 

41  Substantia  grisea  centrans 

42  Commissura  anterior  alba 

43  Commissura  anterior  grisea 

44  Commissura  posterior 

45  Columnae  griseae 

46  Columna  anterior 

47  Columna  lateralis 

48  Columna  posterior 

49  Cervix    columnae    poste- 

50  Apex     columnae     poste- 

51  Substantia  gelatinosa 

52  Nucleus    dorsalis     [Stil- 
lingi,  Clarkii] 

53  Formatio  reticularis 

54  Funiculus  anterior 
55  Fasciculus     cerebrospin- 

alis  anterior  [pyramid- 
alis  anterior] 

21  Pars  cervicalis 

22  Intumescentia  cervicalis 

23  Pars  thoracalis 

24  Pars  lumtalis 

25  Intumescentia  lumbalis 

26  Conus  medullaris 

27  Filum  terminale 

28  Ventriculus  terminalis 

29  Fissura  mediana  anterior 

30  Sulcus  medianus  posterior 

31  Sulcus  lateralis  anterior 

32  Sulcus  lateralis  posterior 

33  Sulcus  intermedius  posterior 

34  (Sulcus  intermedius  anterior) 

35  Funiculi  medullae  spinalis 

36  Funiculus  anterior 

37  Funiculus  lateralis 

38  Funiculus  posterior 



I  Fasciculus    anterior    pro- 
prius  [Flechsigi] 
2  Funiculus  lateralis 

3  Fasciculus  cerebrospinalis 

lateralis        [pyramidalis 

4  Fasciculus     cerebellospin- 


5  Fasciculus  anterolateralis 

superficialis  [Gowersi] 

6  Fasciculus   lateralis  pro- 

prius  [Flechsigi] 
Funiculus  posterior 

8  Fasciculus  gracilis  [GoUi] 

9  Fasciculus  cuneatus 


1 0  Encephalon 

11  Rhombencephalon 

12  Myelencephalon 

13  Medulla  oblongata 

14  Fissura  mediana  posterior 

15  Fissura  mediana  anterior 

16  Foramen  caecum 

17  Pyramis  JmeduUae  oblongatae] 

18  Decussatio  pyramidum 

19  Sulcus  lateralis  anterior 

20  Sulcus  lateralis  posterior 

21  Oliva 

22  Corpus  restiforme 

23  Funiculus  lateralis 

24  Funiculus  cuneatus 

25  Tuberculum  cinereum 

26  Funiculus  gracilis 

27  Clava 
28  Fibrae  arcuatae  externae 

29  Sectiones  medullae  oblongatae 

30  Raphe 

31  Stratum  nucleare 

32  Nucleus  n.  hypoglossi 

33  Nucleus  ambiguus 

34  Nucleus  alae  cinereae 

35  Tractus  solitarius 

36  Nucleus  tractus  solitarii 

■^y  Tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 

38  Nucleus  tractus  spinalis  n.  trig- 


39  Nucleus  funiculi  gracilis. 

40  Nucleus  funiculi  cuneati 

41  Nuclei  laterales 

42  Nucleus  olivaris  inferior 

43  Hilus  nuclei  olivariis 

44  Nucleus  olivaris  accessorius 


45  Nucleus  olivaris  accessorius 


46  Nuclei  arcuati 

47  Fibrae  arcuatae  internae 

48  Substantia  reticularis  grisea 

49  Substantia  reticularis  alba 

50  Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medi- 


51  Stratum  .nterolivare  lemnisci 

52  Decussatio  lemniscorum 

53  Corpus  restiforme 

54  Fasciculi  corporis  restiformis 

55  Fibrae  cerebelloolivares 

56  Fasciculi  pyramidales 

57  Fibrae  arcuatae  externae 

58  Ventriculus  quartus 

59  Fossa  rhomboidea 

60  Pars  inferior  fossae  rhomboi- 

61   [Calamus  scnptorius] 
62  Pars  intermedia  fossae  rhom- 

63  Recessus  lateralis  fossae 


64  Pars    superior    fossae    rhom- 


65  Sulcus  limitans  [fossae  rhom- 

66  Fovea  inferior 



I  Fovea  superior 

2  Trigonum  n.  hypoglossi 

3  Striae  medullares 

^  Eminentia  medialis 

5  Colliculus  facialis 

6  Ala  cinerea 

7  Area  acustica 

8  Locus  caeruleus 

9  Tegmen  ventriculi  quarti 
ID  Velum  medullare  posterius 
II  Taenia  ventriculi  quarti 

12  Obex 

13  Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 

14  (Apertura    medialis    ventriculi 

15  [Foramen  Magendii]) 

16  (Apertura    lateralis    ventriculi 


17  Fastigium 

18  Metencephalon 
19  Pons     [Varoli] 

20  Sulcus  basilaris 

21  Fasciculus  obliquus   [pontis] 

22  (Fila  lateralia  pontis) 

23  Brachium  pontis 

24  Sectiones  pontis 

25  Pars    dorsalis    pontis 

26  Raphe 

27  Nucleus  n.  abducentis 

28  Nuclei  motorii  n.  trigemini 

29  Radix  descendens   [mesenceph- 

alica]  n.  trigemini 

30  Tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 

31  Nucleus  tractus  spinalis  n.  tri- 


32  Nucleus  n.  facialis 

33  Radix  n.  facialis 

34  Pars  prima 

35  Genu  [internum] 

36  Pars  secunda 
37  Nuclei  n.  acustici 

38  Nuclei  n.  cochlearis 

39  Nuclei  n.  vestibularis 

40  Nucleus  olivaris  superior 

41  Nucleus  lemnisci  lateralis 

42  Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medi- 


43  Formatio  reticularis 

44  Corpus  trapezoideum 

45  Lemniscus 

46  Lemniscus  medialis  [sen- 


47  Lemniscus  lateralis 


48  Pars  basilaris    pontis 

49  Fibrae  pontis  profundae 

50  Fasciculi  longitudinales  [pyra- 


51  Nuclei  pontis 

52  Fibrae  pontis  superficiales 

53  C  e  r  e  b  c  I'l  u  m 

54  Gyri  cerebelli 

55  Sulci  cerebelli 

56  Vallecula  cerebelli 

57  Incisura  cerebelli  anterior 

58  Incisura  cerebelli  posterior 

59  Sulcus  horizontalis  cerebelli 

60  Fissura  transversa  cerebelli 

61  Vermis 

62  Lingula  cerebelli 

63  Vincula  lingulae  cerebelli 

64  Lobulus  centralis 

65  Monticulus 

66  Culmen 

67  Declive 

68  Folium  vermis 

69  Tuber  vermis 

70  Pyramis  [vermis] 

71  Uvula  [vermis] 

72  Nodulus 

73  Hemisphaerium  cerebelli 

74  Facies  superior 

75  Ala  lobuli  centralis 

76  Lobulus  quadrangularis 

T;/  Pars  anterior 
78  Pars  posterior 



I  Lobulus    semilunaris    su- 
2  Facies  inferior 

3  Lobulus     semilunaris     in- 


4  Lobulus  biventer 

5  Tbnsilla  cerebelli 

6  Flocculus 

7  (Flocculi  secundarii) 

8  Pedunculus  flocculi 
9  Nidus  avis 

10  Sectiones  cerebelli 

11  Corpus  medullare 

12  Laminae  medullares    , 

13  Arbor  vitae 

14  Substantia  corticalis 

15  [Lamina  basalis] 

16  [Stratum  cinereum] 

17  [Stratum  gangliosum] 

18  Stratum  granulosum 
19  Nucleus  dentatus 

20  Hilus  nuclei  dentati 

21  Nucleus  fastigii 

22  Nucleus  globosus 

23  Nucleus  emboliformis 

24  Capsula  nuclei  dentati 

25  Isthmus  rhombencephali 

26  Brachium  conjunctivum  [cere- 


27  Lemniscus 

28  Lemniscus  lateralis 

29  Lemniscus  medialis 

30  Trigonum  lemnisci 

31  Velum  medullare  anterius 

32  Frenulum  veli  medullaris  ante- 


33  Sectiones  isthmi 

[vide  Pedunculus  cerebri] 

34  Ganglion  interpedunculare 

35  Nucleus  n.  trochlearis 

36  Cerebrum 

37  Facies  convexa  cerebri 

38  Facies  medialis  cerebri 

39  Basis  cerebri 

40  Mesencephalon 

41   [Facies  inferior] 
42  Fossa  iriterpeduncularis 

43  Recessus  anterior 

44  Recessus  posterior 

45  Substantia  perforata  posterior 

46  Pedunculus  cerebri 

47  Aquaeductus  cerebri   [Sylvii] 

48  Sulcus  lateralis 

49  Sulcus  n.  oculomotorii 

50  Sectiones  pedunculi  cerebri 

51  Tegmentum 

52  Stratum  griseum  centrale 

53  Formatio  reticularis 

54  Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medi- 


55  Radix  descendens  n.  trigemini 

56  Nucleus  radicis  descendentis  n. 


57  Nucleus  n.  oculomotorii 

58  Nuclei  tegmenti 

59  Nucleus  ruber 
60  Decussationes  tegmentorum 
61  Decussatio    brachii    con- 

62  Lemniscus  lateralis 

63  Lemniscus  medialis 

64  Substantia    nigra 

65  Basis    pedunculi 



1  Corpora  q  uadr  igem  in  a 

2  Lamina  quadrigemina 

3  Colliculus  superior 

4  Colliculus  inferior 

5  Brachium    quadrigeminum    su- 


6  Brachium    quadrigeminum    in- 


7  Sectiones  corporum  quadri- 

8  Stratum  zonale 

9  Stratum  griseum  colliculi  supe- 

ID  Nucleus  colliculi  inferioris. 
II   Stratum  album  profundum 

12  Prosencephalon 

13  Diencephalon 

14  Ventriculus  tertius 

15  Aditus  ad  aquaeductum  cerebri 

16  Commissura  posterior  [cerebri] 

17  Foramen   interventriculare 


18  Sulcus  hypothalamicus   [Mon- 


19  Massa  intermedia 

20  Recessus  opticus 

21  Recessus  infundibuli 

22  Commissura  anterior  [cerebri] 

23  Recessus  triangularis 

24  Hypothalamus 

25  Pars    mamillaris    hypo- 


26  Corpus  mamillare 

27  Pars    op.tica    hypothalami 

28  Tuber  cinereum 

29  Infundibulum 

30  Hypophysis 

31  Lobus  anterior 

32  Lobus  posterior 
33  Tractus  opticus 

34  Radix  medialis 

35  Radix  lateralis 
2,6  Chiasma  opticum 
2)7  Lamina  terminalis 

38  Sectiones  hypothalami 

39  Nucleus  hypothalamicus  [Cor- 

pus Luysi] 

40  Pars  grisea  hypothalami 

41  Commissura    superior     [Mey- 


42  Commissura     inferior     [Gud- 


43  Nuclei  corporis  mamillaris 

44  fasciculus    thalamomamillaris 

[Vicq  d'Azyri] 

45  Fasciculi  pedunculomamillares 

46  Pars  tegmentalis 

47  Pars  basilaris 
48  Ansa  peduncularis 

49  Ansa  lenticularis 

50  Pedunculus  thalami  infe- 


51  Thalamencephalon 

52  Thalamus 

53  Pulvinar 

54  Tuberculum  anterius  thalami 

55  Taenia  thalami 

56  Stria  medullaris 

57  Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 

58  Metathalamus 

59  Corpus  geniculatum  mediale 

60  Corpus  geniculatum  laterale 

61  Epithalamus 

6a  Corpus  pineale 

63  Recessus  pinealis 

64  Recessus  suprapinealis 

65  Habenula 

66  Commissura  habenularum 
6y  Trigonum  habenulae 

68  Sectiones  thalamencephali 

69  Stratum  zonale 

70  Nucleus  anterior  thalami 

71  Nucleus  medialis  thalami 

72  Nucleus  lateralis  thalami 

73  Laminae  medullares  thalami 



1  Nucleus   corporis   geniculati 


2  Nucleus   corporis  geniculati 


3  Nucleus  habenulae 

4  Fasciculus  retroflexus   [Mey- 


5  Telencephalon 
6  Hemisphaerium 

7  Pallium 

8  Fissura  longitudinalis  cerebri 

9  Fissura  transversa  cerebri 
10  Gyri  cerebri 

11  Gyri  profundi 

12  Gyri  transitivi 

13  Sulci  cerebri 

14  Impressio  petrosa 

15  Fossa  cerebri  lateralis  [Sylvii] 

16  Fissura   cerebri   lateralis    [Syl- 


17  Ramus  posterior 

18  Ramus  anterior  ascendens 

19  Ramus    anterior    horizon- 


20  Lobi  cerebri 

21  Insula 

22  Gyri  insulae 

23  Gyrus  longus  insulae 

24  Gyri  breves  insulae 

25  Sulcus  circularis  [Reili] 

26  Operculum 

27  Pars  frontalis 

28  Pars  parietalis 

29  Pars  temporalis 

30  Sulcus  centralis  [Rolandi] 

31  Gyrus  centralis  anterior 

32  Gyrus  centralis  posterior 

33  Lob  us  frontalis 

34  Polus  frontalis 

35  Sulcus  praecentralis 

36  Gyrus  frontalis  superior 

37  Sulcus  frontalis  superior 

38  Gyrus  frontalis  medius 

39  Pars  superior 

40  Pars  inferior 

41  Sulcus  frontalis  inferior 

42  Gyrus  frontalis  inferior 

43  Pars  opercularis 

44  Pars  triangularis 

45  Pars  orbitalis 

46  Gyrus  rectus 

47  Sulcus  olfactorius 

48  Gyri  orbitales 

49  Sulci  orbitales 
SoLobus   temporalis 

51  Polus  temporalis 

52  Sulci  temporales  transversi 

53  Gyri  temporales  transversi 

54  Gyrus  temporalis  superior 

55  Sulcus  temporalis  superior 

56  Gyrus  temporalis  medius 

57  Sulcus  temporalis  medius 

58  Gyrus  temporalis  inferior 

59  Sulcus  temporalis  inferior 

60  Fissura  collateralis 

61  Gyrus  fusiformis 

62  Gyrus  lingualis 

63  Lobus  occipitalis 

64  Polus  occipitalis 

65  Sulcus  occipitalis  transversus 

66  Gyri  occipitales  superiores 

67  Sulci  occipitales  superiores 

68  Gyri  occipitales  laterales 

69  Sulci  occipitales  laterales 

70  Lobus  parietalis 

71  Lobulus  parietalis  superior 

72  Sulcus  interparietalis 

73  Lobulus  parietalis  inferior 

74  Gyrus  supramarginalis 

75  Gyrus  angularis 

76  Facies  medialis  hemisphaeril 

"jy  Sulcus  corporis  callosi 
78  Sulcus  cinguli 

79  Pars  subfrontalis 



I  Pars  marginalis 

2  Sulcus  subparietalis 

3  Fissura  hippocampi 

4  Gyrus  fornicatus 

5  Gyrus  cinguli 

6  Isthmus  gyri  fornicati 

7  Gyrus  hippocampi 

8  Uncus   [gyri  hippocampi] 
9  Substantia  reticularis  alba 


10  Lobulus  paracentralis 

11  Praecuneus 

12  Fissura  parietooccipitalis 

13  Fissura  calcarina 

14  Cuneus 

15  Corpus    callosum 

16  Splenium  corporis  callosi 

17  Truncus  corporis  callosi 

18  Genu  corporis  callosi 

19  Rostrum  corporis  callosi 

20  Lamina  rostralis 

21  Striae  transversae 

22  Stria  longitudinalis  medialis 

23  Stria  longitudinalis  lateralis 

24  Fasciola  cinerea 

25  Fornix 

26  Crus  fornicis 

27  Corpus  fornicis 

28  Taenia  fornicis 

29  Columna  fornicis 

30  Pars  libera  columnae  for- 


31  Pars   tecta  columnae  for- 


32  Septum    pellucidum 

33  Lamina  septi  pellucidi 

34  Cavum  septi  pellucidi 

35  Ventriculus  lateralis 

36  Pars  centralis 
2,7  Cornu  anterius 
38  Cornu  posterius 

39  Cornu  inferius 

40  Corpus  striatum 

41  Nucleus  caudatus 

42  Caput  nuclei  caudati 

43  Cauda  nuclei  caudati 

44  Stria  terminalis 

45  Lamina  affixa 

46  Taenia  chorioidea 

47  Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis 

48  Calcar  avis 

49  (Bulbus  cornu  posterioris) 

50  Eminentia  collateralis 

51  Trigonum  collaterale 

52  Hippocampus 

53  Fimbria  hippocampi 

54  Taenia  fimbriae 

55  Digitationes  hippocampi 

56  Fascia  dentata  hippocampi 

57  Commissura  hippocampi 

58  Rhine ncephalon 

59  Sulcus  parolfactorius  anterior 

60  Pars    anterior   [rhinence- 


61  Lobus  olfactorius 

62  Bulbus  olfactorius 

63  Tractus  olfactorius 

64  Trigonum  olfactorium 

65  Stria  medialis 

66  Stria  intermedia 

67  Area  parolfactoria  [Brocae] 

68  Sulcus  parolfactorius  posterior 

69  Pars  posterior  [rhinence- 


70  Gyrus  subcallosus  [Pedunculus 

corporis  callosi] 
71  Substantia  perforata  an- 

'j'Z  Stria  olfactoria  lateralis 

73  Limen  insulae 

74  Sectiones  telencephali 

75  Substantia  corticalis 

76  Centrum  semiovale 

77  Decursus  fibrarum  cerebralium 



I  Fibrae  arcuatae  cerebri 

2  Cingulum 

3  Fasciculus  longitudinalis 


4  Fasciculus  longitudinalis 


5  Fasciculus  uncinatus 

6  Radiatio  corporis  callosi 

7  Pars  irontalis 

8  Pars  parietalis 

9  Pars  temporalis 

10  Pars  occipitalis 

11  Tapetum 
12  Nucleus  lentiformis 

13  Putamen 

14  Globus  pallidas 

15  Claustrum 

16  Capsula  externa 

17  Capsula  interna 

18  Genu  capsulae  internae 

19  Pars  frontalis  capsulae  in- 


20  Pars    occipitalis    capsulae 


21  Nucleus  amygdalae 

22  Corona  radiata 

23  Pars  frontalis 

24  Pars  parietalis 

25  Pars  tpmporalis 

26  Pars  occipitalis 

27  Radiatio  corporis  striati 

28  Radiatio  occipitothalamica 


29  Commissura  anterior  [cerebri] 

30  Pars  anterior 

31  Pars  posterior 

32  Meninges 

33  Dura  mater  encephali 

34  Falx  cerebri 

35  Tentorium  cerebelli 

36  Falx  cerebelli 

37  Diaphragma  sellae 

38  Foramen    diaphragmatis    [sel- 

3^  Incisura  tentorii 

40  Dura  mater  spinalis 

41  Filum  durae  matris  spinalis 

42  Cavum  epidurale 

43  Cavum  subdurale 

44  Arachnoidea  spinalis 

45  Arachnoidea  encephali 

46  Cavum  subarachnoideale 

47  Cisternae  subarachnoidales 

48  Cisterna  cerebellomedul- 


49  Cisterna   fossae   lateralis 

cerebri  [Sylvii] 

50  Cisterna  chiasmatis 

51  Cisterna  interpeduncu- 

53  Cisterna  venae  magnae 

53  Granulationes  arachnoideales 


54  Pia  mater  spinalis 

55  Lig.  denticulatum 

56  Septum  cervicale  intermedium 

57  Pia  mater  encephali 

58  Tela  chorioidea  ventriculi 


59  Plexus   chorioideus    ventriculi 


60  Tela  chorioidea  ventriculi  tertii 

61  Plexus   chorioideus    ventriculi 


62  Plexus   chorioideus    ventriculi 


63  Glomus  chorioideum  . 

64  Acervulus 



1  Systema  nervorum  periphericum 

Nervi  cerebrates  33  N.  infratrochlearis 

34  Ramus  palpebralis  supe- 

35  R.  palpebralis  inferior 

36  G.  c  i  1  i  a  r  e 
2)^  Nn.  ciliares  breves 

38  N.  maxillaris 

39  N.  meningeus  [medius] 

40  N.  zygomaticus 

41  Ramus     zygomaticotem- 

42  Ramus      zygomaticofaci- 

43  Nn.  sphenopalatini 

44  Nn.  alveolares  superiores 
45  Rami    alveolares    superi- 
ores posteriores 

46  N.  infraorbitalis 

47  R.  alveolaris  superior  me- 

48  Rami    alveolares    superi- 
ores anteriores 

49  Plexus  dentalis  superior 

50  Rami  dentales  supe- 

51  Rami  gingi vales  su- 

52  Rami  palpebrales  inferi- 

53  Rami  nasales  externi 

54  Rami  nasales  interni 

55  Rami  labiales  superiores 

56  Ganglion      spheno- 
p  alat  i  num 

57  Rami  orbitales 

58  N.  canalis  pterygoidei 

59  N.    petrosus   super- 
ficialis  major 

60  N.  petrosus  profun- 

61  Rami  nasales  posteriores 
superiores  laterales 

62  Rami  nasales  posteriores 
superiores  mediales 

63  N.  nasopalatinus 

3  Nn.  olfactorii 

4  N.  opticus 

5  N.  oculomotorius 

6  Ramus  superior 

7  Ramus  inferior 

8  Radix  brevis  ganglii  ciliaris 

9  N.  trochlearis 

10  Decussatio  nervorum  trochlea- 

11  N.  trigeminu 

12  Portio  major 

13  Ganglion  semilunare  [Gasseri] 

14  Portio  minor 

15  N.  ophthalmicus 

16  N.  tentorii 

17  N.  lacrimalis 

18  Ramus    anastomoticus    cum    n. 


19  N.  frontalis 

20  N.  supraorbitalis 

21  Ramus  frontalis 

22  N.  supratrochlearis 
23  N.  nasociliaris 

24  Radix   longa   ganglii   cili- 


25  Nn.  ciliares  longi 

26  N.  ethmoidalis  posterior 

27  N.  ethmoidalis  aijterior 

28  Rami  nasales  anteriores 

29  Rami  nasales  interni 

30  Rami  nasales 


31  Rami  nasales 

32  Ramus  nasalis  exter- 



1  Rami   nasales  posteriores  infe- 

riores  [laterales] 

2  Nn.  palatini 

3  N.  palatinus  anterior 

4  N.  palatinus  medius 

5  N.  palatinus  posterior 

6  N.  mandibularis 

7  N.  spinosus 

8  N.  masticatorius 

9  N.  massetericus 
10  Nn.  temporales  profundi 

11  N.    temporalis     pro- 

fundus posterior 

12  N.     temporalis    pro- 

fundus anterior 

13  N.  buccinatorius 

14  N.  pterygoideus  externus 

15  N.  pterygoideus  internus 
16  N.  auriculotemporalis 

17  N.    meatus    auditorii    ex- 
18  R.  membranae  tym- 

19  Rami  parotidei 

20  Rami  anastomotici  cum  n. 


21  Nn.  auriculares  anteriores 

22  Rami    temporales    super- 

23  N.  lingualis 

24  Rami  isthmi  faucium 
I    25  Rami  anastomotici  cum  n. 

26  N.  sublingualis 

27  Rami  linguales 
28  N.  alveolaris  inferior 

29  Plexus  dentalis  inferior 

30  Rami    dentales    infe- 


31  Rami   gingivales   in- 


32  N.  mylohyoideus 

33  N.  mentalis 

34  Rami  mentales 

35  Rami  labiales  inferi- 


36  Ganglion   oticum 

37  N.    petrosus    superficialis 


38  N.  tensoris  veli  palatini 

39  N.  tensoris  tympani 

40  Ramus  anastomoticus 

cum  n.  spinoso 

41  R.  anastomoticus  cum  n. 


42  Ramus  anastomoticus 

cum  chorda  tympani 

43  Ganglion  submaxillare 

44  Rami  communicantes  cum  n. 


45  Rami  submaxillares 

46  N.  abducens 

47  N.  facialis 

48  Geniculum  n.  facialis 

49  Ganglion  geniculi 

50  N.  stapedius 

51  Ramus      anastomoticus      cum 

plexu  tympanico 

52  N.  auricularis  posterior 

53  Ramus  occipitalis 
54  Ramus  digastricus 

55  Ramus  stylohyoideus 

56  Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n. 


57  Plexus  parotideus 

58  Rami  temporales 

59  Rami  zygomatici 

60  Rami  buccales 

61  Ramus  marginalis  mandibulae 

62  Ramus  colli 

63  N.     intermedins 

64  Chorda  tympani 

65  N.  acusticus 

66  Radix  vestibularis 
6y  Radix  cochlearis 

68  Fila  anastomotica 

69  N.     V  e  s  t  i  b  u  1  i 

70  Ganglion  vestibulare 



1  N.  utricularis 

2  N.  ampullaris  superior 

3  N.  ampullaris   lateralis 

4  N.  ampullaris  inferior 
SN.    cochleae 

6  Ganglion  spirale 

7  N.  saccularis 

8  N.  glossopharyngeus 

9  Ganglion  superius 

10  Ganglion  petrosum 

11  N.  tympanicus 

12  Intumescentia  tympanica 

13  Plexus  tympanicus  [Jacobsoni] 

14  N.  caroticotympanicus  su- 


15  N.  caroticotympanicus  in- 


16  Ramus  tubae 

17  R.  anastomoticus  cum  ramo  au- 

ricular! n.  vagi 

18  Rami  pharyngei 

19  Ramus  stylopharyngeus 

20  Rami  tonsillares 

21  Rami  linguales 

22  N.  vagus 

23  Ganglion  juglare 

24  Ganglion  nodosum 

25  Ramus  meningeus 

26  Ramus  auricularis 

27  R.  anastomoticus  cum  n.  glos- 


28  Rami  pharyngei 

29  Plexus  pharyngeus 

30  N.  laryngeus  superior 

31  Ramus  externus 

32  Ramus  internus 

•33  'Ramus  anastomoticus  cum 
n.  laryngeo  inferiore 

34  Rami  cardiaci  superiores 

35  (N.  depressor) 

36  N.  recurrens 

37  Rami  cardiaci  inferiores 

38  Rami  tracheales 

39  Rami  oesophagei 

40  N.  laryngeus  inferior 

41  Ramus  anterior 

42  Ramus  posterior 

43  Rami  bronchiales  anteriores 

44  Rami  bronchiales  posteriores 

45  Plexus  pulmonalis  anterior 

46  Plexus  pulmonalis  posterior 

47  Rami  oesopihagei 

48  Plexus  oesophageus  anterior 

49  Plexus  oesophageus  posterior 

50  Rami  gastrici 

51  Plexus  gastricus  anterior 

52  Plexus  gastricus  posterior 

53  Rami  hepatici 

54  Rami  coeliaci 

55  Rami  lienales 

56  Rami  renales 

57  N.  accessorius 

58  Ramus  internus 

59  Ramus  externus 

60  N.  hypoglossus 

61  Ramus  descendens 

62  Ansa  hypoglossi 

63  Ramus  thyreohyoideus 

64  Rami  linguales 

65  N.  spinales 

66  Fila  radicularia 
(3^  Radix  anterior 

68  Radix  posterior 

69  Ganglion  spinale 

70  Ramus  anterior 

71  Ramus  posterior 

72  Ramus  communicans 

73  Ramus  meningeus 

74  Cauda  equina 

75  Ansae 



I   Nn.  cervicales 
2  Rami  posteriores 

3  Ramus  medialis 

4  Ramus  lateralis 

5  N.  suboccipitalis 

6  N.  occipitalis  major 

7  (N.  occipitalis  tertius) 

8  Rami  anteriores 

9  Plexus     cervicalij- 

10  N.  occipitalis  minor 

11  N.  auricularis  magnus 

12  Ramus  posterior 

13  Ramus  anterior 
14  N.  cutaneus  colli 

15  Rami  superiores 

16  Rami  inferiores 
17  Nn.  supraclaviculares 

18  Nn.   supraclaviculares  an- 


19  Nn.  supraclaviculares  me- 


20  Nn.  supraclaviculares  pos- 

21   N.  phrenicus 

22  Ramus  pericardiacus 

23  Rami  phrenicoabdomi 


24  Plexus  brachialis 

25  Pars    supraciavicularis 

26  Nn.  thoracales  posteriores 

2.^  N.  dorsalis  scapulae 
28  N.  thoracalis  longus 

29  Nn.  thoracales  anteriores 

30  N.  subclavius 

31  N.  suprascapularis 

32  Nn.  subscapulares 

33  N.  thoracodorsalis 

34  N.  axillaris 

35  Rami  musculares 

36  N.  cutaneus  brachii  later- 

37  Pars     infraclavicularis 

38  Fasciculus  lateralis 

39  Fasciculus  medialis 

40  Fasciculus  posterior 

41  N.  musculocutaneus 

42  Rami  musculares 

43  N.    cutaneus    antibrachii 


44  N.  cutaneus  brachii  medialis 

45  N.  cutaneus  antibrachii  medi- 


46  Ramus  volaris 

47  Ramus  ulnaris 

48  N.  medianus 

49  Rami  musculares 

50  N.     interosseus     [antibrachii] 


51  Ramus  palmaris  n.  mediani 

52  Ramus  anastomoticus  cum  n. 


53  Nn.     digitales     volares     com- 


54  Nn.  digitales  volares  proprii 

55  N.  ulnaris 

56  Ramus  cutaneus  palmaris 

57  Ramus  dorsalis  manus 

58  Nn.  digitales  dorsales 
59  Ramus  volaris  manus 

60  Ramus  superficialis 

61  Nn.      digitales      volares 


62  Nn.      digitales      volares 

63  Ramus  profundus 

64  Rami  musculares 

65  N.  radialis 

66  N.  cutaneus  brachii  posterior 

67  Rami  musculares 

68  N.    cutaneus    antibrachii    dor- 


69  Ramus  profundus 

70  N.      interosseus       [anti- 
brachii] dorsalis 
71  Ramus  superficialis 

72  Ramus  anastomoticus  ul- 


73  Nn.  digitales  dorsales 

74  Nn.  thoracales 
75     .ami  posteriores 

76  Ramus  cutaneus  lateralis 
"JJ  Ramus  cutaneus  medialis 



37  N.  obturatorius 

38  Ramus  anterior 

39  Rajmus  cutaneus 
40  Ramus  posterior 

I  Rami     anteriores     [Nn.     inter-  36  N.  cutaneus  femoris  lateralis 


2  Rami  musculares 

3  Ramus   cutaneus   lateralis 

[pectoralis    et    ab- 

4  Ramus  posterior 

5  Ramus  anterior 

6  Rami  mammarii  lat- 


7  Nn.  intercostobrachiales 

8  Ramus    cutaneus    anterior 

[pectoralis    et    ab- 
9  Rami  mammarii  me- 

41  N.  femoralis 

42  Rami  cutanei  anteriores 

43  Rami  musculares 

44  N.  saphenus 

45  Ramus  infrapatellaris 

46  Rami  cutanei  cruris  me- 

10  Nn.  lumbales,  sacrales, 

11  Nn.  lumbales 

12  Rami  posteriores 

13  Ramus  medialis 

14  Ramus  lateralis 

15  Nn.  clunium  superi- 

16  Rami  anteriores 

17  Nn.  sacrales  et  coccygeus : 

18  Rami  posteriores 

19  Ramus  medialis 

20  Ramus  lateralis 

21  Nn.        clunium 

22  Plexus  lumbosacralis 

23  Plexus  lumbalis 

24  Rami  musculares 

25   N.  iliohypogastricus 

26  Rami  musculares 

2J  Ramus  cutaneus   lateralis 

28  Ramus  cutaneus  anterior 

29  N.  ilioinguinalis 

30  Rami  musculares 

31  Nn.  scrotales  anteriores 

32  Nn.  labiales  anteriores 

33  N.  genitofemoralis 

34  N.  lumboinguinalis 

35  N.  spermaticus  externus 

47  Plexus  sacralis 

48  Truncus  lumbosacralis 

49  N.  glutaeus  superior 

50  N.  glutaeus  inferior 

51  N.  cutaneus  femoris  posterior 

52  Nn.  clunium  inferiores 

53  Rami  perineales 

54  N.  ischiadicus 

55  Rami  musculares 

56  N.  peronaeus  communis 

57  Rami  musculares 

58  N.  cutaneus  surae  later- 


59  Ramus  anastomoticus 

60  N.  peronaeus  superficialis 

61  Rami  musculares 

62  N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  me- 


63  N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  in- 


64  Nn.     digitales     dorsales 

65  N.  peronaeus  profundus 

66  Rami  musculares 

67  Nn.  digitales  dorsales  hal- 

lucis  lateralis  et  digiti 
secundi  medialis 
68  N.  tibialis 

69  Rami  musculares 



I  N.  interosseus  cruris 

2  N.  cutaneus  surae  medialis 

3  N.  suralis 

4  Rami  calcanei  later- 

5  N.  cutaneus  dorsalis  later- 


6  Rami  calcanei  mediales 
7  N.  plantaris  medialis 

8  Nn.     digitales    plan- 

tares  communes 

9  Nn.    digitales    plan- 

tares  proprii 
lo  N.  plantaris  lateralis 

II  Ramus  superficialis 
12  Nn.       digitales 
plantares  com- 

13  Nn.       digitales 
plantares  pro- 
14  Ramus  profundus 

15  Plexus  pudendus 

16  Nn.  haemorrhoidales  medii 

17  Nn.  vesicales  inferiores 

18  Nn.  vaginales 

19  N.  pudendus 

20  Nn.  haemorrhoidales  in- 


21  N.  perinei 

22  Nn.  scrotales  posteriores 

23  Nn.  labiales  posteriores 

24  N.  dorsalis  penis 

25  N.  dorsalis  clitoridis 

26  N.  coccygeus 

2.y  Plexus  coccygeus 

28  Nn.  anpcoccygei 

29  Systema  nervorum  sympathicum 

30  Truncus  sympathicus  47  Plexus  thyreoideus  superior 

31  Ganglia  trunci  sympathici  48  Plexus  lingualis 

32  Plexus  sympathici  49  Plexus  maxillaris  externus 
17)  Ganglia      plexuum      sympathi-  50  Radix  sympathica  ganglii  sub- 


51  Plexus  occipitalis 

52  Plexus  auricularis  posterior 

53  Plexus  temporalis  superficialis 

54  t'lexus  maxillaris  internus 

55  Plexus  meningeus 

56  Plexus  caroticus  communis 

57  Rami  laryngopharyngei 

58  Plexus  pharyngeus  ascendens 

59  N.  cardiacus  superior 

corum . 

34  Pars  cephalica  et  cervicaJis  s. 


35  Ganglion  cervicale  superius 

36  N.  jugularis 
2,^  N.  caroticus  internus 

38  Plexus  caroticus  internus 

39  Plexus  cavernosus 

40  Plexus   arteriae   cerebri   atiteri-  60  Ganglion  cervicale  medium 

oris  I  N.  cardiacus  medius 

41  Plexus  arteriae  cerebri  mediae  62  Ganglion  cervicale  inferius 

42  Plextjs  arteriae  ohorioideae  63  Ansa  subclavia  [Vieussenii] 

43  Plexus  ophthalmicus  64  N.  cardiacus  inferior 

44  Radices       sympathicae      ganglii  65  Plexus  subclavius 

ciliaris  66  Plexus  mammarius  internus 

45  Nn.  carotici  externi  67  Plexus  thyreoideus  inferior 

46  Plexus  caroticus  externus  68  Plexus  vertebralis 



I  Pars  thoracalis  s.  sympathici 

2  Ganglia  thoracalia 

3  N.  splanchnicus  major 

4  Ganglion  splanchnicum 

5  N.  splanchnicus  minor 

6  Ramus  renalis 

7  (N.   splanchnicus   imus) 

8  Plexus  aorticus  thoracalis 

9  Plexus  cardiacus 

lo  Plexus  coronarius  cordis  ante- 

II  Ganglion      cardiacum      [Wris- 


12  Plexus  coronarius  posterior 

13  Rami  pulmonales 

14  Plexus  pulmonalis 

15  Pars  abdominalis  et  pelvina 

s.  sympathici 

16  Ganglia  lumbalia 

17  Ganglia  sacralia 

18  Plexus   aorticus  abdominalis 

19  Plexus  coeliacus 

20  Ganglia  coeliaca 

21  Ganglion       mesentericum       su- 


22  Plexus  phrenicus 

23  Ganglia  phrenica 

24  Plexus  hepaticus 

25  Plexus  lienalis 

26  Plexus  gastricus  superior 

27  Plexus  gastricus  inferior 

28  Plexus  suprarenalis 

29  Plexus  renalis 

30  Plexus  spermaticus 

31  Plexus  arteriae  ovaricae 

32  Plexus  mesentericus  superior 

33  Plexus  myentericus 

34  Plexus  submucosus 

35  Plexus  mesentericus  inferior 

36  Nn.    haemorrhoidales    superi- 

■S'7  Plexus    haemorrhoidalis    supe- 

38  Plexus  iliacus 

39  Plexus  hypogastricus 

40  Plexus  haemorrhoidalis  medius 

41  Plexus  prostaticus 

42  Plexus  deferentialis 

43  Plexus  uterovaginalis 

44  Plexus  vesicalis 

45  Nn.  vesicales  superiores 

46  Nn.  vesicales  inferiores 

47  Plexus  cavernosus  penis 

48  N.  cavernosus  penis  ma- 


49  Nn.  cavernosi  penis  mi- 

50  Plexus  cavernosus  clitoridis 

51  N.    cavernosus    clitoridis 


52  Nn.    cavernosi    clitoridis 


53  Plexus  femoralis 

54  Plexus  popliteus 



1    Organa  sensuum  et  Integumentum 

2  Organonvisus 
3  Oculus 

4  N.  opticus 

5  Vaginae  n.  optici 

6  Spatia  intervaginalia 

7  Bulbus  oculi 

8  Polus  anterior 

9  Polus  posterior 

10  Aequator 

11  Meridiani 

12  Axis  oculT  externa 

13  Axis  oculi  interna 

14  Axis  optica 

15  [Linea  visus] 

16  Vesicula  ophthalmica 

17  Caliculus  ophthalmicus 

18  Tunica  fibrosa  oculi 

ig   Sclera 

20  Sulcus  sclerae 

21  Rima  cornealis 

22  Sinus  venosus  sclerae   [Canalis 

Schlemmi,   Lauthi] 

23  Lamina  fusca 

24  Lamina  cribrosa  sclerae 

25  (Raphe  sclerae) 

26  (Funiculus  sclerae) 

27  Cornea 

28  Annulus  conjunctivae 

29  Vertex  corneae 

30  Limbus  corneae 

31  Facies  anterior 

32  Facies  posterior 

33  Epithelium  corneae 

34  Lamina  elastica  anterior  [Bow- 


35  Substantia  propria 

36  Lamina  elastica  posterior  [De- 

moursi,  Descemeti] 

37  Endothelium    camerae   anteri- 


38  Tunica  vasculosa 

39  Chorioidea 

40  Lamina  suprachorioidea 

41  Spatium  perichorioideale 

42  Lamina  vasculosa 

43  Lamina  choriocapillaris 

44  Lamina  basalis 

45  (Raphe  chorioideae) 

46  Corpus  ciliare 

47  Corona  ciliaris 

48  Processus  ciliares 

49  Plicae  ciliares 
50  Oribiculus  ciliaris 

51  M.  ciliaris 

52  Fibrae  meridionales 


53  Fibrae  circulares 

54  Plexus  gangliosus  ciliaris 

55  Iris 

56  Margo  pupillaris 

57  Margo  ciliaris 

58  Facies  anterior 



1  Fades  posterior 

2  Annulns  iridis  major 

3  Annulus  iridis  minor 

4  Plicae  iridis 

5  Pupilla 

6  M.  sphincter  pupillae 

7  Stroma  iridis 

8  M.  dilatator  pupillae 

9  Lig.  pectinatum  iridis 

10  Spatia  anguli  iridis  [FontanaeJ 

11  Circulus  arteriosus  major 

12  Circulus  arteriosus  minor 

13  Membrana  pupillaris 

14  Stratum  pigmenti 

15  Stratum  pigmenti  retinae 

16  Stratum  pigmenti  corporis  cili- 


17  Stratum  pigmenti  iridis 

18  Retina 

19  Pars  optica  retinae 
20  Ora  serrata 

21  Pars  ciliaris  retinae 

22  Papilla  n.  optici 

23  Excavatio  papillae  n.  optici 

24  Macula  lutea 

25  Fovea  centralis 

26  Vasa  sanguinea  retinae 

27  Circulus    vasculosus    n.    optici 


28  Arteriola    [Venula]    temporalis 

retinae  superior 

29  Arteriola    [Venula]    temporalis 

retinae  inferior 

30  Arteriola       [Venula]       nasalis 

retinae  superior 

31  Arteriola       [Venula]       nasalis 

retinae  inferior 

32  Arteriola     [Venula]     macularis 


33  Arteriola     [Venula]     macularis 


34  Arteriola  [Venula]  retinae  me- 


35  Camera  oculi  anterior 

36  Angulus  iridis 

37  Camera  oculi  posterior 

38  Corpus  vitreum 

39  A.  hyaloid ea 

40  Canalis  hyaloideus 

41  Fossa  hyaloidea 

42  Membrana  hyaloidea 

43  Stroma  vitreum 

44  Humor  vitreus. 

45  Lens  crystallina 

46  Suibstantia  lentis 

47  Substantia  corticalis 

48  Nucleus  lentis 

49  Fibrae  lentis 

50  Epithelium  lentis 

51  Capsula  lentis 

52  Polus  anterior  lentis 

53  Polus  posterior  lentis 

54  Facies  anterior  lentis 

55  Facies  posterior  lentis 

56  Axis  lentis 

57  Aequator  lentis 

58  Radii  lentis 

59  Zonula  ciliaris   [Zinni] 

60  Fibrae  zonulares 

61  Spatia  zonularia 

62  Organa  oculi  acces- 

63  Musculi  oculi,  Fasciae  orbitales 

.64  M.  orbitalis 

65  M.  rectus  superior  • 

66  M.  rectus  inferior 

67  M.  rectus  medialis 

68  M.  rectus  lateralis 

69  Lacertus  musculi  recti  lateralis 

70  Annulus  tendineus   communis 


71  M.  obliquus  superior 



I  Trochlea 

2  M.  obliquus  inferior 

3  M.  levator  palpebrae  superioris 

4  Periorbita 

5  Septum  orbitale 

6  Fasciae  musculares 

7  Fascia  bulbi    [Tenoni] 

8  Spatium  interfasciale  [Tenoni] 

9  Corpus  adiposum  orbitae 

10  Supercilium 

II  Palpebrae 

12  Palpebra  superior 

13  Palpebra  inferior 

14  Facies  anterior  palpebrarum 

15  Facies  posterior  palpebrarum 

16  Rima  palpebrarum 

17  Commissura  palpebrarum  later- 


18  Commissura  palpebrarum  medi- 


19  Angulus  oculi  lateralis 

20  Angulus  oculi  me'dialis 

21  Limbi  palpebrales  anteriores 

22  Limbi  palpebrales  posteriores 

23  Tarsus  superior 

24  Tarsus  inferior 

25  Lig.  palpebrale  mediale 

26  Ra,phe  palpebralis  lateralis 

27  Glandulae  tarsales  [Meibomi] 

28  Sebum  palpebrale 

29  M.  tarsalis  superior 

30  'M.  tarsalis  inferior 

31  Conjunctiva 

32  Plica  semilunaris  conjunctivae 

33  Caruncula  lacrimalis 

34  Tunica  conjunctiva  bulbi 

35  Tunica     conjunctiva    palpebra- 


36  Fornix  conjunctivae  superior 
2,^  Fornix  conjunctivae  inferior 

38  Gl.  mucosae    [Kra-usei] 

39  Noduli     lymphatici     conjuncti- 


40  (Pinguecula) 

41  Apparatus  lacrimalis 

42  Glandula  lacrimalis  superior 

43  Glandula  lacrimalis  inferior 

44  (Gl.  lacrimales  accessoriae) 

45  Ductuli  excretorii  [gl.  lac- 

46  Rivus  lacrimalis 

47  Lacus  lacrimalis 

48  Puncta  lacrimalia 

49  Ductus  lacrimales 

50  Papillae  lacrimales 

51  Ampulla  ductus  lacrimalis 

52  Saccus  lacrimalis 

53  Fornix  sacci  lacrimalis 

54  Ductus  nasolacrimalis 

55  Plica  lacrimalis   [Hasneri] 

56  Lacrimae 

57  Organon  auditus 

58  Auris  interna 

59  Labyrinthus  mem- 

60  Ductus  endolymphaticus 

61  Saccus  endolymphaticus 

62  Ductus  utriculosaccularis 

63  Utriculus 

64  Ductus  semicirculares 

65  Ductus  semicircularis  su- 


66  Ductus  semicircularis 


67  Ductus  semicircularis 

68  Ampullae  membranaceae 

69  Sulcus  ampuUaris 

70  Crista  ampullaris 

71  Ampulla  membranacea 


72  Ampulla  membranacea 


73  Ampulla  membranacea 


74  Sacculus 

75  Ductus  reuniens  [Henseni] 

76  Maculae  acusticae 

TJ  Macula  acustica  utriculi 
78  Macula  acustica  sacculi 



1  Otoconia 

2  Endolympha 

3  Perilympha 

4  Spatium  perilymphaticum 

5  Ductus  perilymphatici 

6  Ductus     cochlearis 

7  Caecum  cupulare 

8  Caecum  vestibulare 

9  Lamina  basilaris 

ID  Mombrana  vestibularis    [Reiss- 

11  Lig.  spirale  cochleae 

12  Prominentia  spiralis 

13  Stria  vascularis 

14  Sulcus  spiralis 

15  Labium  tympanicum 

16  Foramina  nervosa 

17  Labium  vestibulare 

18  Ganglion  spirale  cochleae 

19  Organon  spirale  [Cortii] 
2oVasa     auris     internae 
21  A.  auditiva  interna 

22  Rami  vestibulares 

23  Ramus  cochleae 

24  Glomeruli  arteriosi 

25  Vv.  auditivae  internae 
26  V.  spiralis  modioli 
27  Vas  prominens 

28  Vv.  vestibulares 

29  V.  aquaeductus  vestibuli 

30  V.  canaliculi  cochleae 

31  Labyrinthus  osseus 

32  Vestibulum 

33  Recessus  sphaericus 

34  Recessus  ellipticus 

35  Crista  vestibuli 

36  Pyramis  vestibuli 
2,T-  Recessus  cochlearis 
38  Maculae  cribrosae 

39  Macula  cribrosa  superior 

40  Macula  cribrosa  media 

41  Macula  cribrosa  inferior 
42  Canales  semicirculares  ossei 

43  Canalis  semicircularis  su- 


44  Canalis   semicircularis 


45  Canalis   semicircularis 

46  Ampullae  osseae 

47  Ampulla  ossea  superior 

48  Ampulla  ossea  posterior 

49  Ampulla  ossea  lateralis 

50  Crura  ampullaria 

51  Crus  commune 

52  Crus  simplex 

53  Cochlea 

54  Cupula 

55  Basis  cochleae 

56  Canalis  spiralis  cochleae 

57  Modiolus 

58  Basis  modioli 

59  Lamina  modioli 

60  Lamina  spiralis  ossea 

61  Hamulus  laminae  spiralis 

62  Scala  vestibuli 

63  Scala  tympani 

64  Helicotrema 

65  Lamina  spiralis  secundaria 

66  Canalis  spiralis  modioli 

67  Canales    longitudinales    modi- 


68  Meatus  acusticus  internus 

69  Porus  acusticus  internus 

70  Fundus  meatus  acustici  interni 

71  Crista  transversa 

72  Area  n.  facialis 

73  Area  cochleae 

74  Tractus  spiralis  for- 
75  Area  vestibularis  superior, 
^6  Area  vestibularis  inferior 
'j'j  Foramen  singulare 

78  Cavum  tympani 

79  Paries  tegmentalis 



I  Recessus  epitympanicus 
2  Pars  cupularis 
3  Paries    jugularis 

.4  Prominentia  styloidea 
5  Paries     labyrinthica 

6  Fenestra  vestibuli 

7  Fossula  fenestrae  vestibuli 

8  Promontorium 

9  Sulcus  promontorii 

10  Subiculum  promontorii 

11  Sinus  tympani 

12  Fenestra  cochleae 

13  Fossula  fenestrae  cochleae 

14  Crista   fenestrae   cochleae 

15  Processus  cochleariformis 
16  Paries    mastoidea 

17  Antrum  tympanicum 

18  Prominentia  canalis  semi- 

circularis  lateralis 

19  Prominentia   canalis   faci- 


20  Eminentia  pyramidalis 

21  Fossa  incudis 

22  Sinus  posterior 

23  Apertura    tympanica    can- 

aliculi  chordae 

24  Cellulae  mastoideae 

25  Cellulae  tympanicae 

26  Paries    carotica 

27  Paries     membranacea 

28  Membrana  tympani 

29  Pars  flaccida 

30  Pars  tensa 

31  Limbus  membranae  tympani 

32  Plica  malleolaris  anterior 

33  Plica  malleolaris  posterior 

34  Prominentia  malleolaris 

35  Stria  malleolaris 

36  Umbo  membranae  tympani 

37  Stratum  cutaneum 

38  Annulus  fibrocartilagineus 

39  Stratum  radiatum 

40  Stratum  circulare 

41  Stratum  mucosum 

42  Ossicula  auditus 

43  Stapes 

44  Capitulum  stapedis 

45  Crus  anterius 

46  Crus  posterius 

47  Basis  stapedis 

48  Incus 

49  Corpus  incudis 

50  Crus  longum 

51  Processus  lenticularis 

52  Crus  breve 

53  Malleus 

54  Manubrium  mallei 

55  Capitulum  mallei 

56  Collum  mallei 

57  Processus  lateralis 

58  Processus  anterior  [Folii] 

59  Articulationes  ossiculorum 

60  Articulatio  incudomalleolaris 

61  Articulatio  incudostapedia 

62  Syndesmosis  tympanostapedia 

63  Ligg.  ossiculorum  auditus 

64  Lig.  mallei  anterius 

65  Lig.  mallei  superius 

66  Lig.  mallei  laterale 

67  Lig.  incudis  superius 

68  Lig.  incudis  posterius 

69  Membrana  obturatoria  [stape- 


70  Lig.  annulare  baseos  stapedis 
"]!.   [M.  fixator  baseos  stapedis] 

72  Musculi  ossiculorum  auditus 

73  M.  tensor  tympani 

74  M.  stapedius 



I  Tunica  mucosa  tympanica 

2  (Gl.  tympanicae) 

3  Plica  malleolaris  posterior 

4  Plica  malleolaris  anterior 

5  Recessus    membranae    tympani 


6  Recessus    membranae    tympani 


7  Recessus    mem'branae    tympani 


8  Plica  incudis 

9  Plica  stapedis 

ID  Membrana  tympani  secundaria 

11  Tuba  auditiva 


12  Ostium  tympanicum  tubae  au- 


13  Pars  ossea  tubae  auditivae 

14  Isthmus  tubae  auditivae 

15  Cellulae    pneumaticae    tu- 

16  Pars    cartilaginea    tubae    audi- 
17  Cartilago  tubae  auditivae 
18  Lamina  [cartilaginis] 
19  Lamina   [cartilaginis]   lat- 

20  Lamina  membranacea 

21  Tunica  mucosa 

22  Gl.  mucosae 

23  Noduli  lymphatici  tubarii 
24  Ostium  pharyngeum  tubae  au- 

25  Meatus  acusticus  externus 

26  Porus  acusticus  externus 

27  Incisura  tympanica  [Rivini] 

28  Meatus  acusticus  externus  car- 


29  Cartilago  meatus  acustici  ■ 

30  Incisurae  cartilaginis  mea- 

tus      acustici       externi 

31  Lamina  tragi 

32  Auricula 

2^  Lobulus  auriculae 

34  Cartilago  auriculae 

35  Helix 

36  Crus  helicis 
^y  Spina  helicis 

38  Cauda  helicis 

39  Anthelix 

40  Fossa  triangularis  [auriculae] 

41  Crura  anthelicis 

42  Scapha 

43  Concha  auriculae 

44  Cymba  conchae 

45  Cavum  conchae 

46  Antitragus 

47  Tragus 

48  Incisura  anterior  [auris] 

49  Incisura  intertragica 

50  (Tuberculum  auriculae    [Dar- 


51  (Apex  auriculae  [Darwini]) 

52  Sulcus  auriculae  posterior 

53  (Tuberculum  supratragicum) 

54  Isthmus  cartilaginis  auris 

55  Incisura  terminalis  auris 

56  Fissura  antitragohelicina 

57  Sulcus  anthelicis  transversus 

58  Sulcus  cruris  helicis 

59  Fossa  anthelicis 

60  Eminentia  conchae 

61  Eminentia  scaphae 

62  Eminentia  fossae  triangularis 

63  Ligg.  auricularia  [Valsalvae] 

64  Lig.  auriculare  anterius 

65  Lig.  auriculare  superius 

66  Lig.  auriculare  posterius 

67  M.  helicis  major 

68  M.  helicis  minor 

69  M.  tragicus 

70  (M.  pyramidalis  auriculae 


71  iM.  antitragicus 

72  M.  transversus  auriculae 

73  M.  obliquus  auriculae 

74  (M.   incisurae  helicis    [Santo- 




1  Organon  olfactus 

2  Organon  gustus 
3  Calyculi  gustatorii 

4  Integumentum  commune 

5  Cutis 

6  Sulci  cutis 

7  Cristae  cutis 

8  Retinacula  cutis 

9  Toruli  tactiles 

10  Foveola  coccygea 

11  Lig.  caudale 

12  Epidermis 

13  Stratum  corneum 

14  Stratum    germinativum     [Mal- 


15  Corium 

16  Tunica  propria 

17  Corpus  papillare 

18  Papillae 

19  Tela  subcutanea 
20  Panniculus  adiposus 

21  Corpuscula  nervorum  termi- 

22  Corpuscula  bulboidea  [Krausii] 

23  Corpuscula    lamellosa    [Vateri, 


24  Corpuscula  tactus  [Meissneri] 

25  Corpuscula  nervorum  genitalia 

26  Corpuscula  nervorum  articularia 

27  Pili 

28  Lanugo 

29  Capilli 

30  Supercilia 

31  Cilia 

32  Barba 

33  Tragi 

34  Vibrissae 

35  Hirci 

36  Pubes 

37  Folliculus  pili 

38  Fundus  folliculi  pili 

39  Collum  folliculi  pili 

40  Papilla  pili 

41  Scapus  pili 

42  Radix  pili 

43  Bulbus  pili 

44  Mm.  arrectores  pilorum 

45  Flumina  pilorum 

46  Vortices  pilorum 

47  (Vortex  coccygeus) 

48  Ungues 

49  Matrix  unguis 

50  Cristae  matricis  unguis 

51  Sulcus  matricis  unguis 

52  Vallum  unguis 

53  Corpus  unguis 

54  Radix  unguis 

55  Lunula 

56  Margo  occultus 

57  Margo  liber 

58  Margo  lateralis 

59  Stratum  corneum  unguis 

60  Stratum  germinativum  unguis 

61  Glandulae  cutis 

62  Gl.  glomiformes 

63  Gl.  sudoriferae 

64  Corpus  gl.  sudoriferae 

65  Ductus  sudoriferus 

66  Porus  sudoriferus 
dy  Sudor 

68  Gl.  ciliares  [Molli] 

69  Gl.  circumanales 



I  Gl.  ceruminosae 

2  Cerumen 

3  Glandulae  sebaceae 

4  Sebum  cutaneum 

5  Mamma 

6  Papilla  mammae 

7  Corpus  mammae 

8  Lobi  mammae 

9  Lobuli  mammae 

lo  Ductus  lactiferi 

II  Sinus  lactiferi 

12  Lac  femininum 

13  Colostrum 

14  Areola  mammae 

15  Gl.  sebaceae 

16  Gl.  areolares  [Montgom- 


17  Mamma    virilis 

18  (Mammae  accessoriae  [mulie- 

bres  et  viriles]) 



1    Regiones  corporis  humani 

auctoribus  Merkel,  'Riidinger,  Toldt 

2  Linea  mediana  anterior 

3  Linea  mediana  posterior 

4  Linea  sternalis 

5  Linea  parasternalis 

•6  Linea  mamillaris 

7  Linea  axillaris 

8  Linea  scapularis 

•  ■»        inferuir- 



iRegiones    capitis 


Regio  parotideomasseterica 

2  Regio  frontalis 

22  Fossa  retromandibularis 

3  Regio  supraorbitalis 


Regiones  colli 

4  Regio  parietalis 


Regio  colli  anterior 

5  Regio  occipitalis 

25  Regio  submentalis 

6  Regio  temporalis 

26  Regio  hyoidea 

7  Regio  auricularis 

27  Regio  subhyoidea 

8  Regio  mastoidea 

28  Regio  laryngea 

9  Regiones    faciei 

29  Regio  thyreoidea 

10  Regio  nasalis 

30  Regio  suprasternalis 

II  Regio  oralis 

31  Fossa  jugularis 

12  Regio  labialis  superior 

32  Regio  submaxillaris 

33  Fossa  carotica 

13  Regio  labialis  inferior 

34  Regio  sternocleidomastoidea 

14  Regio  mentalis 

35  Fossa  supraclavicularis 

15  Regio  orbitalis 


16  Regio  palpebralis  superior 

36  Regio  colli  lateralis 

17  Regio  palpebralis  inferior 

37  Fossa  supraclavicularis 

18  Regio  infraorbitalis 

38  Trigonum  omoclaviculare 

19  Regio  buccalis 

39  Regio  colli  posterior 

20  Regio  zygomatica 

40  Regio  nuchae 



I  Fovea  nuchae 

2  Regiones  pectoris 

3  Regio  pectoris  anterior 

4  Regio  sternalis 

5  Regio  clavicularis 

6  Regio  infraclavicularis 

7  Trigonum  deltoideo- 

8  Regio  mammalis 

9  Regio  inframammalis 
TO  Regio  pectoris  lateralis 

II  Regio  axillaris 

24  Regio  mediana  dorsi 

25  Regio  interscapularis 

26  Regio  scapularis 

27  Regio  suprascapularis 

28  Regio  infrascapularis 

29  Regio  lumbalis 

30  Regio  coxae 

31  Regio  sacralis 

32  Regio  glutaea 

33  Regio  perinealis 

34  Regio  analis 

35  Regio  urogenitalls 

12  Fossa  axillaris 
13  Regio  costalis  lateralis 

14  Regiones    abdominis 

15  Regio  epigastrica 

16  Regio  hypochondriaca 

17  Regio  mesogastrica 

18  Regio  umbilicalis 

19  Regio  abdominalis  lateralis 

20  Regio  hypogastrica 

21  Regio  pubica 

22  Regio  inguinalis 
23  Regiones    dorsi 

36  Regio  pudendalis 

37  Regiones    extremitatis 


38  Regio  acromialis 

39  Regio  deltoidea 

40  Regio  brachii  lateralis 

41  Regio  brachii  medialis 

42  Regio  brachii  anterior 

43  Regio  brachii  posterior 

44  Regio  cubiti  anterior 

45  Fossa  cubitalis 



I  Regio  cubiti  posterior 
2  Regio  olecrani 

3  Regio  cubiti  lateralis 

4  Regio  cubiti     medialis 

5  Regio  antibrachii  volaris 

6  Regio  antibrachii  dorsalis 

7  Regio  antibrachii  radialis 

8  Regio  antibrachii  ulnaris 

9  Regio  dorsalis  manus 
ID  Regio  volaris  manus 

II  Regiones  digitales  [manus] 

12  Regiones  dorsales  digi- 


13  Regiones  unguiculares 

14  Regiones  volaresdigitorum 

15  Regiones     extremitatis 

in  f erior is 

16  Regio  femoris  anterior 

17  Fossa  subinguinalis 
18  Regio  femoris  lateralis 

19  Regio  trochanterica 
20  Regio  femoris  posterior 

21  Regio  femoris  medialis 

22  Regio  genu  anterior 

23  Regio  patellaris 
24  Regio  genu  posterior 
25  Fossa  poplitea 

26  Regio  cruris  anterior 

27  Regio  cruris  posterior 

28  Regio  suralis 

29  Regio  cruris  lateralis 

30  Regio  cruris  medialis 

31  Regio  malleolaris  lateralis 

32  Regio  malleolaris  medialis 

33  Regio  retromalleolaris 


34  Regio  retromalleolaris 


35  Regio  calcanea 

36  Regio  dorsalis  pedis 
2,7  Regio  plantaris  pedis 

38  Regiones  digitales  pedis 

39  Regiones    dorsales    digitorum 


40  Regiones  unguiculares 

41  Regiones  plantares   digitorum 




The  meaning  of  the  names  in  the  submitted  lists  can  be  inferred  in 
a  large  majority  of  cases  from  the  newer  current  textbooks  of  anatomy, 
especially  that  of  Gegenbaur  which  from  the  beginning  was  made  the  basis 
of  the  proposed  list.  There  are,  however,  in  anatomy  numerous  names 
to  which  different  textbooks  give  different  meanings.  Moreover,  the 
Commission  here  and  there  went  beyond  the  currently  used  textbook  terms. 
Another  object  of  the  following  explanations  is  to  establish  the  meaning 
of  the  older  ambiguous  terms  and  to  give  reasons  for  the  introduction  of 
new  terms  by  the  Commission.  It  seems  to  me  to  be  a  further  require- 
ment to  report  on  some  preliminary  work  and .  suggestions  made  by  the 
Commission.  Undoubtedly  there  are  some  of  the  latter  which,  although 
not  decided  upon  at  present,  will  turn  up  again  on  later  occasions  and 
will  possibly  prove  worthy  of  being  developed.  The  explanations  do 
not  claim  to  offer  exhaustive  literary  reports.  They  have  rather  the 
practical  end  in  view  of  giving  clearly  definable  terms  and  of  referring 
to  the  older  and  newer  literature  only  in  so  far  as  it  appears  to  be  neces- 
sary to  this  end.  The  explanations  taken  from  the  records  of  the  voting 
copies  are  designated  (Absth.),  those  edited  by  Krause  (Kr.). 

Accentuation.  In  Munich  the  Commission  had  decided  to  give  the 
vowels  certain  diacritical  marks,  etc.,  in  order  to  make  sure  of  correct 
pronunciation.  In  the  voting  copies  on  myology,  therefore,  there  are  to 
be  found :  Mm.  rhomboideus,  genio-hyoideus,  soleus.  In  the  final  editing 
such  marks  were  removed  for  various  reasons.  One  does  not  know  where 
to  begin  or  where  to  stop,  e.  g.,  cervicis,  coccygeus,  perforans,  procerus, 
thoracis.  In  some  words  the  accentuation  is  hard  to  express  as  in  radicis. 
In  German  we  pronounce  it  Radieschen,  but  in  Italian  it  is  radice.  In 
the  words  taken  from  the  Greek  one  must  use  accents  which  are  un- 
known in  the  Latin  language,  e.  g.,  rpiyoivov,  trigonum.  Finally  the 
tabulations  are  not  only  intended  for  students  but  also  for  foreigners. 
To  the  latter  these  signs  of  accentuation,  in  such  individual  words,  would 
be  almost  unintelligible.  As  is  known  each  nation  pronounces  Latin  in 
its  peculiar  way  and  the  German  accentuation  does  not  entirely  conform 
to  that  of  the  old  Roman.  Classical  philologists  find  it  impossible  to  con- 
verse in  Latin  with  foreign  colleagues  when  they  do  not  know  the  native 
tongue.  There  are  also  some  words  concerning  the  accentuation  of  which 
linguists  themselves  are  not  in  accord.  In  these  cases  resolutions  cannot 
possibly  bring  about  a  decision.  For  all  these  reasons  it  seemed  advisable 
to  omit  entirely  accentuation  marks.     (Kr.) 


Among  the  suggestions  of  a  general  nature  that  of  v.  KoUiker  regard- 
ing the  abolition  of  the  expressions  "  behind  "  and  "  in  front,"  "  above  " 
and  "  below,"  is  the  farthest  reaching.  We  shall  later  speak  of  thissug-. 
gestion.  For  the  time  being  its  consummation  is  to  be  considered  a  task 
for  the  future,  since  the  Commission  has  always  in  its  several  votings 
rejected  the  principle  expressed  in  the  suggestion.  It  is,  however,  of 
interest  to  follow  the  method  through  which  v.  Kolliker  avoided,  by  a 
fitting  change  of  name,  many  of  the  difficulties  resulting  from  his  prin- 
ciple.   Thus  he  suggests : 

M.  serratus  dorsalis  major  [instead  of  posticus  caudalis],  iM.  serratus 
dorsalis  minor  [instead  of  posticus  craniaHs],  M.  rectus  nuchae  major 
[instead  of  M.  capitis  dorsalis  major],  M.  obliquus  capitis  and  M. 
obliquus  atlantis  [instead  of  M.  obliquus  capitis  cranialis  and  caudalis], 
M.  rectus  colli  major  [instead  of  M.  rectus  capitis  ventralis  major],  M. 
serratus  magnus  [instead  of  M.  serratus  ventralis  major]. 

Another  suggestion  relating  to  the  orientation  of  parts  of  the  body 
is  by  Krause.  According  to  this  suggestion  we  should  relinquish  as  un- 
natural the  normal  position  of  the  forearm  with  laterally  turned  radius, 
and  choose  the  various  designations  for  parts  of  the  arms  in  such  a 
way  that  they  are  adapted  to  any  position  of  the  arm  in  space.  This  can 
be  obtained  by  substituting  the  adjectives  radialis  and  ulnaris  for 
"  lateraHs  and  medialis."  But  as  soon  as  we  try  to  proceed  consistently 
with  this,  we  meet  with  the  difficulty  that  we  already  have  a  N.  radialis 
and  N.  ulnaris.  If  we  should  designate  the  N.  cutaneus  antibrachii 
lateralis  of  the  Musculocutaneus  as  N.  cut.  antibrachii  radialis,  it  would 
lead  unavoidably  to  confusion  with  the  cutaneous  branches  of  the  N. 
radialis.  While  we  fully  appreciate  the  desirability  of  Krause's  prin- 
ciple, we  deem  its  application  too  precarious. 

Designations  of  Position  and  Direction  of  Parts. 

Of  the  orienting  designations  Transversalis  means  transverse  to  the 
axis  of  the  body;  Transversus,  transverse  to  the  axis  of  the  organ  in 
question.  The  word  Intermedius  is  used  where  a  position  between 
medialis  and  lateralis  is  to  be  indicated  in  order  to  avoid  a  juxtaposition 
of  the  similarly  sounding  words  medius  and  medialis.  The  adjective 
Medius  has  been  retained  to  designate  a  position  between  anterior  and 
posterior  or  between  externus  and  internus. 

As  mentioned  above,  v.  Kolliker  made  the  suggestion  to  replace  the 
words  anterior  and  posterior  by  Ventralis  and  Dorsalis  wherever  it  is 
desirable  to  refer  to  comparative  anatomy  and  especially  to  the  anatomy 
of  domestic  animals,  i.  e.  where  the  expression  anterior  and  posterior 
apply  only  to  the  upright  position  of  man.     In  this  sense  we  speak  of 


ventral  and  dorsal  roots  of  the  spinal  nerves,  of  a  ventral  and  dorsal 
margin  of  the  liver,  etc.  In  the  same  way  we  could  further  speak  of  an 
anterior  and  posterior  end  of  the  brain,  as  well  as  of  a  N.  tibialis  anticus 
and  a  N.  tibialis  posticus,  because  these  designations  retain  their  meaning 
also  in  the  quadrupeds. 

We  do  not  misjudge  the  merits  of  such  a  strict  usage  of  language, 
nevertheless  the  Commission  could  not  decide  on  its  adoption.  It  still 
makes  necessary  all  kinds  of  awkward  terms  and  improprieties,  especially 
so  since  at  the  same  time  we  must  replace  the  expressions  superior  and 
inferior  by  Cranialis  and  Caudalis.  Facies  cranialis  hepatis,  Facies 
caudalis  hepatis  and  similar  designations  still  sound  rather  strange  to  us. 
Indeed  to  be  consistent  we  should  not  be  allowed  to  speak  of  a  Colon 
ascendens  and  descendens  but  of  a  Colon  craniale  and  caudale.  At 
present,  we  must  leave  it  for  time  to  decide  whether  or  not  it  will  definitely 
break  from  the  conventional  custom  of  referring  to  the  upright  position 
of  man. 

F.  E.  Schulze,  partly  with  reference  to  American  eiforts,  tried  to 
develop  a  system  of  orienting  designations,  which  should  be  applicable 
to  the  entire  animal  kingdom.  Colleague  Schulze  has  been  kind  enough 
to  explain  his  system  at  a  meeting  of  the  anatomists  in  Gottingen  in  1893. 
The  same  was  made  at  once  the  subject  for  special  discussion  at  a  ses- 
sion of  the  Zoological  Society^  which  met  at  the  same  time. 

The  most  important  suggestions  underlying  Schulze's  system  are  based 
on  the  designation  of  peripheral  position  by  the  ending  an,  the  direction 
by  the  ending  ad,  and  in  retaining  the  ending  al  for  the  general  designa- 
tion of  a  region,  e.  g.  Dorsan  at  the  back.  Dorsad  toward  the  back 
[dorsalward]  and  Dorsal  in  the  region  of  the  back. 

Concerning  these  suggestions,  we  also  may  await  developments  as  to 
how  far  they  will  attain  general  approval  and  adoption ;  we  may  do  this 
since  it  nowhere  interferes  with  our  nomenclature.  Personally  I  have 
a  practical  objection  to  putting  the  distinctions  into  a  mere  final 
letter.  Very  many  people  have,  in  speech  as  well  as  in  writing,  the  bad 
habit  of  dropping  the  last  syllable,  and  the  similarly  sounding  ad,  al,  an, 
might  be  easily  confused. 

The  introduction  of  the  word  Rostrum  for  the  cephalic  pole  of  the 
axis  of  the  body  I  deem  an  essential  enrichment  of  our  language.  The 
adjective  Rostral  [proral  Ehlers,  or  acral  Froriep]  seems  to  me  indis- 
pensable as  an  ontogenetic  expression.  The  rostrum  of  the  early  embry- 
onic body  lies  in  the  region  of  the  area  reuniens,^  the  rostrum  of  the  fully 

'  Verhandlungen   der   deutschen  Gesellschaft   auf   der  3.     Jahresversammlung 
in  Gottingen.     Leipzig  1894.     p.  10. 
2  This  Archive  1894,  p.  314- 


developed  body  lies  in  the  margin  of  the  snout  fold  (nose,  beak,  etc.).^ 
As  far  as  designations  of  direction  in  the  trunk  are  concerned  the  hitherto 
used  appositives  Cranial  and  Caudal  are  sufficient. 

Glandulae.     Lymphoglandulae.     Noduli  lymphatici. 

Our  nomenclature  contains  besides  Glandulae,  the  Lymphoglandulae, 
and  it  should  be  emphasized  that  the  latter  designation  was  not  adopted 
without  vigorous  opposition.  Toldt  especially  advocated  with  great  fervor 
the  expression  Nodi  lymphatici.  But  in  its  last  ballot  the  Commission 
dropped  this  term  by  a  large  majority,  and  as  I  think  correctly. 

The  recognition  of  the  most  general  characteristics  of  "  glands  "  offered 
many  difficulties  to  the  older  anatomists.  In  the  foreground  were  always 
standing  definite  form  and  compact  structure,  as  indicated  by  the  Latin 
word  "  glandula  "  and  also  as  it  appears,  by  the  Greek  *  "  aSr/v."  Later, 
especially  on  the  strength  of  Ruysch's  injections,  the  richness  in  vessels 
was  designated  as  the  main  characteristic  of  all  glands.  In  no  lesser 
degree  the  chemical  action  of  the  glands  and  the  formation  of  special 
secretions  different  from  blood,  were  pointed  out  as  essential  properties.'' 
The  main  difficulty  in  the  establishment  of  precise  characteristics  for 
glands  was  for  a  long  time  based  on  the  existence  of  glands  without 
excretory  ducts.  J.  Fr.  Meckel  called  the  latter  "  incomplete  glands  " 
and  was  of  the  opinion  that  in  them  the  lymph  vessels  take  the  place  of 
excretory  ducts. °  Then  E.  H.  Weber,  in  a  thoroughly  clear  and  well 
thought  out  argument,  advocated  the  division  of  the  glands  into  two 
main  groups;  the  Vessel  glands  and  Excretory  glands,  or  the  glands 
with  and  the  glands  without  excretory  ducts,  which  division  has  since 
been  generally  accepted.  Weber  subdivided  the  vessel  glands  into 
Lymphglands  and  Blood  or  Blood  vessel  glands ;  among  the  latter  he 
counted  the  thyreoid,  thymus  and  spleen.  This  fundamental  division  is 
found  also  in  J.  Miiller's  authoritative  work  on  glands.  J.  Miiller's  hy- 
pothesis was  that  the  vessel  glands  consist  throughout  of  vessels,  so  it 
becomes  intelligible  that  he  counted  among  them  an  organ  like  the 
placenta.''    He  calls  them  Vessel  nodes  or  Vessel  ganglia,  and  here- 

3  This  Archive  1892,  p.  400,  ff. 

*  According  to  the  opinion  of  a  friend  who  is  an  authority  in  philology- 
AST''  is  to  be  derived  from  the  stem  i.S  which  contains  the  idea  of  fullness  or 

°  Compare  here  the  definitions  of  glands  by  J.  Fr.  Meckel,  Handbuch  der 
Menschlichen  Anatomic.  Halle  1815,  I,  627  and  by  E.  H.  Weber  in  Hilde- 
brand-Weber's  Handbuch  der  Anatomic.     Braunschweig  1830,  I,  432. 

«  Meckel,  I.  c.  647.  In  favor  of  his  conception  Meckel  mentions,  besides 
the  richness ,  in  lymph  vessels  of  the  organs  in  question,  the  fact  that  the 
adrenal  gland,  the  thyreoid  gland  and  the  thymus,  lie  near  the  thoracic  duct. 

^  Joh.    Miiller    de    Glandularum    secernentium    structura.      Leipzig    1830. 


with  he  adopted  a  designation  in  adenology  which  was  used  at  first  in 
surgery,  and  then  in  neurology  for  two  different  structures.  The 
word  "ganglion"  occurs  in  the  works  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen. 
According  to  a  statement  by  Hyrtl,^  this  word  seems  to  have  been 
used  to  designate  those  swellings  of  tendon  sheaths,  which  we  com- 
monly call  ganglia.  The  origin  of  the  word  is  unknown.  The  com- 
parison of  the  swellings  of  the  sympathetic  trunk  with  these  so-called 
ganglia  is  found  in  Galen. 

The  application  of  the  word  ganglion  to  vessel  glands  was  therefore 
a  wider  application  of  the  original  meaning,  whereby  our  understanding 
of  the  organs  in  question  gained  but  little.  But  if  now,  perhaps  in  conse- 
quence of  wrong  histological  assumptions,  the  German  expression 
"  Nervenknoten "  is  applied  to  nervous  ganglia,  if  in  connection 
with  it  one  has  spoken  of  "  Gefassknoten "  and  Latinized  these 
"  Gefassknoten "  into  "  Nodi  vasculares "  (resp.  Nodi  lymphatici) 
then  this  is  a  change  of  expression  which  appears  questionable  either 
from  the  facts  or  the  derivation. 

The  doctrine  of  glands  with  and  without  excretory  ducts  was  deeply 
affected  by  the  introduction  of  the  cell  doctrine  into  histology.  It  is 
to  be  noted  that  the  first  important  advance  beyond  the  hitherto  gener- 
ally accepted  characteristics  of  glands  was  a  new  and  indeed  very  decis- 
ive and  essential  one,  viz :  that  all  organs  designated  as  glands  possess  a 
cellular  parenchyma.  With  the  progressing  investigations  of  histologists 
the  importance  of  gland  cells  for  secreting  glands  came  more  and  more 

Page  27  "  itaque  ex  solis  vasis  conflatae  sunt,  tanquam  vasorum  glomeres  s. 
ganglia  vascularia  in  quibus  liquores  advecti  per  vascula  innumera  minima 
dividuntur,  ut  deinde  in  communem  circulum  revehantur."  "  Sunt  autem 
glandulae  hujus  generis,  seu  ganglia  vascularia  duplicia: 

I.     Ganglia  vascularia  sanguinea II.     Ganglia  vascularia  lympha- 

tica "     The  expression  "  Ganglions  lymphatiques  "  is  made  by  French 

anatomists  previous  to  the  time  of  Joh.  Miiller  e.  g.  by  Cloquet.  Traite  de 
Anatomie.  1822.  II.  500,  whereas  Bichat,  Anatomie  descriptive  1802.  Bd. 
Ill,  431,  speaks  still  of  "  Glandes  des  absorbants."  In  the  first  edition  of 
Cruveilhier's  Anatomie  descriptive  1834.  Bd.  Ill,  352,  I  find  the  following 
remarks :  "  The  lymphatic  vessels  contain  small  gangliform  bodies,  glandes 
conglobees  of  the  ancients,  called  today,  lymphatic  ganglia  from  the  analogy 
which  Soemmering  has  established  between  these  enlargements  and  the  nerve 
ganglia.  In  Th.  Soemmering's  Gefasslehre.  Frankfurt,  1792,  p.  438,  the  struct- 
ures were  called  "suction  vessel  glands  (Glandulae  conglobatae)."  The  expres- 
sion Ganglia  lymphatica  does  not  yet  occur,  but  there  is  found  this  remark: 
"  They  (suction  vessel  glands)  belong  to  the  suction  vessels,  as  the  nerve 
ganglia  to  the  nerves."  Such  vague  analogies  were  permissible  in  the  pre- 
histological  time  of  the  past  century;  today  they  are  no  longer  justifiable. 

*  Hyrtl,  Onomatologia  anatomica,  Wien  1880,  p.  32. 


into  the  foreground  and  soon  we  came  to  the  point  of  speaking  even 
of  unicellular  glands.  For  the  glands  without  secreting  ducts  we  were 
enabled  to  substitute  entirely  precise  histological  terms  for  the  hitherto 
vague  ideas  of  "vessel  nodes."  In  all  these  organs  the  rich  accumula- 
tion of  cells  proved  a  never  failing  characteristic.  But  beyond  this 
we  soon  arrived  at  conclusions  which  were  important  for  the  charac- 
terization and  classification  of  glands.  Through  ontogenetic  research  we 
are  taught  that  all  secreting  glands  originate  from  epithelial  layers ;  thus 
it  is  that  the  conception  of  epithelial  cell  and  gland  cell  as  well  as  epithe- 
lial layer  and  glandular  layer  are  no  longer  sharply  distinguishable. 
Among  the  glands  of  epithelial  nature  and  origin  are  counted  also  the 
thyreoid  and  the  hypophysis  cerebri,  i.  e.  organs  which  hitherto  were 
counted  among  the  "  vessel  glands."  The  thyreoid  and  hypophysis  are 
glands  which  originally  possessed  excretory  ducts  but  lost  them  at  an 
early  period. 

Just  as  the  glands  of  epithelial  origin  form  a  natural  group,  so  it  has 
been  possible  since  the  fifties  through  the  researches  of  Briicke,  KoUiker, 
Billroth,  myself,  H.  Frey,  F.  Schmidt  and  others,  to  contrast  to  them  an- 
other distinctly  characteristic,  and  not  less  natural,  group  of  glandular 
organs  for  which  the  designation  as  vascular  glands  is  to  be  retained  in  the 
full  sense  of  the  word.  To  this  group  belong  the  spleen,  the  lymph-glands, 
thymus,  tonsils,  the  lymphoid  follicles  at  the  root  of  the  tongue,  and  all 
those  small  organs  inserted  into  the  mucous  membranes  of  the  intestinal 
tract  and  other  apparatus,  which  we  specified  by  the  since  discarded 
designation  "  follicular  "  :  Peyer's  follicles,  solitary  follicles,  etc. —  our 
present  Noduli  lymphatici.  The  common  grouping  of  these  structures 
followed  from  the  similarity  of  their  histological  structure  and  their 
relation  to  the  vascular  system,  in  that  they  all  give  rise  to  cells  which  are 
given  off  directly  either  into  the  veins  or  into  the  lymph  vessels.  The 
characteristic  tissue  of  genuine  vascular  glands  I  have  previously  called 
adenoid,^  and  later  on  Kolliker  added  to  this  the  term  "  cytogenic  tis- 
sue." Aside  from  the  above  mentioned  glandular  organs,  adenoid  tissue 
occurs  also  in  diffuse  distribution,  especially  in  the  mucous  membrane  of 

'  His.  Untersuchungen  iiber  die  zum  Lymphsystem  gehorigen  Driisen  in 
Siebold  und  KoUiker's  Zeitschrift.  Bd.  X,  p.  334  fif.  und  Untersuchungen  iiber 
den  Bau  der  Peyer'schen  Drusen.  Bd.  XI,  p.  423.  The  expression  "Nodulus" 
lymphaticus  I  had  approved  of  because  the  word  follicle  always  caused  diffi- 
culties. One  may  speak  of  follicles  perhaps  in  the  intestinal  tract  but  not  at 
all  in  the  tonsils.  Nevertheless  it  is  to  be  emphasized  that  the  designation 
"  Nodulus  "  owes  its  present  popularity  mainly  to  the  fixation  fluids  which  at 
present  are  strongly  hardening.  The  tissue  of  the  fresh  Noduli  is  generally 
looser  than  that  of  its  surroundings.  This  is  true  to  a  great  extent  of  those 
masses  which  I  earlier  called  "Vacuoles"  of  lymph-glands  and  the  intestinal 
follicles  which  Flemming  has  renamed  "  Secondary  nodules." 


the  gut.  It  appears  everywhere  as  a  dehcate  reticulum  adjoining  the 
adventitia  of  the  capillary  blood  vessel,  in  the  meshes  of  which  leucocytes 
are  found.  We  class  the  adenoid  tissue  among  the  connective  tissues. 
What  role  epithelial  anlagen  play  in  its  occurrence,  for  the  time  being 
may  be  considered  an  open  question.  We  know  that  in  the  thymus  an 
epithelial  anlage  initiates  the  formation  of  the  definite  organ.  Recently 
something  similar  has  been  said  of  the  spleen  and  the  intestinal  nodules. 
Think  what  we  may  of  the  histogenic  process,  this  much  is  true  that  we 
can  no  longer  speak  of  an  epithelial  stroma  in  organs  formed  of 
adenoid  tissue.^  On  thestrength  of  the  views  above  outlined,  together 
with  my  division  of  the  tissues  into  archiblastic  and  parablastic,  I  pro- 
posed thirteen  years  ago  the  following  classification  of  glands.^ 

A.  Glands  with  archiblastic  parenchyma. 

I.     Secreting  glahds : 

Glands  with  excretory  ducts. 
II.     Non-secreting  glands  or  false  vascular  glands: 
Thyroid,  Hypophysis,  Suprarenal. 

B.  Glands  with  parablastic  parenchyma. 

True  vascular  glands : 

Spleen,  Lymph-glands,  Thymus.     Lingual  tonsils 

and  Tonsils. 
Intestinal  follicles,  etc. 

In  considering  the  nomenclature  of  the  glands,  and  especially  while 
discussing  the  position  of  the  lymph-glands,  the  question  of  the  group- 
ing of  th'e  organs  belonging  to  this  class  was  brought  v^ry  near  to  us  in 
the  Committee  and  last  year  we  tried  to  agree  on  a  scheme  of  division 
which  was  to  be  submitted  to  the  Commission. 

I  had  recommended  a  division  into  Glandulae  evehentes  and  Glandulae 
vasculares,  but  colleague  Waldeyer  could  not  support  this  classification 
on  account  of  some  still  doubtful  points  in  development.  He,  on  his  part, 
suggested  a  division  of  the  glands  into  Glandulae  apertae  and  Glandulae 
clausae,  which  suggestion  had  one  point  in  its  favor,  in  that  it  referred 
to  purely  anatomical  conditions  without  touching  ontogenesis,  histology 
or  physiology.  After  some  discussion,  I  consented  to  the  suggestion  in 
the  form  in  which  we  submitted  it  to  the  members  of  the  Commission  at 
the  time  of  the  autumn  ballot. 

1  Cf.  V.  Brunn  in  Merkel-Bonnet,  Ergebnisse,  etc.,  fiir  das  Jahr  1893. 

2  This  Archive  1882,  p.  108. 


Glandulae  apertae  Tonsilla  tubaria 

(incl.  Ovarium)  Tonsillae  intestinales  [Peyeri] 

Moduli  lymphatici 
Glandulae  clausae  Thymus 

Lymphoglandulae  Lien 


Tonsilla  palatina 

Tonsilla  pharyngea  Glandula  thyreoidea 

Tonsilla  lingualis  Glandula  suprarenalis 


The  suggestion  met  only  with  divided  approval.  As  matters  were 
standing  the  Commission  did  not  want  to  enter  into  the  question  of  the 
classification  of  glands.  If  I  had  once  more  to  express  my  personal  con- 
viction of  the  most  appropriate  grouping  of  the  glands  I  should  do  it 
in  this  form : 

Glandulae  epitheliales  Glandulae  vasculares  [Organa 

Gl.  evehentes  [apertae]  adenoidea] 

Gl.  clausae  Lymphoglandulae 

Thyreoidea  Noduli  lymphatici 

Hypophysis  Tonsillae 

Gl.  suprarenales  Thymus 


Since  a  decision  on  the  question  of  the  most  appropriate  division  of 
glands  was  decHned  by  the  Commission,  I  should  have  refrained  from 
touching  upon  it  again  were  it  not  that  the  importance  of  bringing  the 
true  vascular  glands  into  one  common  group  is  still  in  the  foreground. 
If  in  recent  textbooks,  spleen  and  thymus  are  still  traditionally  put  to- 
gether with  thyreoid  and  suprarenal  as  vascular  glands,  or  if  in  one  chapter 
of  the  book  the  lymph  nodes,  in  another  the  spleen,  in  a  third,  the  thymus, 
then  again  the  tonsils  and  Peyer's  glands  are  treated,  without  mention- 
ing that  all  these  parts  are  closely  related  to  each  other  anatomically, 
histologically  and  physiologically,  then  in  my  opinion  we  are  remaining 
at  a  stage  of  scientific  development  which  now  lies  almost  four  decades 
behind  us. 

How  then  shall  we  designate  these  organs  which  stand  in  direct  re- 
lation to  the  vascular  system  and  the  formation  of  blood,  if  we  are  no 
longer  allowed  to  call  them  glands  ?  Is  Nodus  really  an  appropriate  ex- 
pression for  them  and  can  the  spleen  and  thymus  be  called  Nodi  vas- 
culares? The  old  characterization  as  vascular  glands,  it  seems  to  me 
even  today,  best  designates  the  anatomical  and  physiological  position  of 
these  organs;  and  the  difference  between  epithelial  and  vascular  glands 
is  such  that  it  eas'ily  can  be  made  clear  to  any  student. 


Partes.     Termini  generales. 

The  chapter  Partes  corporis  gives  a  classification  of  the  principal 
regions  of  the  body  which  are  externally  distinguishable.  Many  of  the 
terms  here  enumerated  occur  again  in  the  special  chapters. 

Thenar  and  Hypothenar  were  retained  in  the  Partes,  although  as 
Krause  points  out  (Absth.  p.  63)  Hypothenar  means  the  palm  of  the 
hand  which  can  be  used  for  drinking.  Thenar  means  the  muscular  tissue 
of  the  flat  of  the  hand  or  the  foot.  The  loose  usage  among  anatomists, 
of  the  two  words  for  thumb  palm  and  little  finger  palm  is  said  to  have 
originated  with  Riolan  (1649).  Kolliker  (Absth.  p.  150)  has  suggested 
Thenar  pollicis  and  Thenar  digiti  minimi ;  Toldt,  Thenar  and  Antithenar. 

The  list  of  Termini  generales  comprises  those  expressions  which  re- 
peatedly occur  in  anatomical  designations.  Words,  such  as  Petiolus 
which  occurs  only  once,  have  been  omitted. 

Discus  is  disc,  Meniscus  is  crescent. 


In  this  often  revised  division,  we  may  confine  ourselves  to  a  few 

Infundibulum  ethmoidale.  For  the  explanation  of  this  term  I  give 
the  description  of  Sappey  (Traite  d'Anatomie,  3  edit.  I.  p.  152).  "An 
opening  at  the  anterior  end  of  the  middle  nasal  meatus  connects  it  with 
the  anterior  ethmoidal  cells.  The  most  important  of  the  latter  represents 
the  communicating  opening.  This  cell,  which  elongates  from  below  up- 
wards and  is  wider  above  than  below,  has  been  compared  to  a  funnel  and 
is,  therefore,  called  infundibulum.  The  infundibulum  opens  with  its 
upper  end  into  the  corresponding  Sinus  frontalis.  Its  low^r  end,  on  the 
one  hand,  leads  into  the  middle  nasal  meatus,  on  the  other  hand  into  the 
Sinus  maxillaris."    See  textbook  by  Langer-Toldt  (5  edit.  p.    74). 

Glabella.  As  Krause  ^  has  pointed  out  this  word  is  used  sometimes 
for  the  space  above  the  Arcus  superciliares,  at  other  times  for  the  space 
between  the  latter  and  the  frontal  protuberance,  again  for  the  space  lying 
above  the  root  of  the  nose  and  between  the  two  Arcus  superciliares  (the 
"  Stirnnasenwulst "  of  the  Frankfort  Anthropological  Agreement).  The 
Commission  understands  the  word  in  the  last  sense. 

Fossa  scaphoidea  laminae  medialis  proc.  pterygoidei  is,  according  to 
Thane,*  the  cavity  which  gives  origin  to  the  M.  tensor  veli  palatini. 

Vertebrae.  The  commission  has  added  to  their  list  the  Processus 
transversus  and  the  Processus  costarius.    Gegenbauer  calls  that  part  of 

'  This  Archive  1881,  p.  420. 

*  Quain's  Anatomy  10  ed.,  II,  p.  45. 


the  Processus  transversus  remaining,  after  the  deduction  of  the  Proc- 
essus costarius,  Processus  lateralis.     Therefore,  Gegenbauer's  Processus 

,    (Proc.    lateralis^      ,  , 

transversus  equals  ^  p  .     J-  whereas  the  arrangement  of  Langer 

is:    Processus  lateralis  equals  ^   _    '  .       C  (Absth.  p.  io6). 

^  Proc.  costarius  ^  ^ 

Sulci  paraglenoidales  are,  according  to  Lohr,^  the  grooves  which 
serve  for  the  attachment  of  tendinous  masses  and  are  found  especially  on 
the  anterior  and  posterior  part  of  the  Facies  auricularis  oss.  ilium.  The 
anterior  groove  was  generally  designated  as  Sulcus  prae'auricularis.   (Kr.) 

Linea  intermedia  [cristae  ossis  ilium]  is  the  muscle  line  of  the  Ala 
ossis  ilium  formerly  designated  as  Labium  medium. 

Ala  ossis  ilium  is  the  broad  expanded  portion  of  the  ilium. 


As  mentioned  before  Syndesmology  in  its  present  form  is  the  creation 
of  colleague  Toldt,  who  founded  his  suggestions  throughout  on  new  prepa- 
rations. Only  a  limited  number  of  special  explanations  are  necessary 
for  this  chapter. 

Lig.  accessorium  volare  [resp.  plantare]  is  the  strong  fibre  masses 
which  cause  the  thickening  of  the  articular  capsule  on  the  volar  surface  of 
each  Articulatio  metacarpophalangea  and  with  the  Lig.  vaginale  stands  in 
direct  relation  with  the  corresponding  flexor  tendon.  (Lig.  transversum, 
Hyrtl.  "tendon  pulley"  Lange.) 

Lig.  carpi  volare  is  the  Lig.  carpi  volare  commune  of  the  textbooks. 

Lig.  carpi  transversum  is  the  Lig.  carpi  volare  transversum  sive  pro- 

The  Lig.  talocalcaneum  anterius  (Toldt)  is  a  strengthening  band 
of  the  anterior  part  of  the  Capsula  articularis  talocalcanea  and  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Sinus  tarsi  immediately  at  the  anterior  side  of  the  Artie, 
talocalcanea  and  some  distance  behind  the  Lig.  talocalcaneum  interosseum. 


Pars  lacrimalis  m.  orbicularis  oc.  [M.  Homeri].  If  the  muscula- 
ture of  the  eyelid  be  dissected  from  the  side  of  the  orbit  there  is  found 
behind  the  lachrymal  sac  a  quadrangular  muscle  plate  which  is  known 
as  Horner's  muscle.  The  height  of  the  plate  is  S-6mm.,  the  medial 
'margin  is  attached  to  the  Crista  lacrimalis  of  the  lachrymal  bone. 
Lateralward  this  muscle  plate  passes  over  the  medial  corner  of  the  eye 
and  divides  into  two  crura  going  over  into  the  lids.    In  order  to  follow 

» Anatomischer  Anzeiger  1894,  No.  17,  p.  521. 


the  further  extension  of  the  two  crura  of  the  muscle  the  tarsus  must  be 
loosened  from  the  posterior  side  of  the  lid.  Then  there  is  recognized 
without  difficulty  the  transition  of  the  fibres  of  the  muscle  of  Horner 
into  the  bundles  of  fibres  of  the  M.  orbicularis  lying  next  to  the  slit  of 
the  eyelid.  Some  small  bundles  belonging  to  the  posterior  surface  run 
crosswise,  from  the  lower  margin  of  Horner's  muscle  to  the  upper  lid 
and  vice  versa.  According  to  this  finding,  Horner's  muscle  must  be  con- 
sidered as  a  part  of  the  M.  orbicularis.  While  the  main  portion  of  the 
fibres  is  connected  with  Lig.  palpebrale  mediale  which  lies  in  front  of 
the  lachrymal  sac,  the  Pars  lacrimalis  runs  behind  and  beyond  the 
lachrymal  sac.° 

M.  quadratus  labii  superioris  was  accepted  as  a  single  muscle  with 
three  heads :  Caput  angulare,  C.  inf  raorbitale,  and  C.  zygomaticum.  This 
was  not  done  without  opposition.  Krause  had  spoken  already  in  his  first 
balloting  pamphlet  (p.  60)  against  the  collective  treatment  of  the  three 
muscles :  Mm.  levator  labii  superioris  propius,  levator  labii  super- 
ioris alaeque  nasi  and  zygomaticus  minor,  and  had  emphasized  that 
by  it  one  would  get  four  names  instead  of  three.  Schwalbe  (Absth.  p. 
145)  opposed  still  more  energetically  than  Krause  the  taking  together 
under  a  common  name  of  separate  muscles  like  Triceps  surae  and  Quad- 
ratus labii  superioris.  He,  however,  did  not  carry  his  protest.  Obviously  the 
long  used  names  caused  some  hesitancy.  Simplification  in  this  respect 
would  have  been  possible;  thus  Schwalbe  wanted  to  replace  the  former 
Levatores  by  a  Labialis  superior  and  a  Nasolabialis. 

Raphe  pterygomandibularis  after  Waldeyer  was  adopted  instead  of 
Lig.  pterygomandibulare  (Henle)  because  it  is  not  a  true  ligament. 

In  opposition  to  the  majority  of  the  Commission  v.  KoUiker  objected 
to  the  formation  of  the  names  of  the  Hyoid  muscles:  M.  omohyoideus, 
stemohyoideus,  etc.  Since  hyoideus  means  similar  to  hyoid  bone,  he 
suggested  hyalis  —  M.  omohyalis,  sternohyalis,  etc. 

'  A  description  based  on  cross  section  of  the  course  of  Homer's  muscle 
and  a  very  instructive  drawing  of  a  horizontal  cross  section  of  the  region  of 
the  lachrymal  sac  are  found  in  the  Topographic  Anatomy  by  J.  Gerlach, 
Munich  and  Leipzig,  i8gi,  p.  172  ff. 



Fig.   I. 

Fasciculi   transversi    [aponeurosis  palmaris].     Braune's   Lig.  natatorium   after 
a  drawing  from  Braune's  unpublished  work. 

In  Munich  the  M.  sternocleidomgstoideus  was  again  solemnly  re- 
instated into  its  rights  in  spite  of  all  antagonistic  suggestions.  Theile'' 
calls  this  muscle  Nutatores  capitis,  since  he  separated  it  into  two  portions 
which  he  differentiated  as  Nutator  internus  and  externus.  The  following 
suggestions  were  handed  in  by  members  of  the  Commission :  M.  quadri- 
ceps colH  or  M.  sternocleido-occipitomastoideus  by  v.  Bardeleben;  M. 
biceps  colli  by  v.  KoUiker;  M.  obliquus  colli  by  Toldt. 

Fasciculi  transversi  [aponeurosis  palmaris]  are  not  to  be  considered 
the  common  transverse  fibres  of  the  aponeurosis  since  the  name  is 
chosen  for  that  ligament  which  Braune  (in  my  opinion  with  a  more 
appropriate  expression)  called  Lig.  natatorium.  This  ligament  which 
so  far  as  I  know  was  appreciated  first  by  Braune  as  to  its  existence 
and  importance,  consists  of  strong  transverse  fibrous  bands  lying 
immediately  under  the  skin  and  joining  the  bases  of  the  fingers.  A 
short  mention  of  it  is  found  in  a  work  by  M.  Grapow  °  done  under 
Braune's  direction.  I  add  a  pen  sketch  of  the  ligament  which  is  made 
after  a  drawing  from  Braune's  unpublished  work.  A  suggestive  pic- 
ture of  the  strands  of  Braune's  Lig.  natatorium  is  found  in  Sappey.* 
Between  the  longitudinal  strands  running  to  the  bases  of  the  fingers, 
Sappey  shows  a  system  of  transverse  fibrous  bands,  "  bandelettes," 
which  uninterruptedly  fill  the  space  almost  up  to  the  beginning  of  the 
fingers.     These   transverse  'bands   according  to   him   start   from   the 

'  In  Th.  Soemmering's  revised  Anatomy  Vol.  Ill,  i,  p.  i8o. 
*  Ueber     die     Anatomic     und     physiologische     Bedeutung     der     Palmar- 
aponeurose.    This  Archive  1887,  p.  iSS- 
"Traite  d'Anatomie  1876,  II,  p.  363. 


heads  of  the  metacarpal  bones.  By  Braune  and  Grapow  their  physi- 
ological significance  rests  on  the  fact  that  there  are  between  the 
strands  of  .the  Lig.  natatorium  and  the  palmar  fascia  proper,  sufficient 
interspaces  for  the  penetration  of  veins,  whereby  the  arrangement 
acquires  the  importance  of  a  suction-apparatus. 

Scalenus  minimus  is  the  small  muscle  pushing  in  between  the  plexus 
brachialis  and  the  Art.  subclavia,  and  which  extends  from  the  transverse 
process  of  the  6th,  or  of  the  6th  and  7th,  cervical  vertebrae  to  the  first  rib, 
and  has  a  further  attachment  to  the  apex  of  the  pleura.  The  muscle  has 
already  been  described  by  Albin.  Its  importance  as  a  tensor  of  the  apex  of 
the  pleura  has  been  emphasized  especially  by  Zuckerkandl.'^  In  60  cadavers 
Zuckerkandl  found  the  muscle  present  22  times  on  both  sides,  missing 
17  times  on  both  sides,  present  12  times  on  the  right  side  only,  and  present 
9  times  on  the  left  side  only.  Whenever  the  muscle  is  wanting  there  is 
found  in  its  place  a  ligament  which  runs  from  the  lower  cervical  verte- 
brae to  the  first  rib  and  to  the  apex  of  the  pleura — the  Lig.  costopleuro- 
vertebrale  of  Zuckerkandl. 

Ligamentum  fundiforme  penis.  Luschka  ^  has  described  under  the 
name  Lig.  suspensorium  penis  superficiale,  sive  elasticum,  a  broad  band 
consisting  almost  entirely  of  elastic  fibres,  which  originates  near  the 
Linea  alba  about  3  fingers'  width  above  the  symphysis  and  embraces  the 
penis  with  two  branches  which  meet  again  under  the  same.  This  elas- 
tic band  is  often  found  strongly  developed  and  a  pai-t  of  its  fibres 
may  also  radiate  to  the  scrotum.  On  Braune's  and  my  suggestions  the 
apparatus  in  a  former  ballot  (Absth.  p.  149)  was  designated  as  Funda 
penis,  an  expression  which  the  editorial  staff  lately  changed  to  Lig. 

The  chapter  on  Inguinal  foveae  was  settled  by  the  Commission  in  its 
discussions  in  Munich  to  the  effect  that  they  accepted  only  two  Ingui- 
nal foveae,  a  lateral  and  medial,  and  designated  the  fovea  medianward 
from  the  Ligamentum  umbilicae  laterale  as  Fovea  supravesicalis. 
Schwalbe  had  compiled  for  the  ballot  in  question,  a  tabulated  resume  of 
terms  from  eleven  German,  four  French  and  two  English  textbooks. 
Eleven  of  the  seventeen  mentioned  authors  distinguished  three  inguinal 
fossae  or  foveae ;  a  lateral,  a  median,  and  a  medial.  Fiihrer,  Richet  and 
Sappey  designated  the  most  medianward  of  the  three  foveae  by  the  spe- 
cial name  Fovea  pubovesicalis. 

Intimately  connected  with  the  medial  inguinal  fovea  are  the  two  struct- 
ures which  Braune  had  distinguished  as  Henle's  and  Hesselbach's  liga- 
ments and  which  are  registered  in  our  lists  as  Falx  [aponeurotica]  in- 

1  His  and  Braune,  Zeitschrift  fiir  Anatomic  und  Entwickelungsgeschichte 
1877,  Vol.  11,  p.  S6  ff. 

2  Topographische  Anatomie  des  Bec^ens,  p.  320. 



guinalis  and  as  Lig.  interfoveolare  [Hesselbachi].     These  structures 
need  here  a  special  discussion. 

After  removal  of  the  peritoneum  from  the  posterior  surface,  one  finds, 
by  proper  tension  of  the  abdominal  wall,  between  the  point  of  junction  of 
the  M.  rectus  and  the  internal  inguinal  ring,  two  bands  of  strongly  devel- 
oped fibres.  The  one,  broadening  downwards  and  upwards,  forms  the 
medial  border  of  the  internal  inguinal  ring,  the  other  appears  as  a  sickle 
shaped  broadening  of  the  tendon  of  the  rectus.  Braune,  who  first  separated 
these  fibrous  bands,  designates  the  one  bordering  on  the  rectus  as  Henle's 
ligament,  the  one  bordering  on  the  inguinal  ring  as  Hesselbach's.  Both 
Henle's  and  Hesselbach's  ligaments^  are  broadly  joined' to  Poupart's  liga- 
ment. Between  Henle's  and  Hesselbach's  ligaments  there  lies  an  inter- 
space filled  with  loose  tissue  into  which  the  finger  can  be  easily  pressed. 
This  interspace  is  the  medial  inguinal  fossa.  If  this  loose  tissue  clos- 
ing the  fossa  be  removed  one  can  penetrate  from  here  to  the  external  in- 
guinal ring,  and  the  inserted  finger  is  then  closely  constricted  by  two 
systems  of  sharply  protruding  bands  lying  one  behind  the  other;  poster- 
iorly constricted  by  Henle's  and  Hesselbach's  ligaments,  anteriorly  by  the 
margin  of  the  external  inguinal  ring.  Hesselbach's  and  Henle's  ligaments 
lie  in  the  posterior  wall  of  the  inguinal  canal.  The  wider  the  latter  liga- 
ment becomes,  the  more  the  region  of  the  medial  inguinal  fossa  is 
narrowed,  and  the  less  is  the  disposition  toward  the  formation  of  direct 
inguinal  herniae.  All  these  conditions  are  easily  demonstrated  to  the 
students  in  the  dissecting  room  by  preparation  from  the  posterior  side. 

Fig.  2. 

Surroundings  of  medial  inguinal  fossae,  from  preparation  from  posterior  side. 

Ad.=Adminiculum  lineae  albae.  F.i.=Falx  inguinalis  [Henle's  ligament  of 
Braune].  LH=Lig.  interfoveolare  [Hesselbach's  ligament  of  Braune].  1VIr.=M. 
rectus  abdominis.     V.d.=Vas  deferens. 

The  structure  designated  by  Braune  as  "  Hesselbach's  ligament "  is 
most  splendidly  shown  in  different  plates  (III,  IV,  X,  XI,  and  XV)  of 
Hesselbach's  work  *  which  has  become  fundamental  in  herniology. 

8  Braune,  Das  Venensystem  des  menschlichen  Korpers  1884,  Text,  p.  66. 
*  Untersuchungen  iiber  Leisten-  und  Schenkelbriiche,  Wiirzburg  1814. 



It  here  appears  as  a  fibrous  plate,  widely  radiating  upward  and  down- 
ward, inserted  between  the  medial  inguinal  fossa  and  the  internal  inguinal 
ring.  Less  precise  is  Hesselbach's  description  in  the  text.  A  membrane 
designated  by  him  as  "  internal  inguinal  ligament "  consists  of  stronger 
fibres  running  over  the  femoral  canal,  and  of  weaker  ones  running  straight 
upward.  The  membrane  is  joined  to  the  abdominal  muscles  and  assists 
them  in  their  function.  Lateralward  from  the  margin  of  the  rectus  the 
membrane  is  thin  and  loose  and  here  it  is  frequently  drawn  out  into  a 
shallow  fossa  toward  the  external   inguinal  ring. 

Henle  describes  in  his  myology  (i  edit.  p.  71)  as  Lig.  inguinale  in- 
ternum mediale  a  fibrous  plate  the  fibres  of  which  rising  from  the  Linea 
iliopectinea,  adjoin  medianward  the  margin  of  the  M.  rectus.  The  plate 
appears  like  a  broadening  of  the  lateral  tendon  of  the  rectus  and  extends 
laterally  to  the  internal  inguinal  ring.  Henle  gives  a  pictorial  representation 
of  this  fibrous  plate,  1.  c.  Fig.  32,  in  which  a  medial  inguinal  fossa  is  not 
distinguishable.  Therefore,  Henle's  Lig.  ing.  int.  mediale  comprises  not 
only  the  plate  adjoining  the  M.  rectus  and  designated  by  Braune  as  Henle's 
ligament,  but  also  Hesselbach's  ligament,  which  was  not  separated  from  it. 



Surroundings  of  medial  inguinal  fossa  prepared  from  anterior  side. 

The  aponeurosis  of  the  M.  obliquus  externus  is  removed  to  the  narrow  inferior 
part  where  it  passes  over  into  Poupart's  ligament.  Only  a  small  part  remains  of 
the  M.  obliquus  internus  (M.  o.  i.).  The  anterior  leaf  of  the  sheath  of  the  M. 
rectus  (M.r.)  is  removed  with  the  exception  of  a  narrow  strip  (V.).  The  M. 
pyramidalis  is  also  removed.  One  observes  the  passing  over  of  the  tendon  of  the 
M  transversus  abdominis  into  the  Falx  inguinalis  and  the  connection  of  the  latter- 
directly  to  the  sheath  of  the  rectus  and  indirectly  to  the  tendon  of  the  rectus. 
L.  H.=Hesselbach's  ligament.  L.  C.=Colles'  ligament.  F.  sp.=Funiculus  spermat- 
icus.    A.  e.=Arteria  epigastrica  inferior. 

In  the  place  of  the  personal  names  introduced  by  Braune  we  suggested 
in  the  last  nomenclature  pamphlets  (p.  928)  Aponeurosis  falciformis 
[m.   recti   abdominis]    and  Lig.   interfoveolare    [Hesselbachi] .     The 


former  name  we  have  since  changed  into  Falx  [aponeurotica]  in- 
guinalis  for  reasons  soon  to  be  discussed.  The  ligamentum  inter- 
foveolare  always  contains  arched  ascending  muscle  fibres  whick  as  a 
rule  can  be  traced  directly  into  the  M.  transversus;  they  were  desig- 
nated by  Braune,  following  Luschka,  as  M.  puborectahs.  I  wished 
to  take  the  same  into  our  list  as  M.  interfoveolaris,  but  remained  with 
the  minority. 

The  above  illustration  based  on  preparation  made  from  behind  gives, 
by  the  way,  only  an  incomplete  picture  of  the  relationship  of  Henle's  and 
Hesselbach's  ligaments.  Both  fibrous  bands  hold,  as  Braune  has  shown, 
a  very  definite  relation  to  the  M.  transversus  abdominis. 

In  the  preparation  from  the  anterior  side  Henle's  ligament  is  shown 
as  an  arched  continuation  of  the  tendon  of  the  M.  transversus  and  at  first 
is  continuous  with  the  sheath  of  the  rectus  and  only  indirectly  with  its 
tendon.  Henle  has  pointed  out  the  connecti<^n  of  the  sheath  with  the 
lateral  tendon  of  the  rectus.  The  upper  fibres  of  Hesselbach's  ligament 
may  extend,  behind  the  lower  bundles  of  the  transversus,  to  the  posterior 
sheath  of  the  rectus  and  reach  the  margin  of  the  line  of  Douglas.  Hessel- 
bach's ligament,  as  Braune  expresses  it,  appears  as  the  pelvic  insertion  of 
the  M.  transversus.  These  conditions  are  illustrated  in  Plate  lO  of 
Braune's  large  Atlas  of  Veins.  The  medial  inguinal  fossa  is,  therefore, 
to  be  interpreted  as  an  opening  in  the  inserting  tendon  of  the  M.  trans- 
versus which  lies  between  a  lateral  leaf  —  Hesselbach's  ligament,  and  a 
medial  leaf  —  Henle's  ligament.  As  a  supplement  to  Braune's  Plate, 
which  is  only  in  the  hands  of  a  few,  I  give  a  sketch  of  the  relations,  after 
a  preparation  from  the  anterior  side  made  by  Spalteholtz.  In  order  to 
recognize  from  behind  the  relations  of  Henle's  ligament  —  at  present  our 
Falx  inguinalis — to  the  M.  transversus,  Hesselbach's  ligament  should  be 
loosened  from  its  lower  attachment  and  separated  from  the  M.  trans- 
versus as  far  as  it  lies  close  to  it. 

Bursae  et  Vaginae  mucosae. 

This  chapter,  as  above,  mentioned,  was  compiled  by  colleague  Toldt. 
The  fundamental  rules  were  the  following  :^ 

The  Bursae  mucosae  and  Vaginae  tendinum  are  considered  separately. 
Among  the  latter  are  counted  the  closed  mucous  sacs  which  surround, 
entirely  or  for  the  most  part,  one  or  several  tendons  in  their  course.  The 
sacs,  situated  at  the  ends  of  tendons,  or  inserted  between  tendons  and 
bones,  are  separated  as  Bursae  subtendineae  from  the  Vaginae  tendinum. 
Thus,  e.  g.  the  Vagina  m.  tibialis  anterioris  lies  in  the  course  of  the  tendon 
of  this  muscle  where  the  latter  runs  underneath  the  Lig.  transversum  and 

» These   principles  and  the   following  explanations   were   taken   from   the 
manuscript  of  colleague  Toldt. 


cruciatum.    Again,  the  Bursa  [subtendinea]  m.  tibialis  anterioris  is  found 
between  the  termination  of  the  tendon  and  the  underlying  bone.    Bursae 
subtendineae  are  found  also  where  tendons  wind  around  bones.     Beside 
the  Bursae  mucosae  subtendineae,  there  are  distinguished : 
Bursae  muc.  subcutaneae, 

"  "     submusculares, 

"  "     subfasciales. 

They,  however,  are  not  separated  in  the  list  but  are  arranged  and  clas- 
sified according  to  regions.  The  Vaginae  tendinum  are  all  enumerated 
on  account  of  their  practical  importance.  Of  the  Bursae  mucosae  only 
those  are  listed  which : 

a.  According  to  previous  experiences  occur  in  more  than  30-40  per  cent, 
of  the  cases,  or  which 

b.  According  to  experience  are  of  practical  importance,  or  which 

c.  Are  of  special  morphological  or  physiological  interest. 

All  names  were  formed  after  the  same  principles  both  as  to  significance 
and  derivation.  It  is  therefore  easy,  if  occasion  demands,  to  construct 
names  for  those  mucous  bursae  which  are  not  contained  in  the  list. 

Bursa  subcutanea  prominentiae  laryngeae  is  given  by  Verneuil  as 
B.  serosa  antethyreoidea  subcutanea.  It  is  situated  (almost  exclusively 
in  males)  in  front  of  the  superior  part  of  the  thyreoid  cartilage  and  is 
apparently  caused  by  the  Prominentia  laryngea. 

Bursa  m.  sternohyoidei  is  a  name  given  by  Plenk.  It  lies  in  the 
median  plane  or  at  either  side  of  it  —  i.  e.  unpaired  or  paired  — and  just 
behind  the  attachment  of  this  muscle  on  the  inferior  border  of  the  hyoid 
bone.  Verneuil  calls  it  B.  serosa  subhyoidea  profunda.  W.  Gruber  and 
others  have  given  it  the  names :  B.  infrahyoidea,  sive  thyreoidea,  sive 
thyreohyoidea  anterior.  By  RosenmuUer  it  is  given  (in  a  reference  to 
Plenk)  as  B.  vesicularis  m.  sternohyoidei. 

Bursa  m.  thyreohyoidei  occurs  more  frequently  than  the  former;  it 
lies  laterally  under  the  great  horn  of  the  hyoid  bone  and  is  covered  by  the 
upper  extremity  of  the  M.  thyreohyoideus.  The  authors  call  it  B.  thy- 
reohyoidea profunda  sive  lateralis. 

Bursa  muc.  subacromialis  and  subdeltoidea  often  unite  forming  a 
single  large  space. 

B.  m.  extensoris  carpi  radialis  brevis  lies  on  the  Basis  ossis  meta- 

carpi  III. 

B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  ulnaris  lies  on  the  Os  pisiforme. 

B.  m.  flexoris  carpi  radialis  lies  in  the  Sulcus  ossis  navicularis. 

Bursae  glutaeofemorales.  Under  this  designation  is  included  also 
the  Bursa  glutaeofascialis  of  the  authors. 

B.  iliaca  subtendinea  lies  at  the  insertion  of  the  M.  iliopsoas  on  the 
Trochanter  minor. 


B.  m.  pectinei  is  likewise  on  the  Trochanter  minor  at  the  point  of  in- 
sertion of  the  muscle  of  the  same  name. 

B.  praepatellaris  subfascialis  is  the  B.  patellaris  subfascialis  of  Lin- 
hart  (B.  praepatellaris  media  sive  subaponeurotica  of  W.  Gruber).  It 
lies  between  the  Fascia  lata  and  the  tendinous  expansion  of  the  M.  ex- 
tensor quadriceps. 

B.  praepatellaris  subtendinea  is  the  B.  patellaris  profunda  of 
Luschka  (B.  praepatellaris  profunda  sive  subtendinea  of  W.  Gruber). 
It  lies  between  the  tendon  of  the  M.  extensor  quadriceps  and  the  surface 
of  the  patella. 

B.  infrapatellaris  profunda  lies  between  the  Lig.  patellae  and  the 

B.  anserina  lies  under  the  tendinous  expansion  formed  by  the  com- 
mon attachment  to  the  tibia  of  the  Mm.  gracilis,  sartorius  and  semi- 
tendinosus.  This  expansion  is  called  by  some  anatomists  Pes  anser- 


As  Tonsilla  lingualis  the  Commission  classified  according  to  the 
suggestion  of  colleague  Waldeyer  all  follicular  glands,  Folliculi  lingu- 
ales,  belonging  to  the  root  of  the  tongue. 

Sulcus  terminalis,  (Ductus  lingualis).  Ductus  thyreoglossus, 
Sinus  tonsillaris,  Plica  triangularis.  Fossa  supratonsillaris.  Con- 
cerning these  structures  I  may  refer  to  my  Anatomy  of  Human  Embryos 
(Vol.  Ill,  Leipzig,  1885)  from  which  the  accompanying  pictures  (Figs. 
4,  s,  and  6)  are  taken.  The  body  and  the  root  of  the  tongue  arise  from 
two  originally  separated  anlagen :  The  body  from  an  unpaired  thicken- 
ing in  the  floor  of  the  oral  cavity  (the  Tuberculum  impar) ;  the  root  of 
the  tongue,  from  the  coalescence  of  proliferations  from  the  second  and 
third  pharyngeal  arches  on  either  side.  At  the  boundary  line  between 
the  anlagen  there  remains,  as  a  rule  throughout  life,  an  angular  broken 
furrow,  the  Sulcus  terminalis  linguae.  The  posterior  end  of  the  furrow 
terminates  in  the  Foramen  caecum  while  the  anterior  end  terminates  in 
front  of  the  Arcus  palatoglossus  on  either  side.  The  arched  line  of  the 
Papillae  vallatae  lies  S-8mm.  in  front  of  the  Sulcus  terminahs  in  the  region 
of  the  body  proper  of  the  tongue.  From  the  Foramen  caecum  a  duct,  the 
Ductus  Hngualis,  often  extends  to  a  depth  of  J^  to  i  cm.  or  even  more 
in  the  direction  of  the  hyoid  bone.  This  duct  is  a  remnant  of  the  embry- 
onic Ductus  thyreoglossus,  which  at  the  end  of  the  first  month  extended 
from  the  oro-pharyngeal  cavity  to  the  median  anlage  of  the  thyreoid 
gland  (Figs.  4  and  5). 

*  Langer-Toldt  Anatomic,  5  edit.,  p.  235. 


The  Arcus  glossopalatinus,  originating  from  two  pharyngeal  arches, 
ends  medialward  in  a  sharply  defined  triangular  fold  of  mucous  mem- 
brane, the  Plica  triangularis.  The  latter  begins  narrow  above  and 
broadens  at  its  junction  with  the  tongue.  Posteriorly  and  laterally  lies 
a  recess,  the  Sinus  tonsillaris,  which  is  deep  in  the  foetus  and  from 
the  base  of  which  the  pharyngeal  tonsil  originates  (Fig.  6).  According 
to  the  size  and  extension  of  the  adenoid  proliferation  the  following 
different  possibilities  may  arise: 

1.  The  tonsil  stands  out  from  the  rest  of  the  sinus  as  a  sharply  defined 
elevation  and  above  it  lies  the  Fossa  supratonsillaris  which  extends  up- 
ward for  some  distance. 

2.  The^  tonsil  almost  entirely  fills  the  sinus  yet  the  Fossa  supratonsillaris 
may  still  be  open.  The  Plica  triangularis  flatly  overlies  the  lower  part  of 
the  tonsil  and  coalesces  with  it,  but  without  losing  its  sharp  outline. 

3.  Lymph  nodules  may  be  formed  on  the  free  surface  of  the  Plica 
triangularis  and  in  extreme  cases  their  delimitation  from  the  tonsil  is  lost. 

Recessus  pharyngeus  [Rosenmuelleri].  Merkel,  in  his  Topographic 
Anatomy  (Vol.  L  p.  416),  differentiates  after  Tourtual  the  Recussus  in- 
fundibuliformis  [Rosenmuelleri]  from  the  lateral  groove  of  the  pharynx 
leading  to  it;  the  latter  he  designates  with  Tourtual  as  Sinus  faucium 
lateralis.  The  Commission  has  not  adopted  this  term.  Characteristic 
for  Rosenmueller's  recessus  is  its  position  behind  the  cartilaginous  Tuba 
Eustachii,  while  the  Tourtual-Merkel's  Sinus  lateralis  is  situated  farther 
down  behind  the  Plica  salpingopharyngea. 

In  regard  to  the  Bursa  pharyngea  I  refer  also  to  the  detailed  discus- 
sion by  Merkel  (1.  c.  p.  413).  In  my  opinion  the  Bursa  pharyngea  must  be 
brought  into  relation  with  the  archings  of  the  posterior  pharyngeal  wall 
caused  by  the  Mm.  recti  capitis  anteriores.  If  observed  from  the  posterior 
side,  the  pharynx  shows  three  ridge  like  prominences  in  the  region  of  their 
attachments.  The  two  lateral  ridges  are  the  pouches  of  Rosenmueller 
seen  from  without.  The  ridge  lying  in  the  medial  plane  attached  to  the 
Tuberculum  pharyngeum  oss.  occipitalis  pushes  between  the  two  muscle 
attachments  and  it  corresponds,  before  a  profuse  development  of  the 
tonsil  occurs,  to  a  median  longitudinal  furrow  on  the  inner  surface  of  the 
posterior  wall  of  the  pharynx.  The  pharyngeal  tonsil,  similar  to  the 
lingual  tonsil,  shows  at  the  time  of  its  first  appearance  a  system  of  down- 
ward converging  folds  with  intervening  furrows.  The  middle  one  of 
these  furrows  leads  to  the  Bursa  pharyngea;  therefore,  Merkel  readily 
interpreted  the  Bursa  as  a  median  slit  of  the  tonsil. 



Fig-  4-  Fig.  5. 

Tongue  of  a  6-month  foetus  and  of  an  adult.     Sulcus  terminalis  and  Foramen 

Areae  gastricae  are  elevations  of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the 
stomach  which  correspond  to  glandular  groups  (Absth.)  existing  especi- 
ally in  the  Etat  mamelonne  but  also  under  other  conditions. 

Pars  analis  recti.  This  region,  of  such  practical  importance,  is 
treated  in  French  anatomies  in  a  more  detailed  way  than  in  German  text- 
books. Sappey  ^  describes  Morgagni's  Valvulae  semilunares,  the  number 
of  which  he  establishes  as  3-8,  as  a  rule  5  or  6.  They  lie  at  the  lower 
margin  of  the  Sphincter  ani  internus.  Through  a  union  of  their  termina- 
tions the  Columnae  ani  are  formed.  The  sinuses  surrounded  by  Valvulae 
ani  may  easily  become  the  seat  of  infection  and  the  resulting  abscesses 
and  fistulae  (Ribes). 

Sappey  says  of  the  veins  of  the  rectum  that  they  are  strongly  developed 
in  the  lower  quarter  of  the  tube,  especially  in  the  region  of  the  semilunar 
folds  of  the  mucous  membrane.  Here  they  form  the  Plexus  haemorrhoi- 
dalis ;  frequently  the  point  of  origin  of  the  swellings  called  haemorrhoids. 
By  maceration  of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  excised  and  stretched 
rectum  one  always  finds  a  great  number  of  vertical  venous  branches 
which  rise  from  the  lower  margin  of  the  M.  sphincter  internus.  These 
viens  often  have  ampulla-like  dilations  varying  in  size  from  that  of  a 

'  Traite  d'Anatomie  descriptive  3,  edit.  1879,  Vol.  IV,  p.  283. 



millet  seed  to  that  of  a  lentil.    Such  dilations  occur  even  in  children  and 
later  on  become  the  starting  points  of  haemorrhoidal  swellings. 

Plica  triangularis  and  Fossa,  supratonsillaris  in  the  adult. 

Our  collection  contains  an  older  (dry)  injected  preparation  of  the 
rectum  made  by  E.  H.  Weber  in  which  the  venous  roots  in  the  Pars  anahs 
are  especially  well  shown.  Here  are  seen  the  numerous  perpendicular 
branches,  described  by  Sappey,  which  rise  from  the  dense  plexuses  of  the 
sinus  and  then  empty  into  circular  vessels  3-4  cm.  above  the  anus.  This 
preparation  shows  also  the  ampulla-like  dilations  of  the  small  veins  of 
the  haemorrhoidal  plexus. 

Testut's^  description  of  the  vessels  of  the  Pars  analis  recti  is  more 
detailed  than  Sappey's  and  at  the  same  time  accompanied  by  excellent 
illustrations.  The  length  of  the  Pars  analis  in  man  is  3  cm.,  in  woman  2 
cm.  The  lower  part  of  it  is  surrounded  by  the  Sphincter  ani  externus 
as  by  an  elastic  ring.  The  M.  sphincter  internus  does  not  reach  down  as 
far  as  the  Sphincter  externus.  The  lower  margin  of  the  former  cor- 
responds to  the  region  of  transition  of  the  mucous '  membrane  of  the 
rectum  into  the  outer  skin.  By  injection  of  the  veins  there  is  found  some- 
what above  the  anus,  at  the  level  of  the  Valvulae  semilunares,  a  system 
of  ampulla-like  dilated  vessels  which  join  to  form  a  continuous  wreath. 
They  lie  in  the  Tela  submucosa,  and  the  size  of  the  ampullae  vary  from  that 
of  a  millet  seed  to  that  of  a  pea.  The  ampullae  are  the'  beginnings  of 
haemorrhoidal  swellings  and  never  are  absent  in  adults  but  (in 
opposition  to  Sappey)  may  be  in  the  newborn.  Figure  1374  of  Testut 
shows  the  dense  Plexus  haemorrhoidalis  reaching  up  to  the  level  of  the 

*Traite  d'Anatomie  humaine  1893,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  553  and  578  ff. 


ridge  of  the  sphincter.  From  here  outward  there  follow  solitary  drain- 
ing veins  (Anastomoses  sous-sphincteriennes  in  contradistinction  to  anas- 
tomoses sus-sphincteriennes  and  trans-sphincteriennes).  To  be  compared 
with  Testut's  illustrations  of  the  veins  of  the  rectum  are  also  those 
which  Luschka  gives  (p.  215)  in  his  Topogr.  Anatomic  des  Beckens. 

Henle  °  has  described  the  histological  relations  of  the  Pars  analis  recti. 
The  mucous  membrane  of  the  columnae  and  their  intervening  spaces  are 
distinguished  from  that  of  the  parts  of  the  rectum  lying  above :  through 
the  presence  of  numerous,  partly  coalesced  vascular  papillae,  by  the  ab- 
sence of  glands  and  by  the  presence  of  thick  stratified  squamous  epithe- 
lium. Longitudinal  bundles  of  smooth  muscle  fibres  cause  the  eleva- 
tions of  the  mucous  membrane.  W.  Krause  ^  described  similarly  to 
Henle  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  Pars  analis  recti.  To  the  smooth 
muscle  bundles  contained  in  the  columns  he  gives  in  a  note  the  name 
Sustentator  tunicae  mucosae  or  Dilatator  ani  internus.  The  Sphincter  ani 
internus  ends  at  the  beginning  of  the  columns  as  shown  in  an  illustra- 
tion by  Henle  (1.  c.  Fig.  133).  Lieberkiihn's  glands  do  not  extend, 
as  far  as  the  Sphincter  internus.  I  omit  the  similar  statements  in  other 
recent  anatomical  works.  In  regard  to  the  transition  of  the  epithelium, 
Krause  notes  that  between  the  intestinal  epithelium  and  the  stratified 
epithelium  of  the  anus  there  is  a  line  of  demarcation  of  transitional  epi- 
thelium about  2  mm.  wide;  whereas,  the  transition  of  the  epithelium  of 
the  anus  to  that  of  the  epidermis  is  a  gradual  one.  Debierre  ^  distinguishes 
two  serrated  border  lines :  a  "  Linea  anorectalis  "  and  a  "  Linea  anocu- 
tanea,"  the  latter  of  which  seems  to  be  identical  with  the  Linea  sinuosa 
analis  of  Rauber,^  beyond  which  there  appear  hairs,  sebaceous  glands 
and  Gl.  circumanales. 

According  to  the  above  description  the  Pars  analis  recti  comprises 
the  region  of  the  Columnae  rectales,  of  the  Sinus  rectales,  and  the 
Annulus  haemorrhoidalis.*  The  latter  term  is  newly  introduced  by 
the  editorial  committee,  and  we  denote  by  it  the  annular  thickening" 
which  surrounds  the  opening  proper  of  the  anus  and  which  is  caused 
by  the  Sphincter^  externus.  The  Sinus  rectales  lie  at  the  upper 
margin  of  the  Annulus  haemorrhoidalis  and  between  them  are  the 
columnae.  The  annulus  is  the  bearer  of  the  lower  part  of  the  venous 
Plexus  haemorrhoidalis. 

*  Eingeweidelehre,  p.  180. 

1  Anatomie  II,  p.  463. 

2  Traite  elementaire  d'Anat  de  I'homme  1890,  II,  425. 
'  Anatomie  des  Menschen  1892,  Vol.  I,  p.  609. 

*  Testut  cites  as  special  works  on  the  anus  those  of  Duret,  Hermann,  Symington 
and  Quain. 

"  See  Langer-Toldt's  Anatomie,  S  edit.,  p.  306. 


Nasus.  As  far  as  the  names  enumerated  here  exceed  the  hitherto 
existing  requirements  for  instruction,  they  are  taken  to  a  great  extent 
from  G.  Schwalbe,^  who  on  his  part  followed  H.  Meyer  in  many  points. 
Limen  nasi  is  the  ridge  between  the  Vestibulum  which  is  surrounded 
by  movable  cartilage  and  the  nasal  cavity  proper.  Above  the  Limen 
lies  the  Atrium  meatus  medii  (the  Carina  of  Merkel)  into  which  pro- 
jects the  obliquely  descending  Agger  nasi,  the  rudiment  of  an  anterior 
turbinate.  Sulcus  olfactorius  is  the  narrow  slit  which  leads  from  the 
Atrium,  between  the  Agger  nasi  and  the  roof  of  the  nasal  cavity,  upward 
towards  the  Lamina  cribrosa  and  the  anterior  part  of  the  Regio  olf  actoria. 
Recessus  sphenoethmoidalis  is  the  groove  parallel  to  the  upper  nasal 
cavity,  lying  in  the  region  of  the  superior  concha,  and  sometimes  arched 
over  by  a  Choncha  suprema.  Meatus  nasopharyngeus  is  that  part  of 
the  nasal  cavity  opening  into  the  Pharynx  under  the  body  of  the  sphenoid 
bone.  We  have  designated  as  Meatus  nasi  communis  the  space  lying 
beside  the  Septum  which  extends  through  the  entire  height  of  the  nasal 
cavity.  Processus  sphenoidalis  septi  cartilaginei  (Kolliker)  is  a 
tongue  shaped  process,  4-6  mm.  wide,  of  the  septal  cartilage,  which  fol- 
lows the  lower  margin  of  the  Lamina  perpendicularis  of  the  ethmoid  bone 
and  is  more  or  less  completely  enclosed  by  the  marginal  plates  of  the 

Larynx.  In  a  paper  devoted  to  the  anatomy  of  the  vocal  chords  B. 
Frankel"  discusses  the  historic  transformation  of  the  names  relating  to 
glottis  and  vocal  chords.  Galen  introduced  the  name  Glottis  and  used 
it  for  a  structure  in  the  body  which  he  compared  to  the  tongue  of  a 
musical  instrument.  Vesal  and  Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente  designated 
by  the  same  name  interchangeably  the  vocal  cleft  and  the  lips  surrounding 
it.  The  established  usage  of  the  word  Glottis  for  vocal  cleft  and  Liga- 
menta  glottis  for  vocal  chords  is  to  be  traced  back  to  Morgagni  (1718)  ; 
the  use  of  the  term  Chorda  vocalis  to  Ferrier  (1744)-  The  term  vocal 
chord,  Lig.  vocale,  seems  to  have  originated  as  late  as  the  present  cen- 
tury; it  is  first  found  in  Liscovius  (1814).  The  definition  which 
Luschka  gives  for  the  word  "  Glottis  "  in  his  monograph  on  the  larynx 
(Tiibingen,  1871,  p.  48)  also  seems  to  be  noteworthy:  "  Since  the  two 
vocal  chords  together  constitute  the  tongue  apparatus  (Glottis)  nec- 
essary for  the  production  of  sound,  the  slit  between  them  of  course 
cannot  be  called  Glottis  but  has  necessarily  to  be  distinguished  from 
it  as  Rima  Glottidis." 

After  Lauth  (1835)  had  demonstrated  the  elastic  membrane  of  the 
larynx  and  as  constituents  of  it  the  elastic  Ligg.  thyreoarytaenoidea, 

"  Anatomic  der  Sinnesorgane,  Leipzig  1887. 
•Archiv  fiir  Laryngologie  I,  p.  I. 


there  arose  a  certain  conflict  in  the  use  of  the  term.  Some  authors  under- 
stood under  Chordae  vocales  or  Ligg.  vocalia  only  the  elastic  Ligg.  thy- 
reoarytaenoidea  but  others,  and  among  them  especially  laryngologists, 
designated  by  the  term  "  vocal  chord  "  the  entire  lip  surrounding  the 
glottis.  Frankel,  who  calls  attention  to  this  contradiction,  remarks  that 
it  would  perhaps  have  been  better  to  have  had  a  special  name  for  the 
entire  structure ;  yet  later  on  he  disregards  the  presentations  of  the  anat- 
omists and  objects  strongly  to  the  application  of  the  term  vocal  chord 
for  the  whole  vocal  structure. 

A  unifonn  and  simplified  nomenclature  in  this  province  is  indispensable. 
Th^  old  designations  of  Glottis  vera  and  Glottis  spuria,  as  well  as  the 
clumsy  designations  of  Ligg.  thyreoarytaenoidea  superiora  and  inferiora 
and  others  may  on  this  occasion  be  thrown  overboard  without  hesitation. 
The  names  accepted  by  the  Commission  are : 

Labium  vocale  for  the  entire  prismatic  structure, 

Plica  vocalis  for  the  fold  of  mucous  membrane, 

Lig.  vocale  for  the  elastic  band, 

M.  vocalis  for  the  muscle  lying  in  the  vocal  lip. 

Glottis  for  the  vocal  apparatus  and 

Rima  glottidis  for  vocal  slit. 

The  last  two  terms  are,  therefore,  distinguished  in  a  similar  sense  as 
Os,  the  mouth;  and  Rima  oris,  the  oral  slit. 

The  physicians  apply  the  more  convenient  word  "  Taschenband " 
(pouchband)  to  the  false  vocal  chords  of  the  older  anatomists.  By  its 
adoption  we  have : 

Plica  ventricularis  —  "  Taschenfalte  "  [false  vocal  chords], 

Lig.  ventriculare  —  "Taschenband"  [sup.  thyreoarytenoid  lig.], 

M.  ventricularis  —  "  Taschenfaltenmuskel  "  [lower  fibres  of  arye- 
piglottidean  muscle]. 

Since  the  slit,  surrounded  by  the  two  false  vocal  cords, —  the  Glottis 
spuria  of  older  anatomists  —  forms  the  exit  of  the  vestibulum,  it  is  called 
the  Rima  vestibuli.  The  former  Mm.  thyreoarytaenoidei  of  the  au- 
thors are  now  as  follows: 

the  M.  thyreoarytaenoideus  internus M.  vocalis, 

the  M.  thyreoarytaenoideus  extemus  (Henle) 

M.  thyreoarytaenoideus, 
the  M.  thyreoaryepiglotticus  (Henle)  or  T 

the  M.  thyreoarytaenoideus  superior  medialis         IM.  ventricularis. 


Macula  flava  designates  the  place  of  an  elastic  nodule  situated  within 
and  at  the  anterior  end  of  the  Lig.  vocale,  which  shining  through  the 
mucous  membrane  gives  to  the  latter  a  yellowish  tint.  The  nodule  con- 
sists of  a  tubercle  of  elastic  tissue  which  Luschka  and  Frankel  interpreted 


as  fibrous  cartilage.  With  this  Macula  flava  is  not  to  be  confused  the 
Macula  lutea  which  remains,  unnamed  in  our  list,  a  name  which 
B.  FrankeF  gives  to  the  reticular  cartilage  also  shining  through  the 
mucous  membrane  at  the  posterior  end  of  the  Lig.  vocale  and  which  covers 
the  anterior  end  of  the  Proc.  vocahs  cart,  arytaenoideae  (Kr.). 

Cartilago  cuneiformis  [Wrisbergi]'.  The  designation,  Wrisberg's 
cartilage,  has  lately  been  objected  to  by  Frankel  *  because  the  cartilage 
was  already  known  to  Morgagni  and  Camper.  After  the  cartilage  has 
been  for  such  a  long  time  called  after  Wrisberg,  a  change  of  name  ap- 
pears to  be  inadvisable.  Frankel  himself  suggests  leaving  the  name 
Cart,  cuneiformis.  As  for  the  rest,  I  refer  to  the  views  expressed  in 
the  introduction  in  regard  to  personal  names. 

The  Lig.  cricothyreoideum  [medium]  is  not  essentially  an  inde- 
pendent ligament,  but  the  anterior  margin  of  that  structure  which  many 
anatomists  have  designated  as  Conus  elasticus.  Therefore  in  prepara- 
tions from  the  anterior  side  its  deeper  lateral  margins  are  lost  inferiorly 
without  demonstrable  outlines.  The  entire  conus  is  brought  into  view, 
if  after  cutting  away  a  part  of  the  plate  of  the  thyreoid  cartilage,  one 
removes  from  the  side  the  Mm.  cricoarytaenoideus  lateralis,  thyreo- 
arytaenoideus  and  vocalis.  Then  it  appears  as  a  yellowish  oblique 
membrane  which  is  connected  behind  with  the  Cart,  arytaenoidea,  in 
front  with  the  Cart,  thyreoidea,  and  inferiorly  throughout  with  the 
Cart,  cricoidea.    The  upper  margin  of  the  conus  forms  the  Lig.  vocale. 

Since  the  entire  Tela  submucosa  of  the  larynx  is  rich  in  elastic  tissue, 
it  is  designated  by  Lauth,  Tourtual,  Luschka  and  others  in  its  entirety  as 
Membrana  elastica  laryngis.  The  Conus  elasticus  is  the  lower  part 
of  this  Membrana  elastica  while  the  upper  part  included  between  the 
Plica  aryepiglottica  and  the  Lig.  ventriculare,  is  called  the  Membrana 
quadrangidaris.  Of  these  names,  the  Membrana  quadrangularis  and 
Conus  elasticus  were  not  accepted  by  the  Commission.^ 

''  Archiv  fur  Laryngologie  1894,  Bd.  I,  p.  14. 

*  Archiv  fur  Laryngologie  Bd.  II,  Heft  2. 

»  Conus  elasticus  was  included  in  the  last  printing  of  the  BNA. — Ed. 


Fig.  7. 

Larynx  with  prepared  Conus  elasticus.    The  upper  margin  of  the  Conus  forms 
the  Lig.  vocale,  the  anterior  margin  forms  the  Lig.  cricothyreoideum  medium. 
C.  th.  Cart,  thyreoidea, 
C.  cr.  Cart,  cricoidea, 
C.  a.  Cartilage  arytaenoidea, 
C.  e.  Conus  elasticus, 
L.  V.  Lig.  vocale, 
L.  c.  t.  Lig.  cricothyr.  medium. 

Annulus  urethralis  vesicae.  If  the  bladder  and  urethra  be  opened 
lengthwise  from  in  front  the  boundary  of  both  structures  is  shown  by  a 
protruding  annular  thickening  which  we  call  the  Annulus  urethralis 
vesicae.  The  more  powerful  the  musculature  of  the  bladder  and  the  more 
it  is  contracted,  the  more  prominent  becomes  this  ring  shaped  thickening. 
It  surrounds  the  first  part  of  the  urethra ;  nevertheless  we  shall  speak 
with  the  same  right  of  an  Annulus  urethralis  vesicae,  as  we  speak  of  a 
Portio  vaginalis  uteri.  It  is  formed  by  the  strong  muscle  bundles,  sur- 
rounding in  winding  loops  the  urethral  opening,  which  we  were  hitherto 
accustomed  to  designate  as  M.  sphincter  vesicae  internus.  The  Com- 
mission dropped  this  designation  and  the  future  must  tell  whether  this 
name  really  can  be  discarded. 

The  transition  from  bladder  to  urethra  is  simplest  in  the  female. 
Where  the  Trigonum  Lieutaudi  tapers  toward  the  opening  of  the  urethra, 
a  number  of  small  fan-like  converging  mucous  folds  pass  over  into  the 
urethra.  These  are  continued  in  a  longitudinal  ridge  on  the  posterior 
wall  of  the  latter, — the  Crista  urethralis.  In  the  urethra  these  little 
folds  are  connected  with  each  other  by  numerous  delicate  cross  bridges 
and  form  in  conjunction  with  the  latter  a  very  fine  mesh  work.  The 
muscular  ring  lying  at  the  transition  from  bladder  to  urethra  gradually 
diminishes  and  blends  with  this  network.  On  its  inner  surface,  starting 
from  the  fundus  of  the  bladder,  there  originates  a  longitudinal  fibrous 
layer  which  reaches  deeply  into  the  urethra. 


In  the  male  the  relations  at  the  beginning  of  the  urethra  are  com- 
plicated by  the  presence  of  the  prostate.  Nevertheless  it  is  not  difficult 
to  compare  the  conditions  in  the  beginning  of  the  male  urethra  to  that  of 
the  female.  The  Annulus  urethralis  vesicae  and  the  underlying  muscular 
ring  as  a  rule  are  much  more  prominent  in  the  male.  Here  also  a  system 
of  longitudinal  folds  descends  through  the  Orificium  internum  from  the 
bladder  into  the  urethra.  The  posterior  group  of  these  folds  extends 
from  the  Trigonum  Lieutaudi  to  the  Colliculus  seminalis  where  the 
small  folds  are  attached  (as  Frenula  colliculi  of  some  anatomists). 
The  middle  fold  usually  is  the  strongest,  and  it,  as  the  beginning  of  the 
Crista  urethralis,  effects  the  median  connection  of  the  Uvula  vesicae  with 
the  Colliculus.  At  the  entrance  of  the  male  urethra  the  little  individual 
longitudinal  folds  are  also  connected  by  cross  bridges.  Very  striking,  in 
bladders  with  strong  muscles,  is  the  deep  recess  under  the  Annulus 
urethralis  of  that  part  of  the  urethra  which  is  surrounded  by  the  prostate. 
Near  the  Colliculus  and  somewhat  above  the  same  there  is  a  well  developed 
sinus  not  only  on  the  anterior,  but  also  on  the  posterior  urethral  wall. 

Of  the  muscle  layers  in  question  the  innermost  longitudinal  layer 
descends  deeply  into  the  prostatic  part  of  the  urethra  like  the  tube  of  an 
inserted  funnel.  The  prominent  ridge  of  the  annular  muscle  overlies  the 
glandular  body  of  the  prostate,  but  is  for  the  most  part  sharply  separated 
from  it.  With  its  approach  to  the  urethra  the  annular  muscular  ridge 
loses  its  definite  outline  and  bundles  branching  from  it  penetrate  the  sub- 
stance of  the  prostate  and  divide  between  its  glandular  lobules.  In  front, 
where  the  body  of  the  gland  is  interrupted,  leaf-like  stratified  muscle 
bundles  directly  join  the  mass  of  the  annular  muscle  and  surround  the 
anterior  side  of  the  urethra.^ 

Prostata.  By  Corpus  glandulare  prostatae  is  meant  the  main 
glandular  mass  of  the  organ,  which,  as  we  know  from  Jarjvay,  Luschka  = 
and  others,  surrounds  the  beginning  of  the  urethra  like  a  clasp  open 

1  The  work  done  by  Jurie  under  Langer  on  the  Stratum  internum  of  the 
Tunica  muscularis  (Medic.  Jahrbiicher  der  k.k.  Gesellschaft  der  Aertze  in 
Wien.  1873,  p.  427)  shows  that  the  longitudinal  bundles  composing  this  layer 
are  most  densely  arranged  at  the  apex  of  the  bladder.  The  anterior  longi- 
tudinal bundle  of  the  bladder  can  be  traced  into  the  anterior  wall  of  the 
urethra.  On  th.e  posterior  wall  of  the  bladder  the  longitudinal  bundles  are 
said  to  be  more  scattered. 

2  Topographische  Anatomie  des  Beckens,  p.  296. 



''Sph  a.e. 

Fig.  8. 
Diaphragma  pelvis. 
L.a.  Muse,  levator  ani.  F.d.i.  Fascia  diaphragm,  inferior 

M.c.c.  Muse,  coccygeus.  F.p.  Fascia  pelvis. 

M.p.  Muse,  piriformis.  F.o.  Fascia  obturatoria. 

M.o.i.  Muse,  obturator  internus.  Sph.  a.e.  Sphincter  ani  externus. 

F.d.s.  Fascia  diaphragm,  superior. 

in  front.  The  closing  of  this  clasp  to  a  ring  is  effected  by  muscular 
tissue  which  in  its  upper  part  consists  of  smooth  fibres  and  in  its  lower 
part  of  striated  fibres.  Henle  has  designated  this  as  well  as  the  other 
muscular  tissue  surrounding  the  prostatic  part  of  the  urethra  as 
Sphincter  vesicae  internus  and  externus.  The  Commission  has  not 
accepted  these  terms,  but  has  retained  only  the  M.  prostaticus. 

By  Isthmus  prostatae  we  understand  the  narrow  strip  of  substance 
which  is  present  between  the  entrance  of  the  urethra  and  the  Ductus 
ejaculatorii  and  which  connects  the  two  lateral  lobes  of  the  organ,  which 
lobes  are  more  prominent  at  their  bases.  The  Lobus  medius  is  a  varia- 
tion consisting  of  an  independent  prominence  extending  from  the 



Fig.  9. 

_  Anterior  half  of  tiie  pelvis.  Frontal  section  through  the  Bladder,  Prostata, 
Trigonum  urogenitale  and  Bulbus  corp.  cav.  urethrae. 

1.  Fascia  pelvis.  6.  Fascia  inferior  diaphragmatis. 

2.  Arcus  tendineus  m.  levatoris.  .7.  Fascia  obturatoria. 

3.  Arcus  tendineus  fasciae  pelvis.  8.  Fascia  prostatica. 

4.  Fascia  endopelvina.  9.  Fascia  superior  trigoni  urogenitalis. 

5.  Fascia  superior  diaphragmatis.  10.  Fascia  inferior  trigoni  urogenitalis. 

The  levator  ani  muscles  are  here  represented  as  attaching  to  the  rami  of 
the  ischium.  They  should  curve  in  the  opposite  direction  following  the  margin 
of  l^he  prostate. — Ed. 

The  CoUicvdus  seminalis,  the  Caput  gallinaginus  of  the  older 
anatomists,  comprises,  according  to  the  usual  description,  the  roundish 
prominence  on  which  open  the  Vesicula  prostatica  and  the  Ductus 
ejaculatorii  together  with  a  longitudinal  crest  reaching  into  the  urethra  — 
or  to  retain  the  picture  of  the  head  of  the  snipe  —  the  head  and  the  bill. 
According  to  the  description  on  page  133,  the  Crista  urethralis  extends 
from  the  Uvula  vesicae  to  the  lower  prostatic  parts  of  the  urethra  and 
the  Colliculus  seminalis  blends  with  the  Crista  as  a  local  enlargement.^ 

Membranae  deciduae.  We  were  requested  by  an  eminent  gynecologist 
to  replace  the  expressions  Decidua  reflexa  and  serotina,  so  easily  mis- 
interpreted by  beginners,  by  more  suitable  names.  After  some  con- 
sideration the  terms  — 

Decidua  capsularis  instead  of  D.  reflexa  and 

Decidua  basalis  instead  of  D.  serotina 
were  considered  to  be  suitable  for  the  purpose.     In  the  balloting  they 
were  accepted  by  a  great  majority  of  the  Commission.     There  was  no 
reason  to  drop  the  name  Decidua  vera. 

8  According  to  Toldt  the  Colliculus  seminalis  and  the  Crista  urethralis 
are  parts  of  the  Caput  gallinaginis.  His  Crista  therefore  comprises  only  the 
lower  part  of  ours. 


Cavum  pelvis.  Our  nomenclature  differs  from  the  customary  one  in 
several  points.  It  is  based  on,  a  strict  separation  of  Diaphragma  pelvis 
and  Trigonum  urogenitale,  and  as  we  believe,  is  easily  applied. 

The  inferior  termination  of  the  pelvic  cavity  is  effected  by  a  muscular 
funnel,  formed  by  the  M.  levator  ani  and  M.  coccygeus,  which  has  been 
very  appropriately  designated  by  H.  Meyer  as  Diaphragma  pelvis. 
This  muscular  funnel  is  covered  by  two  sheaths  of  fascia,  the  upper  of 
which  we  call  Pars  diaphragmatica  fasciae  pelvis,  and  the  lower  one 
our  Fascia  inferior  diaphragmatis  pelvis. 

The  relations  of  the  Fascia  pelvis  are  known.  It  consists  of  a  lateral 
portion  covering  the  M.  levator  ani  and  also  partly  the  M.  obturator 
internus,  and  of  another  portion  reaching  to  the  pelvic  viscera.  Luschka 
has  designated  these  two  portions  as  Pars  parietalis  and  Pars  visceralis. 
At  the  point  where  the  one  part  separates  from  the  other,  there  lies  the 
Arcus  tendineus  of  the  fascia.  This  anteriorly  is  continued  into  the  Lig. 
puboprostaticum  laterale  and  posteriorly  joins  the  Spina  ischii.  The 
words  "  parietalis  "  and  "  visceralis  "  are  applied  only  to  serous  mem- 
branes; besides  we  prefer  to  speak  of  a  Pars  diaphragmatica  and  a 
Pars  endopelvina  of  the  pelvic  fascia.  The  latter  term  was  originated 
by  Langer  and  is  generally  used  by  the  present  Viennese  school. 

The  principal  muscle  of  the  pelvic  diaphragm,  the  M.  levator  ani, 
originates  from  the  posterior  surface  of  the  pubis  and  from  a  tendinous 
arch  interwoven  in  the  Fascia  obturatoria;  both  limbs  of  the  arch  reach 
to  the  upper  pelvic  margin  (the  posterior  up  to  the  Linea  terminalis). 
This  arch  is  the  Arcus  tendineus  musculi  levatoris  ani.  The  curva- 
ture of  the  arch  reaches  in  extreme  cases  almost  up  to  the  level  of  the 
Canalis  obturatorius,  in  other  cases  it  extends  deeply  down  to  the  lateral 
wall  of  the  pelvis.* 

*  The  presence  of  the  Arcus  tendineus  musculi  levatoris,  its  independence 
from  the  pelvic  fascia  and  the  ascent  of  its  posterior  limb  up  to  the  Linea 
arcuate  of  the  ilium,  I  have  discussed  in  "  Braune  and  His  Leitfaden  fiir  die 
Praeparanten  der  anatomischen  Anstalt  in  Leipzig  1883  "  (p.  32).  When  we 
demonstrate  in  our  anatomical  laboratory  the  Levator,  in  any  asymmetrically 
divided  pelvis,  these  conditions  in  each  preparation  are  clearly  brought  into 
view.  Recently  Kollmann  considers  the  Levator  ani  as  originating  directly 
from  the  Linea  arcuata.  A  thin  continuation  of  the  Fascia  obturatoria  reaches 
from  the  Arcus  tend,  musculi  to  the  Linea  arcuata  which  continuation  can  be 
interpreted  morphologically  but  not  physiologically  as  the  tendon  of  the 
Levator.  The  arch  of  the  tendon  may  be  shortened  by  the  ascent  of  the 
muscle  but  it  never  can  be  absent  since  under  all  circumstances  there  is  neces- 
sary an  entrance  space  for  the  N.  and  Vasa  obturatoria.  Moreover  Luschka 
states  (Topograph,  anatomie  des  Beckens,  Tubingen  1864,  p.  145)  that  the 
Levator  ani  originates  along  an  exquisitely  semilunar  line  of  the  pelvic  fascia 
and  that  a  direct  continuation  with  the  Arcus  tendineus  of  the  fascia  "'  cer- 
tainly does  not  regularly  exist,"  since  this  strip  as  a  rule  can  be  detached  from 
the  muscle  without  injuring  it. 


Through  the  opening  of  the  arch  one  sees  after  removal  of  the  cover- 
ing fascia  a  part  of  the  M.  obturator  internus.  The  Arcus  tendineus 
musculi  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Fascia  pelvis.  It  is  crossed  by  the 
Arcus  tendineus  fasciae  and  each  is  easily  detached  from  the  other. 
Some  muscle  bundles  of  the  M.  levator  ani  may  originate  from  the  Arcus 
tendineus  fascia,  especially  from  its  anterior  part,  but  this  is  more  the 
exception  than  the  rule. 

The  M.  coccygeus,  arising  from  the  Spina  ischii  and  the  Lig. 
sacrospinosum,  is  often  widely  covered  for  some  distance  by  the  pos- 
terior margin  of  the  M.  levator, —  a  relation  explainable  from  the  higher 
origin  of  the  latter  muscle. 

While  the  funnel  of  the  pelvic  diaphragm  is  posteriorly  entirely  closed 
by  its  insertion  at  the  sacrum  and  coccyx,  and  by  the  median  fibre  cross- 
ings between  the  anus  and  the  apex  of  the  sacrum,  there  is  in  its  anterior 
part,  lying  behind  the  pubic  symphysis,  a  broad  space  or  slit  in  which 
the  Prostata  lies  in  the  male  and  the  urethra  and  vagina  in  the  female. 
The  muscle  shows  in  its  anterior  part  some  further  noteworthy  char- 
acteristics, namely :  the  line  of  origin  of  the  thin  muscle  plate  forms,  on 
either  side  behind  the  pubic  bone,  an  arch  surrounding  the  origin  of  the 
Obturator.  The  thin  free  borders  of  the  two  Levators  are  not  con- 
verging, but  diverging  from  each  other  and  are  directed  downwards. 
Hence  the  medial  part  of  the  muscle  passes  in  a  curved  plane  around 
and  adjoining  the  Prostata  in  the  male.  The  arching  muscular  plate  lies 
directly  above  the  Trigonum  urogenitale  which  will  be  spoken  of 

The  discussion  of  the  M.  levator  ani  has  gained  in  most  recent  times 
a  heightened  interest  through  the  comparative  anatomical  works  of 
KoUmann  and  of  Toldt's  assistant,  Lartschneider."  From  their  work 
it  is  established  that  the  M.  levator  ani  of  man  corresponds  to  the  Mm. 
flexores  caudae  pubococcygeus  and  ileococcygeus  of  mammals,  and  that 
one  can  trace  its  gradual  reduction  in  the  transition  from  the  caudate 
monkeys  to  the  anthropoids.  The  insertion  of  the  most  dorsal  part  of 
the  muscle  into  the  coccyx  shows  moreover  the  Levator  ani  still  in  man 

5  Verhandlungen  der  Anatomischen  Gesellschaft  in  Strassburg,  1894,  p.  198, 
and  Sitzungsbericht  der  k.k.  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften  in  Wien  1894,  Nr. 
XXJV,  p.  234. 




Fig.  10. 

Anterior  wall  of  the  pelvis  prepared  from  the  posterior  side.  L.  p.  p.  Liga- 
menta  puboprostatica.  The  two  Ligg.  lateralia  curve  upward,  the  medium,  curves 
downward.  On  the  left  the  prolongation  of  the  Lig.  puboprostatica  laterale  of  the 
Arcus  tendineus  fasciae  (A.t.f.)  is  laid  bare.  On  the  right  it  is  cut  off.  On  the 
right  the  curved  line  of  origin  of  the  levator  ani  is  shown  and  for  some  distance 
follows  the  margin  of  the  Trigonum  urogenitale  (  On  the  left  is  shown 
the  Arcus  tend.  m.  levatoris  (A.t.m.).  M.o.i.  Muse,  obturator  internus,  which  on 
either  side  is  only  partially  visible. 

as  a  flexor  caudae.  Exceptionally  there  exists  an  independent  small 
muscle  which  extends  from  the  iliac  portion  of  the  Linea  terminalis  to 
the  lateral  margin  of  the  sacrum  and  which  overlies  medially  the  M. 
coccygeus.  I  give  a  sketch  of  such  an  accessory  M.  iliosacralis,  which  I 
discovered  not  long  ago  in  the  dissecting  room. 

Fig.  II. 
Lateral  pelvic  wall  with  the  interior  view  of  the  Diaphragma  pelvis. 
M.  1.  a.    M.  levator  ani. 
A.  t.  m.    Arcus  tendin.  m.  levatoris. 
M.  c.     Muse,  coccygeus. 

0.  i.    M.  obturator  int. 
M.  p.    Muse,  piriformis. 

1.  s.    Is  a  muscular  band  descending  independently  from  the  ilium  to 

the  sacrum,  which  partially  overlaps  the  M.  coccygeus. 

The  Trigonum  urogenitale  ^^     (Diaphragma  urogenitale  of  Henle) 
stretches  as  a  dense  plate,  in  the  form  of  an  incomplete  triangle,  trans- 

'>a  Diaphragma  urogenitale  was  later  substituted  for  Trigonum  urogenitale. 


versely  across  the  pubic  arch  and  leaves  at  its  upper  margin  only,  just 
below  the  Lig.  arcuatum,  a  space  for  the  passage  of  the  Vena  dorsalis 
penis  (sive  cHtoridis).  The  Trigonum  is  fully  demonstrated  from  below 
in  the  male  if  one  has  smoothly  removed  the  Corpora  cavernosa  penis 
and  the  Bulbus  urethrae.  Its  framework  consists  of  two  strong  fascial 
plates, —  the  Fasciae  trigoni  urogenitalis  superior  et  inferior.  These 
are  fused  together  at  their  upper  and  lower  margins  and  enclose 
a  flat  space.  The  Ligamentum  transversum  pelvis  is  formed  by  the 
junction  of  their  upper  margins.  The  lower  junction  lies  at  the  freely 
protruding  margin  of  the  Trigonum  and  immediately  above  the 
M.  transversus  perinei  superficialis.  The  space  between  the  two 
plates  of  fasciae  is  traversed  by  the  membranous  urethra  with  its  M. 
sphincter  urethrae  membranaceae.  In  this  space  lie  the  M.  trans- 
versus profundus,  Cowper's  glands  and  numerous  venous  plexuses. 
Along  the  lateral  margins  run  the  N.  dorsalis  penis  and  the  Art.  penis. 

Above  the  Trigonum  urogenitale  there  lies  in  the  male  the  Prostata, 
the  connective  tissue  capsule  of  which,  Fascia  prostatica,  unites  below 
with  the  Fascia  trig,  urogen.  superior,  and  above  with  the  Pars  endo- 
pelvina  fasciae  pelvis. 

The  statements  of  the  textbooks  concerning  the  Fascia  perinei 
propria  are  so  different  from  each  other,  and  so  hard  to  understand  by 
the  student,  that  we  preferred  to  entirely  omit  the  name.  It  is  usually 
understood  that  the  deep  perineal  fascia  consists  of  a  posterior  single 
plate  and  an  anterior  divided  one.  The  posterior  single  plate  is  our 
Fascia  inferior  diaphragmatis  pelvis;  the  anterior  divided  one  consists 
of  two  Fasciae  trigoni  urogenitalis.  But  the  suggested  presentation  is 
in  no  way  a  thorough  one :  Toldt,^  for  instance,  counts  the  upper  fascia 
of  the  Trigonum,  and  therefore  naturally  also  the  Fascia  prostatica,  as 
part  of  the  F.  pelvis;  whereas  Gegenbauer  considers  the  region  of  the 
deep  perineal  fascia  as  extending  beyond  the  Prostata  up  to  the  Liga- 
menta  puboprostatica.  The  principle  "  Divide  et  impera "  holds  good 
also  for  good  descriptions,  and  from  my  experience  the  students  very 
soon  come  to  a  clear  conception  of  the  relative  conditions  through  a 
separate  study  of  the  Trigonum  urogenitale. 

The  conception  and  nomenclature  approved  of  by  the  Commission 
differs  only  in  immaterial  points  from  those  which  colleagues  Toldt  and 
Zuckerkandl  had  suggested  to  the  Commission. 

"  Diaphragma  rectale 

M.  levator  ani  and  M.  coccygeus. 

Diaphragma  urogenitale  M.  transversus  perinei  profundus. 

1.  Fascia  perinei  superficiahs. 

2.  Fascia  penis. 

•  Lehrbuch,  p.  405. 


3.  Fascia  superior  diaphragmatis  rectalis. 

4.  Fascia  inferior   diaphragmatis   rectalis. 

5.  Fascia  superior  diaphragmatis   urogenitalis    [Ligamentum  ischio- 

prostaticum] . 

6.  Fascia  inferior  diaphragmatis  urogenitalis    [Lig.  triangulare  ure- 

thrae] . 

7.  Fascia  obturatoria. 

Pars  supradiaphragmatica  and 

Pars  infradiaphragmatica. 
The  Pars  supradiaphragmatica  forms  with  the  F.   superior  diaphr. 
rectalis,  the  F.  pelvis  parietalis ;  the  Pars  inf radiaphr.  with  the  F.  inferior 
diaphr.  rectalis  the  connective  tissue  covering  of  the  Cavum  ischiorectale. 

8.  Fascia  endopelvina  (Langer).    To  it  belongs  the  Ligg.  pubopros- 

statica  and  the  Fascia  pelvis  visceralis. 

9.  Lig.  transversum  pelvis  [Winslowi]. 
10.  Arcus  tendineus  obturatorius. 

The  Fascia  (or  the  Septum)  rectovesicalis  belongs  to  the  Prostata  and 
not  to  the  perineal  fasciae." 

We  avoided,  differing  from  Henle,  the  term  Diaphragma  urogenitale ' 
because  the  term  does  not  fit  this  scarcely  movable  plate.  The  Dia-. 
phragma  pelvis  like  the  diaphragma  of  the  trunk  should  be  an  apparatus 
which  helps  to  accomplish  the  contraction  of  the  contained  inner  space 
in  abdominal  pressure.  The  M.  transversus  perin.  prof,  cannot  accord- 
ing to  its  entire  mode  of  action  do  anything  in  this  respect. 

Peritonaeum.  As  regards  the  peritonaeum  some  few  names  require 
a  special  discussion. 

Membrana '  mesenterii  propria  is  the  connective  tissue  layer  left 
after  removal  of  both  peritoneal  layers,  which  is  the  carrier  of  the  blood 
and  lymph  vessels,  the  lymph-glands,  the  veins  and  adipose  tissue.* 

Mesenterium  commune  is  the  mesentery  of  the  embryonic  umbilical 
loop  of  the  intestine  which  latter  surrounds  a  part  of  the  duodenum  and 
the  Colon  ascendens  and  transversum.^ 

The  Bursa  omentalis  is  divided  into  the  Vestibulum,  the  Recessus 
superior  and  the  Recessus  inferior.  From  the  foramen  of  Winslow  on, 
a  narrow  passage  extends  medianward  below  the  Processus  caudatus  of 
Spiegel's  lobe  and  over  the  Pars  superior  duodeni  and  beyond  the  head 

^This  term  was  later  accepted  by  the  Commission. — Ed. 
*  This  was  changed  to  Lamina  in  the  final  list. — Ed. 
»  Toldt  (5  Aufl.  von  Langer-Toldt)  Anatomie,  Wien  1893,  p.  321. 
1  Toldt,   Bau  and  Waschsthumsverh.     des  Gekroses,  etc.,  Wien   1879,  and 
His,  Anatomie  menschlicher  Embryonen  III,  p.  32  ff. 


of  the  Pancreas.  This  passage  is  the  Vestibulum  bursae  omentalis, 
which  is  bounded  anteriorly  by  the  Lig.  hepatoduodenale.  The  vessels 
of  the  hver,  the  V.  portae,  A.  hepatica  and  D.  coledochus,  pass  below 
the  floor  of  the  Vestibulum  posterior  to  the  head  of  the  Pancreas  and 
from  the  posterior  abdominal  wall  upward  between  the  Laminae  of 
the  Lig.  hepatoduodenale.  The  Recessus  superior  extends  from  the 
Vestibulum  behind  the  Porta  hepatis  and  ascends  along  the  posterior 
wall  of  Spiegel's  lobe,  in  front  of  the  diaphragm  and  partly  anterior  to 
the  aorta  and  the  lower  end  of  the  Oesophagus.^  From  the  place  where 
the  Tuberculum  omentale  pancreatis  overhangs  the  lesser  curvature  of, 
the  stomach  the  two  upper  branches  of  the  A.  coeliaca,  viz.  the  A. 
coronaria  ventriculi  sinistra  and  the  A.  hepatica,  diverge  and  the 
former  especially  pushes  in  front  of  itself  the  posterior  wall  of  the 
Omentum.  There  is  thus  formed  a  sickle-shaped  protruding  fold, — 
the  Plica  gastropancreatica.  Through  the  roundish  aperture  nar- 
rowed by  this  fold  the  Vestibulum  of  the  omentum  is  joined  to  the 
Recessus  inferior,  which  descends  in  front  of  the  body  of  the  pancreas 
and  behind  the  stomach.  The  portion  of  this  space  extending  farthest 
toward  the  left  is  the  Recessus  lienalis.  The  Processus  papillaris 
extends  into  the  aperture  of  the  Recessus  inferior  from  above 
and  narrows  its  entrance.  Huschke "  designated  the  Vestibulum  of  the 
omentum  including  the  Recessus  superior  as  Bursa  omenti  minoris, 
the  inferior  space  as  Bursa  omenti  majoris.  This  anatomist  calls  the 
connecting  opening  Foramen  omenti  majoris  and  the  limiting  fold 
Septum  bursarum  sive  Lig.  gastropancreaticum.  I  myself  had  sug- 
gested for  it  the  name  Diaphragma  omentale. 

The  Omentum  minus  in  its  different  parts  is  not  equally  developed. 
A  superior  sickle  shaped  strip  distinguished  by  its  aponeurotic  like 
structure,  extends  from  the  cardia  and  the  ventral  part  of  the  oesoph- 
agus to  the  Fossa  sagittalis  sinistra  posterior.  This  is  designated  by 
Langer-Toldt,  Pars  condensa.*  By  these  authors  the  thin  flaccid 
middle  piece  of  the  lesser  omentum,  which  is  attached  lat  the  lesser 
curvature  of  the  stomach,  is  called  Pars  flaccida.  To  the  right  this 
Pars  flaccida  blends  without  sharply  defined  outlines  nito  the  Lig. 

Ligamentum  falciforme  hepatis  was  accepted  by  the  Commission 
instead  of  Lig.  suspensorium  hepatis  in  order  to  definitely  remove  the 
erroneous  interpretation  contained  in  the  latter  term.    The  name  is  not 

2  His  Ueber  Praeparate  zum  Situs  viscerum.  This  Archive  1878,  p.  73  ff, 
and  Taf,  II-III. 

'  Huschke,  in  the  revision  of  Sommering's  Lehre  von  den  Eingeweiden, 
Leipzig  1844,  p.  202' ff. 

*  Langer-Toldt,  1.  c,  p.  333- 


new,  but  has  been  used  by  French  authors.  (Ligamentum  falciforme 
or  grande  faux  du  foie;  see  Cruveilhier,  Sappey,  Testut.)' 

Plica  vesicalis  transversa  [Waldeyer]  is  the  constant  peritoneal 
fold  which  runs  obliquely  over  the  empty  bladder  (Absth.) 

Parametrium.  The  expression  was  accepted  in  the  interest  of  the 
physicians  who  speak  of  a  parametritis.  By  Parametrium  is  designated 
the  loose  tissue  which  surrounds  the  prominent  vessel  plexuses  lying 
beside  the  uterus  and  the  upper  part  of  the  vagina.  It  occupies  the  tri- 
angular space  lateral  from  the  vault  of  the  vagina,  the  Collum  uteri, 
and  the  Corpus  uteri.  Its  upper  end  extends  between  the  converging 
layers  of  the  Lig.  latum  uteri. 

Bursa  ovarii  and  Fossa  ovarica  [Claudii].  Claudius,''  in  a  short 
paper,  "  Ueber  die  Lage  des  Uterus,"  based  on  eighty-eight  post-mortem 
investigations,  contended  very  energetically  that  the  uterus,  including  its 
wide  uterine  ligaments  and  the  ovaries,  lies  close  to  the  posterior  upper 
pelvic  wall  like  the  lungs  to  the  costal  wall.  The  ovary  is  said  to  lie 
horizontally  or  with  a  slightly  inclined  axis  in  the  shallow  groove  of  the 
Fossa  ovarii,  which  latter  is  said  to  be  sunk  in  the  adipose  connective 
tissue  at  the  upper  margin  of  the  M.  piriformis  and  in  front  of  the  point 
of  exit  of  the  Vasa  glutaea  sup.  The  anterior  surface  of  the  Ovarium 
is  said  to  be  entirely  separated  from  the  intestines  by  the  Ala  vesper- 
tilionis.  According  to  Claudius  the  Tube  follows  the  upper  margin  of 
the  ovary  and  then  turns  backward  and  downward  so  that  the  Infundi- 
bulum  Hes  in  the  lateral  half  of  the  Fossa  ovarii  and  behind  the  ovary. 
According  to  Claudius  anteverted  and  anteflexed  uteri  are  strictly 
pathological  conditions.  The  latter  statement  has  since  proven  to  be 
untenable  as  is  shown  through  the  investigations  of  gynecologists  and, 
anatomists,  concerning  which  one  may  especially  compare  the  compre- 
hensive work  by  K.  Bardeleben.''  Among  the  later  investigators, — 
gynecologists  and  anatomists,^  there  no  longer  exists  any  real  differences 
in  reference  to  the  ovaries.  The  ovaries  lie  on  the  lateral  wall  of  the 
pelvis,  immediately  below  the  Linea  arci«ita;  one  surface  is  directed 
medianward,  the  other  lateralward,  the  attached  margin  forward  and  the 
free  backward.  The  longitudinal  axis  of  the  ovary  is  almost  parallel  to 
the  axis  of  the  body.  In  asymmetric  positions  of  the  uterus  the  ovary 
takes  an  oblique  position.     The  entering  vessels  of  the  ovary  and  the 

^  Sappey  makes  a  distinction  between  his  grande  faux  and  the  Lig.  sus- 
pensorium;  the  former  blends  with  the  latter  at  the  margin  of  the  liver.  The 
pelites  faux  of  Sappey  are  the  three  Ligg.  umbilicalia. 

«  Zeitschrift  fiir  ration.     Medicin,  1865.     Bd.  XXIII,  p.  248  flf. 

^  Berichte  der  2.    Versammlung  der  anat.     Gesellschaft  1888,  p.  45  flf. 

8  His.  Ueber  die  Lage  der  weiblichen  Eierstocke.  This  Archive  1881,  p. 
398.     Waldeyer,  Anat.  Anzeiger  1886,  p.  44. 


surrounding  fold  form  for  it,  as  well  as  for  the  tubes,  a  kind  of  suspend- 
ing ligament, —  the  Lig.  suspensorium  ovari  of  the  Commission. 

Since  the  statements  of  Claudius  concerning  the  position  of  the  ovary 
proved  to  be  untenable  we  are  no  longer  justified  in  speaking  of  a  Fossa 
ovarica  [Claudii].  The  great  majority  of  the  text-books  avoid  this  term. 
Waldeyer,'  who  still  uses  it,  is  in  accord  with  the  new  standpoint,  defined 
above,  as  regards  his  conception  of  the  position  of  the  ovary.  The 
Fossa  ovarica  referred  to  by  him,  therefore,  cannot  coincide  as  to  loca- 
tion and  direction  with  the  Fossa  of  Claudius. 

The  Bursa  ovarii  is  not  to  be  confused  with  the  Fossa  ovarica,  which 
latter  is  described  as  a  deepening  in  the  fat  of  the  pelvic  wall.  By  the 
former  name,  we  understand  an  intraperitoneally  situated  pouch.  Thus, 
e.  g.  Rauber  ^  gives  the  following  description :  "  The  further  attachment 
of  the  ovary  is  caused  by  the  peritoneum  which  receives  the  ovary  in 
a  shallow  pouch, —  the  Bursa  ovarica,  which  is  situated  in  the  posterior 
lamella  of  the  frontally  placed  Lig.  latum  uteri  lying  in  the  posterior 
part  of  the  lateral  pelvic  wall."  I  for  my  part  do  not  accept  the  frontal 
position  of  the  Lig.  uteri  latum  here  upheld,  since  it  is  wider  than  the 
pelvic  cavity  and  is  attached  to  the  latter  with  its  lateral  portions  in  a 
more  or  less  sagittal  position,  while  its  middle  part  follows  the  move- 
ments of  the  uterus,  and  will,  e.  g.  in  anteversion  of  the  latter,  approach  a 
horizontal  position.  In  spite  of  this  different  conception  of  the  position 
of  the  Lig.  latum,  I  consider  the  definition  given  by  Rauber  of  the  Bursa 
ovarii  as  a  peritoneal  fold  to  be  very  appropriate.  This  Bursa  is  to  be 
undestood  as  a  slit  like  space  which  surrounds  the  ovary  lateralward, 
upward,  forward,  backward  and  also  partly  medianward.  The  lateral 
slit  is  caused  by  the  attachment  of  the  Mesovarium  at  the  anterior  margin 
of  the  ovary.  The  slit  like  spaces  in  front  of,  above,  and  behind  the 
ovary  are  caused  by  the  loop  like  manner  in  which  the  tube  surrounds 
the  organ.  But  since  the  latter,  as  I  at  that  time  expressed  it,  may 
overlie  the  ovary  at  its  medial  surface,  like  a  pair  of  curtains,  the  region 
of  the  Bursa  is  correspondingly  enlarged  (Fig.  12). 

'  Waldeyer,  1.  c.  p.  44. 
.      "^  Rauber,  Lehrbuch  der  Anatomic.     Leipzig  1892,  II,  p.  673. 


Fig.  12. 

Schematic  sketch  for  the  explanation  of  the  Bursa  ovarii. 
Ov.  Ovarium. 
I.  T.  Isthmus  Tubae. 
Inf.  Infundibulum. 
LI.  Lig.  latum  uteri. 
Ms.  Mesosalpinx. 
Mo.  Mesovarium. 
Bl.  Bursa  ovarii,  pars  lateralis. 
B.  m.  Bursa  ovarii,  pars  medialis. 
Both  parts  are  separated  from  each  other  by  the  Mesovarium. 


Cor.  If  we  wish  to  connect  the  morphologic  description  of  the  heart 
with  its  development  we  must  start  with  the  initial  loop  like  condition 
of  the  muscular  tube.  The  two  limbs  of  the  loop  cross  each  other  and 
the  one  afferent  limb  is  placed  behind  the  other  efferent.  The  former 
descends  toward  the  left,  the  latter  ascends  toward  the  left.  The  pos- 
terior limb  of  the  heart  contains  the  anlage  of  the  atria  and  the  left 
ventricle,  the  anterior  that  of  the  right  ventricle  and  that  of  the  bulb 
of  the  aorta.  The  bulb  later  on  becomes  divided  into  the  aorta  and  the 
pulmonary  artery.  A  ring  shaped  Sulcus  interventricularis  early  sur- 
rounds the  embryonic  heart  tube  and  on  the  inner  surface  there  corre- 
sponds to  it  a  protruding  fold  of  the  wall, —  the  muscular  Septum  inter- 
ventriculare.  This  primary  ring  like  sulcus  is  preserved  in  the  fully 
developed  heart.  It  starts  as  the  Sulcus  interventricularis  anterior,  ex- 
tends under  the  A.  coronaria  sinistra  and  behind  the  root  of  the  aorta 
into  the  posterior  interventricular  groove  and  ends  near  the  apex  of  the 
heart  closing  the  ring.  The  muscular  Septum  interventriculare  of  the 
heart  also  forms  a  closed  ring,  which  passes  by  the  Canalis  auricularis 
at  the  right,  and  by  the  bulb  of  the  aorta  at  the  left.  That  part  of  the 
Septum  musculare  ending  at  the  entrance  of  the  aorta  can  be  traced 
throughout  life  as  a  distinctly  protruding  thickening, — the  Limbus 


marginalis.  The  upper  arch  of  the  Septum  surrounding  the  auricular 
canal  on  its  right  side  is  preserved  in  the  fully  developed  heart  as  a  strong 
muscular  thickening, —  the  Crista  supraventricularis,  which  separates 
the  Ostium  venosum  dextrum  from  the  Conus  arteriosus.  On  the  left 
side  there  lies  no  muscular  intermediate  mass  between  the  two  Ostia. 

The  division  of  the  two  circulatory  courses  is  effected,  as  we  know 
from  the  recent  ontogenetic  investigations,  as  follows:  The  Foramen 
interventriculare  left  open  in  the  primary  septum  is  invaded  anteriorly 
by  the  Septum  aorticum,  posteriorly  by  the  Septum  intermedium.  The 
latter  descends  from  the  atrium  and  the  auricular  canal;  both  structures 
fusing  with  each  other  and  the  Septum  musculare  of  the  ventricles. 
One  half  of  the  anlage  of  the  atrium,  belonging  originally  to  the  left 
heart,  is  allotted  to  the  right  heart  as  an  afferent  canal.  On  the  other 
hand  a  part  of  the  right  ventricle  lying  beyond  the  Septum  musculare  is 
added  to  the  left  ventricle  to  form  the  entrance  of  the  aorta.  The 
lowest  part  of  the  Septum  aorticum  is  the  Pars  membranacea  septi 

For  the  reception  of  the  blood  flowing  to  the  heart  the  Sinus  venarum 
(Sinus  reuniens)  serves  as  an  original  independent  receptacle.  Later  on 
it  becomes  so  intimately  fused  with  the  right  atrium  that  it  appears  as  a 
part  of  -the  latter.  But  in  the  fully  developed  heart  the  line  of  division 
between  the  two  is  well  defined  externally  as  well  as  internally.  Ex- 
ternally it  shows  as  a  slanting  arch  like  groove  which  begins  below  the 
inferior  vena  cava  and  ends  in  front  of  the  superior.  This  groove  is  the 
Sulcus  terminalis.  Internally  there  corresponds  with  it  a  slanting 
muscular  ridge, —  the  Crista  terminalis  where  the  pectinate  muscles 
end.  The  pectinate  muscles  do  not  extend  into  the  venous  sinus.  To 
the  atrium,  in  a  restricted  sense,  belongs  also  a  projection  of  the  posterior 
wall,  which  is  inserted  between  the  inferior  vena  cava  and  the  coronary 
sulcus.  This  I  have  termed  the  posterior  auricular  lobe, —  Appendix 
auricularis  posterior.  It  lies  below  the  Valvula  Eustachii  and  to  the 
right  of  the  Valvula  Thebesii.^ 

2  In  regard  to  these  different  ontogeneticalPy  explainable  details  of  the 
fully  developed  human  heart,  I  may  refer  to  my  Beitrage  zur  Anatomie  des 
menschlichen  Herzens.  Leipzig  1886,  with  three  tables.  The  above  figures 
13  and  14  are  copied  from  that  work. 



Fig-  13- 

Posterior  half  of  human  heart,  hardened  in  chromic  acid.  The  figure  shows 
the  demarcation  of  the  Sinus  venarum  by  the  Crista  terminaUs  (C.)  and  the 
junction  of  the  Septum  intermedium  descending  from  the  atrium  with  the  Septum 
musculare  interventriculare. 

Of  the  parts  of  the  developed  heart  designated  by  special  names  in 
this  ontogenetic  review,  the  Sinus  venarum,  the  Sulcus  and  the  Crista 
terminalis  and  the  Crista  supraventricularis  are  included  in  the  list. 

Vena  obliquua  atrii  sinistri  designated  by  the  English  as  Marshall's 
vein^  is  a  degenerated -remnant  of  the  embryonic  V.  cava  sup. 
sinistra,  which  sometimes  persists  as  a  thin  ligament,  —  the  Lig.  V. 
cavae  sinistrae. 

^  Quain's  Anatomy,  10  Edit.,  by  Schaefer  and  Thane.,  Vol.  II,  Part  11,  p. 




Fig.  14. 

Posterior  view  of  an  injected  human  heart.  The  figure  shows  to  the  right 
Sulcus  terminalis  (S)  which  terminates  the  venous  sac,  and  below  the  V.  cava 
inferior,  the  Appendix  auricularis  (A)  ;  on  the  left  atrium  is  seen  the  Lig.  v. 
cavae  sinistrae  (L). 

Trigona  fibrosa  are  the  Noduli  valvulae  mitralis  of  Henle. 

Vena  jugularis  externa.  Vena  jugularis  anterior,  Vena  mediana 
colli  and  Arcus  venosus  juguli.  On  account  of  the  variable 
relations  of  the  superficial  jugular  veins  it  is  hard  to  picture  an  absolutely 
typical  condition.*  The  V.  jugularis  externa  is  the  trunk,  originating 
from  the  V.  auricularis  and  V.  occipitalis,  which  is  connected  by  a  short 
intermediate  branch  with  the  system  of  facial  veins.  It  descends  closely 
under  the  platysma,  crosses  the  M.  sternocleidomastoideus  at  an  acute 
angle,  extends  deeply  behind  its  Cap.  claviculare,  and  usually  opens  into 
the  V.  subclavia.  A  paired  vein  lying  in  front  of  the  M.  sternocleido- 
mastoideus, which  is  often  designated  as  the  V.  subcutanea  colli,  we  call 

^  Here  we  may  refer  to  the  illustrations  by  Thane  in  Quain's  Anatomy, 
10  Edit.,  Vol.  II,  Part  II,  p.  SM- 


the  V.  jugularis  anterior.  Above  it  joins  with  the  system  of  the  V. 
facilis  anterior  and  receives  the  Vena  mentalis;  below  it  generally 
opens  in  the  V.  jugularis  externa  and  runs  above  or  below  the  M. 
sternocleidomastoideus.  The  term  V.  mediana  colli  was  used  by  the 
older  and  later  anatomists  as  synonymous  with  the  V.  jugularis  anterior.^ 
According  to  the  conception  of  the  Commission  the  term  V.  mediana  colli 
is  to  be  reserved  for  the  somewhat  seldom  variation  of  an  unpaired  trunk. 

Arcus  venosus  juguli  is  the  transverse  union  of  the  Vv.  jugulares 
anteriores,  which  is  found  sometimes  in  the  jugular  fossa  and  sometimes 
a  little  higher  up. 

Vena  auricularis  posterior.  This  vein  empties  into  the  V.  jugularis 
externa  and  thus  departs  from  the  homonymous  artery;  nevertheless  it 
retains  its  name  (Kr.). 

Venae  cutaneae  brachii  et  antibrachii.  We  have  tried  to  adapt 
the  names  of  the  cutaneous  veins  to  the  cutaneous  nerves  and  to  make 
superfluous  the  old,  and  in  truth  very  inappropriate  terms,  V.  cephalica 
and  V.  basilica.  The  latter  names,  the  etymology  of  which  is  entirely 
mythical,  are  confused  time  and  again  and  are  always  a  source  of  diffi- 
culty to  the  student.  But  we  are  well  aware  that  time  alone  can  decide 
on  the  advisability  of  this  change  of  names. 

Vv.  parumbilicales.  The  parumbilical  veins,  designated  partly  as 
Sappey's  and  partly  as  Burow's  veins,  remained  up  to  the  most  recent 
times  subjects  of  discussion,  and  they  need  a  detailed  explanation.  At 
first  I  may  give  the  description  which  Braune  gives  in  his  work  on 
Sappey's  veins  (1.  c.  p.  63  iif.).  If  the  Linea  alba  be  incised  upwards 
from  the  umbilicus  there  is  found  a  fibrous  canal  (Richet's  umbilical 
canal),  in  which,  in  addition  to  the  umbilical  vein,  there  runs  a  whole 
bundle  of  small  venous  vessels.  These  are  designated  by  Braune  Vv. 
parumbilicales  [Sappey].  They  comprise  four  or  five  small  trunks  which 
connect  with  cutaneous  veins  and  Burow's  veins,  which  latter  are  soon  to 
be  mentioned.  Among  these  Sappey's  veins,  one  usually  excells  by  its 
size ;  this  one  leads  into  the  portal  system  of  the  liver  and  communicates 
with  the  left  V.  epigastrica  superior  through  the  Vena  parumbilicalis 
xiphoidea.  Its  valves  are  turned  toward  the  liver.  Braune  leaves  its 
relation  to  the  liver  still  questionable,  but  thinks  that  an  opening  into  the 
umbilical  vein  generally  does  not  occur,  nor  has  it  an  opening  into  the 
Sinus  venae  portae.  Only  once  was  it  found  to  empty  into  the  umbilical 
vein.  Braune  points  to  his  further  investigations  concerning,  the  portal 
system.  These  investigations  he  was  unable  to  publish,  but  in  our  insti- 
tution there  exist  unpublished  drawings  intended  for  the  work.     These 

s  It  is  thus  designated  by  Rauber,  Anatomie  1893,  Vol.  II,  p.  i8i. 


show  in  the  most  beautiful  manner  the  entrance  of  several  parumbilical 
veins  directly  into  the  Lobus  quadratus  and  into  the  Lobus  sinister.* 

The  parumbilical  veins  described  by  Braune  form  only  a  part  of  the 
branches  found  by  Sappey  and  designated  as  Veines  portes  accessoires. 
Sappey  (whom  I  cite  after  the  paper  of  1883,  Journal  de  I'Anatomie  et 
de  la  Physiol.  XIX,  p.  517),  distinguishes  two  groups  of  small  venous 
branches  which  connect  the  system  of  portal  veins  with  the  system  of 
body  veins.  One  group  includes  vessels  which  run  from  the  veins  of  the 
diaphragm,  through  between  the  lamellae  of  the  Lig.  suspensorium,  to 
the  convex  surface  of  the  liver  and  pass  into  the  latter.  The  second 
group  consists  of  veins  which  run  alongside  the  Lig.  teres.  At  their 
origin  they  are  in  connection  with  the  Vv.  epigastricae  inferiores  and 
the  cutaneous  veins  of  the  abdomen.  The  latter  group  forms  the  veins 
called  by  Braune  after  Sappey  parumbilical  veins. 

Sappey  himself  and  Wertheimer  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  V. 
umbilicalis  becomes  entirely  obliterated.  Lately  Baumgarten/  as  it  seems 
with  forceful  reasons,  opposes  this  hypothesis.  The  question  as  to  the 
closing  or  the  remaining  open  of  the  umbilical  vein  is  immaterial  for  our 
nomenclature;  the  parumbilical  veins  in  any  case  remain  as  independent 

«  There  is  found  among  the  papers  left  by  Braune  a  dissertation  "  Ueber 
die  sogenannten  accessorischen  Pfortadern-system "  by  his  assistant,  Dr.  G. 
Schiitz  (Berlin),  completed  in  1880,  but  not  printed.  In  this  paper  it  is  shown 
that  in  a  dissertation  in  1748  by  Thilo,  working  under  Gunz  in  Leipzig,  there 
are  mentioned  veins  which  are  contained  in  the  Ligg.  coronarium  and  sus- 
pensorium which  are  connected  with  the  portal  system.  Later,  1842,  E.  H. 
Weber  described  accessory  portal  veins  in  the  Lig.  hepatoduodenale. 

'Ueber  die  Navelvenen  des  Menschen.    Braunschweig  1891. 









Fig-  IS-  Fig.  i6. 

Fig.  15. 
Representation  of  the  system  of  veins  of  the  abdominal  wall  as  described  by 
Burow  in  the  human  foetus.  (J.  MuUer's  Archive  1838).  I  have  introduced 
special  names  for  the  divisions  of  the  system  to  make  easier  the  explanation  and 
without  claim  to  permanent  adoption.  What  Braune  calls  Burow's  veins  are  the 
Vv.  umbilicovesicales.  Burow's  vein  of  Baumgarten  is  the  V.  supraumbilicalis. 
Vu.  Vena  umbilicalis.  An.u.  Annulus  umbilicalis  dotted. 

V.s.u.  Vena  supraumbilicalis.  V.  epigastrica  inferior. 

V.e.u.  Vena  epigastricoumbilicalis.  V.v.u.  V.  vesicae  umbilicalis. 

Ves.u.  Ves.  urinaria. 

Fig.  16. 
Scheme  of  the  veins  of  the  abdominal  wall  and  of  Sappey's  veins  in  the  adult; 
constructed  after  Braune's  and  partly  after  Baumgarten's  data. 

V.u.  Vena  umbilicalis  obliterated  with  the  exception  of  a  small  remaining 

V.s.u.  Vena  supraumbilicalis. 
Vv.pu.S.  Sappe/s  parumbilical  veins. 
V.  eg.i.  Vena  epigastrica  inferior. 
V.  pu.  X.  Vena  parumbilicalis  xiphoidea    (Braune)   anastomosing  with 

the  V.  epigastrica  superior. 
V.u.v.  Venae  umbilicovesicales. 
V.u.e.  Vena  umbilicoepigastrica. 

Much  more  complicated  and  uncertain  than  the  question  of  Sappey's 
veins  becomes  the  question  of  the  so-called  Burow's  veins.  Burow's  short 
note  reads :  * 

"  The  Vena  epigastrica  of  the  human  foetus  gives  oflF  before  it  quite 
reaches  the  level  of  the  umbilicus  a  branch  running  inward,  which  joining 

8  This  Archive  1838,  p.  44. 


a  corresponding  branch  from  the  other  side,  forms  a  trunk  which  is 
closely  adjacent  to  'the  V.  umbilicalis  as  far  as  it  runs  in  the  abdominal 
cavity,  and  empties  into  the  V.  umbilicalis  shortly  before  its  entrance 
into  the  liver."  Burow's  drawing  shows  the  two  vessels  coming  from 
the  Vv.  epigastricae  as  separated  below  the  umbilicus,  and  from  this 
point  on  are  anastomosed  to  form  a  common  small  trunk  accompanying 
the  V.  umbilicalis.  But  alongside  the  bladder  and  the  urachus,  rising 
from  the  uterine  and  pelvic  plexuses  there  comes  an  unpaired  vein  to 
the  umbilicus  which  after  a  forked  division  anastomoses  v/ith  the  two 
little  trunks  coming  from  the  sides.  Therefore  Burow's  system  consists 
of  (see  Fig.  15) : 

1.  two  little  trunks  connected  with  the  Vv.  epigastricae,  which  may 
be  designated  as  Vv.  epigastricoumbilicales. 

2.  a  little  trunk  following  the  bladder  and  the  urachus,  or  a  V. 

3.  A  junction  ring  near  the  umbilicus,  —  the  Circulus  anastomoticus. 

4.  an  unpaired  collecting  vessel  lying  above  the  umbilicus  and  empty- 
ing into  the  V.  umbilicalis, —  the  V.  supraumbilicalis  [impar] . 

Hence  it  follows  that  the  term  Burow's  veins  is  ambiguous  and  by  this 
name  various  authors  understood  different  things. 

Baumgarten  understands  by  Burow's  veins  an  unpaired  trunk  ascend- 
ing above  the  umbilicus  and  opening  into  the  V.  umbilicalis.  Baumgarten 
demonstrated  this  trunk  as  constantly  occurring  in  children  soon  after 
birth;  he  surmises  that  the  same  always  persists  in  the  adult  and  that 
it  may  pathologically  widen  in  cirrhosis  of  the  liver. 

Braune  differs  in  his  description  of  these  conditions  in  that  he  speaks 
of  Burow's  veins  in  the  plural.  What  Braune  designates  by  this  name 
are  veins  below  the  umbilicus  following  the  urachus  and  anstomosing 
with  the  Vv.  epigastricae.  Braune  was  always  able  to  demonstrate  one 
or  more  such  little  trunks  in  the  adult;  in  one  case  a  stronger  left  one 
and  a  weaker  right  one.  These  trunklets  can  be  injected  only  downward 
and  the  same  holds  good  for  the  1;runklets  to  the  Vv.  epigastricae. 
Braune  was  never  able  to  find  in  the  adult  a  closed  venous  ring  on  the 
inner  side  of  the  umbilicus,  but  he  succeeded  repeatedly  in  filling  from 
subcutaneous  plexuses  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  umbilicus,  the  veins 
leading  downward  to  the  bladder  and  the  Vv.  epigastricae,  and  upwards 
the  parumbilical  veins. 

As  matters  thus  stand  it  is  better  to  drop  tEe  name  of  Burow's  veins 
and  to  speak  of  Vv.  umbilicovesicales  and  Vv.  umbilicoepigastricae, 
whereby  the  significance  of  these  names  shall  also  immediately  designate 
the  direction  of  the  blood  current.  For  the  vein  of  Burow's  system  going 
upward,  I  should  like  to  suggest  the  name  V.  supraumbilicalis. 

This  V.  supraumbilicalis  accordingly  runs  up  to  its  junction  with  the 


parumbilical  veins  of  Sappey.  Of  the  latter,  according  to  Sappey  and 
Braune,  one  excels  by  a  more  considerable  size.  While  Sappey  denies 
any  relation  of  his  veins  to  the  original  V.  umbilicalis,  Baumgarten  con- 
tends that  the  strongest  of  Sappey's  veins  (the  V.  parumbilicalis  major 
as  one  might  term  it  in  contradistinction  to  the  minores)  is  always  to  be 
'  designated  as  Burow's  vein,  i.e.,  as  a  remnant  of  the  V.  umbilicalis.  This 
latter  contention  does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  proven  by  Baumgarten.  Even 
then,  if  one  will  accept  the,  not  at  all  obvious,  hypothesis  of  Baumgarten 
that  "Burow's  Vein"  may  occasionally  have  a  high  junction  reaching 
up  to  the  liver,  it  nevertheless  rernains  incomprehensible  how  a  channel 
posteriorly  directed  to  the  V.  umbilicalis  could  open  anywhere  else  but 
into  the  Sinus  venae  portae.  If  I  summarize  the  points  important  for 
the  nomenclature  and  established  by  observation  in  the  adult  then  there 
exists : 

Above  the  umbilicus  : 

1.  Vv.  parumbilicales  [Sappeyi]  wihch  ascend  from  the  um- 
bilical region  to  the  liver  and  penetrate  into  its  substance.  Accom- 
panying these  Vv.  parumbilicales  there  are: 

2.  V.  supraiunbilicalis  (Baumgarten's,  Burow's,  vein)  which 
opens  into  the  upper  end  of  the  V.  umbilicalis.  (Baumgarten 
designates  as  intercalated  veins  "  Schaltvenen  "  some  trunklets  of  the 
abdominal  veins  opening  independently  of  the  V.  supraumbilicalis). 
Further  there  are  present: 

Below  the  umbilicus  : 

3.  The  Vv.  umbilicovesicales  (Braune's,  Burow's  veins)  one  or 
more  which  open  into  the  vesical  or  pelvic  plexuses.  With  these 
trunklets  anastomose  at  acute  angles  the 

4.  Vv.  umbilicoepigastricae  which  open  on  both  sides  into  the 
Vv.  epigastricae  inferiores  profundae. 

The  vessels  lying  aboye  the  umbilicus  carry  the  blood  upward  to  the 
liver  or  to  the  V.  epigastrica  superior  sinistra  (Braune).  The  veins  lying 
below  the  umbilicus  carry  the  blood  downward  into  the  pelvic  plexus  or 
into  the  Vv.  epigastricae.  The  parumbilical  veins  as  well  as  the  veins  of 
groups  3  and  4  originate  in  cutaneous  venous  plexuses  in  the  umbilical 

For  obvious  "reasons  out  of  all  the  vessels  brought  under  discussion, 
only  the  Vv.  parumbilcales  [Sappeyi]  were  taken  into  our  lists  in  the 
sense  of  Braune.  We  could  not  decide  to  take  up  the  Venae  portae 
accessoriae  superiores  of  Sappey.  In  my  opinion  it  is  necessary  first  of 
all  to  have  clearer  proof  done  by  finer  injections  of  their  relations  to  the 
lobules  of  the  liver. 



The  establishment  of  a  uniform  nomenclature  for  neurology  and 
especially  for  the  chapter  on  the  central  nervous  system  has  been  attended 
with  special  difficulties.  Here  for  decades  the  anatomists  have  not  been 
the  only,  masters  of  the  house.  Physiologists  and  pathologists,  instigated 
by  their  own  needs  and  to  a  great  extent  supported  by  their  own  methods, 
have  created  special  brain  anatomies.  The  special  literature,  compre- 
hensible only  to  a  few  experts,  and  the  encephalology  of  specialists  were 
sometimes  only  slightly  in  contact  with  each  other.  This  drawback  has 
been  lessened  more  and  more  during  recent  years  and  a  great  service  has 
been  done  by  authors  who  have  taken  pains  through  clear  expositions  to 
bring  nearer  to  a  general  understanding  the  results  of  the  original  in- 
vestigators,—  Me)mert,  Gudden,  Flechsig,  Forel  and  others.  In  other 
respects  we  have  arrived  at  a  definite  turning  point  in  encephalology. 
On  the  one  hand,  ontogenetic  investigations  have  materially  simplified  the 
morphology  of  the  brain  through  the  discovery  of  well  defined  longitudinal 
zones.  On  the  other  hand,  we  at  last  possess,  thanks  to  the  combination 
of  ontogenetic  and  histologic  methods,  clear  conceptions  of  the  elementary 
structure  of  the  nervous  system  as  a  whole.  We  know  now  that  each 
nerve  fiber  originates  from  a  single  nerve  cell  and  that  it  finally  ends  in  a 
number  of  separate  end  branches  without  anastomosing  with  other  fibres. 
We  know  further  that  all  primary  motor  cells  originate  in  the  ventral  half 
of  the  embryonic  neural  tube  and  from  there  grow  toward  the  periphery ; 
while  the  centripetally  running  fibres  originate  outside  the  central  orgaii 
in  the  spinal  ganglion,  in  the  ganglia  of  the  head  and  partly  (eyes  and 
nose)  in  the  sense  organs  themselves.  We  arrive  thereby  at  the  concep- 
tion of  the  nuclei  of  origin  and  termination  of  the  single  nerve  tracts. 
We  are  forced  accordingly  to  examine  the  correctness  of  the  designation 
in  all  those  cases  in  which  the  hitherto  used  anatomical  terms  imply  the 
direction  of  a  fibre  system,  e.  g.,  in  case  of  the  so-called  "  descending  and 
ascending  roots,"  and  to  adapt  such  necessary  terms  to  the  real  facts.  In 
doubtful  cases,  or  in  the  often  recurring  cases  of  a  crossed  course  of  the 
fibres,  names  must  be  chosen  which  will  designate  the  fibre  tracts  inde- 
pendently of  the  direction  of  their  elements. 

In  getting  up  our  list  of  names  we  could  scarcely  hope  to  accept  every- 
thing which  the  special  literature  contains  in  regard  to  particular  ganglia 
and  fibre  systems.  But  we  have  tried  to  establish  a  foundation  which 
may  serve  as  a  common  one  for  the  future.  Here  we  were  able  to  enjoy 
above  all  the  expert  advice  of  our  highest  living  authority,  v.  KoUiker, 
as  well  as  that  of  some  prominent  special  investigators,  Edinger,  Flechsig 
and  Held.  The  material  is  so  arranged  that  in  each  part  of  the  brain 
there  is  given  first  a  presentation  of  the  surface  relief  and  then  the  more 


important  structures  of  the  cross  sections.  The  latter  principle  is 
objectionable  in  so  far  that  it  would  be  preferable  also  to  obtain  a  material 
conception  and  description  of  the  internal  nuclei  and  tracts.  For  the 
time  being  w£  are  only  partially  able  to  do  this  and  for  the  present,  the 
pictures  of  cross  sections  serve  as  an  available  expedient. 

Two  years  ago  I  discussed  our  plan  of  division  of  the  brain,®  and  I 
have  here  only  to  repeat  in  essence  what  I  then  said.  Based  on  onto- 
genesis, we  have  retained  the  three  main  parts  of  v.  Baer,  which  we  call 
Rhombencephalon,  Mesencephalon,  and  Prosencephalon.  The  large 
brain  or  Cerebrum  of  anatomy  comprises  the  two  last  named  parts.  In 
the  Rhombencephalon  we  distinguished  beside  the  Myelencephalon 
and  the  Metencephalon,  an  independent  part,  the  Isthmus,  which  is  the 
narrow  part  of  the  brain  surrounding  the  upper  end  of  the  rhomboid 
fossa  and  to  which  belong  among  other  structures  the  Brachia  conjunctiva 
and  the  Velum  medullare  anterius.  The  Prosencephalon  is  divided  into 
the  Diencephalon  and  Telencephalon.  The  terms  primary  and 
secondary  f  orebrain,  also  primary  and  secondary  hindbrain,  were  avoided. 
In  the  primitive  cerebral  tube  of  the  human  embryo  of  the  fourth  week 
the  six  parts  of  the  brain  enumerated  above  are  represented  as  six  succes- 
sive transverse  rings  (Fig.  17).  Each  of  these  rings  we  may  suppose 
to  be  divided  into  a  dorsal  and  a  ventral  half-ring.  As  in  the  spinal  cord 
so  also  in  the  brain  the  development  of  the  nervous  substance  is  confined 
to  the  two  lateral  halves  of  the  wall  of  the  tube,  while  the  middle  portion 
of  the  floor  and  the  roof  (the  floor  plate  and  the  roof  plate)  for  the  most 
part  remain  thin  and  epithelial.  The  Lamina  chorioidea  epithelialis  of 
the  third  and  fourth  ventricles,  the  Lamina  terminalis  and  the  Tuber 
cinereum  are  such  median  parts  of  the  wall  of  the  primitive  tube  which 
have  remained  thin.  Pons',  Chiasma,  Corpus  callosum,  Lamina  quad- ' 
rigemina,  and  Vermis  cerebelli  apparently  form  exceptions  to  the  above 
rule.  How  these  apparent  exceptions  are  brought  about,  must  remain 
undiscussed  here. 

Two  lateral  longitudinal  grooves  early  mark  ofif  the  margin  of  the 
ventral  and  dorsal  halves  of  the  cerebral  tube  (the  basal  plates  and  alar 
plates  of  my  former  papers).  These  are  the  Sulci  limitantes.  All 
motor  nuclei  lie  ventral  or  medianward  of  the  Sulci  limitantes,  but  the 
so-called  sensory  ganglia  lie  dorsal  or  lateralward  from  these.  In  the 
fully  developed  brain  the  marginal  grooves  are  preserved  almost  the  entire 
length ;  in  places  the  basal  plates  are  raised  by  archings  upward  or  fusions 
of  the  adjacent  regions  of  the  wall.  In  the  Calamus  scriptorius  the  two 
marginal  grooves  diverge  alongside  the  medial  margin  of  the  Alae 
cinereae.     Superiorly  they  accompany  the  Eminentiae  teretes  as  far  as 

*This  Archive  1893,  p.  172  iff. 



the  transition  in  the  Aquaeduct.  Both  Foveae  inferior  and  superior 
belong  to  the  system  of  marginal  grooves.  Between  the  foveae  is  in- 
cluded the  arched  mass  of  the  Area  acustica  by  which  the  marginal  groove 
is  partly  covered.  In  the'  region  of  the  Isthmus  the  floor  of  the  marginal 
grooves  is  very  much  raised  by  fusion  of  the  walls.  Here  the  constituent 
parts  of  the  originally  ventral  half  of  the  tube  are  pushed  into  the  cavity 
of  the  dorsal  half  and  the  latter  pushed  aside.  A  similar  condition  exists 
also  in  the  midbrain,  in  the  lumen  of  which  the  two  marginal  grooves  are 
present  throughout  its  entire  length.  At  the  anterior  end  of  the  aquaeduct 
the  marginal  grooves  are  continued  on  either  side  into  the  Sulcus 
Monroi,  which  in  a  strictly  characteristic  manner  divides  the  lateral 
wall  of  the  third  ventricle  into  an  inferior  and  a  superior  part, —  the 
Thalamencephalon  and  Hypothalamus.  The  Sulci  Monroi  terminate 
on  either  side  in  the  Recessus  opticus. 

Fig.  17. 

Median  section  through  the  brain  of  a  human  embryo  at  the  end  of  the  first 
month,  with  areas  indicated. 

I.  I.  Pars  ventralis. 

II.  I.  Pons. 

I.  Myelencephalon : 

I.  2.  Pars  dorsalis. 

II.  Metencephalon : 

II.  2.  Cerebellum. 

III.  Isthmus: 

III.  I.  Pedunculi  cerebri.  HI-  2.  Brachia  conjunctiva,   Ver. 

med.  ant. 


IV.  I.  Pedunculi  cerebri. 

IV.  Mesencephalon: 

IV.  2.  Corpora  quadrigemina. 

V.  Diencephalon : . 

V.  I.  Pars  mamillaris  h)rpothalami.     V.  2.  Thalamus. 

V.  3.  Metathalamus  and  V.  4.  Epi- 

•  thalamus. 

VI.  Telencephalon: 
yi.  I.  Pars  optica  hypothalami.         VI.  2.  C.  striatum. 

VI.  3.  Rhinencephalon  and  VI.  4. 

Fig.  18. 

This  as  well  as  several  of  the  following  figures  were  taken  from  the  paper 
'  uber  die  allgemeine  Morphologic  des  Gehirns  "  (this  Archive,  1892). 

Br.  Arch  of  Pons. 
Co.  Chiasma  opticum. 
C.  St.  Corpus  striatum. 

E.  Eminentia  interpeduncularis  of 


F.  ch.  Fissura  chorioidea. 
F.i.  Fossa  interpeduncularis. 
R.p.  Recessus  posterior. 
R.a.  Recessus  anterior. 

Hb.  Tegmental  thickening. 

H.Cb.  Cerebellar  hemispheres. 

I.  Isthmus. 

L.t.  Lamina  terminalis. 

M.  Corpus  mamillare. 

Mh.  Roof  of  midbrain. 

P.s.  Hypothalamus  (Pars  sub- 

R.  Olfactory  lobe. 
v.R.  Anterior  olfactory  lobe. 
h.R.  Posterior  olfactory  lobe. 
R.g.  Recessus  geniculi  (Region  of  the 

geniculate  prominences). 
R.m.  Recessus  mamillaris. 
R.i.  Recessus  infundibuli. 
R.o.  Recessus  opticus. 
S.m.  Sulcus  Monroi. 
T.c.  Tuber  cinereum. 
Th.  Thalamus. 
Z.  Epiphysis  anlage. 

As  is  known  the  different  parts  of  the  cerebral  tube  participate  in  its 
further  development  in  very  unequal  degrees.  While  some  parts  like  the 
quadrigeminal  eminences  and  the  Hypothalamus  remain  far  behind, 
others  like  the  hemispheres  of  the  cerebrum  and  cerebellum  greatly  sur- 
pass their  surroundings  by  their  powerful  growth.    The  parts  originating 



from  the  ventral  basal  plates  generally  remain  behind  those  derived  from 
the  alar  plates.  The  former  are  the  motor  regions  of  the  Medulla 
oblongata,  the  Pons,  the  cerebral  peduncles  and  the  Hypothalamus.  To 
the  latter  belong  the  olivary  bodies  and  the  Corpora  restiformia,  the 
cerebellum,  the  Brachia  conjunctiva,  the  quadrigeminal  bodies,  the 
Thalamencephalon  and  the  cerebral  hemispheres.  Besides  the  displace- 
ments of  the  primitive  parts  of  the  brain  in  relation  to  each  other,  caused 
by  unequal  growth  of  the  substance,  still  other  conditions  help  to  more 
or  less  obliterate  the  original  scheme  of  the  whole.  To  these  latter  belong 
the  development  of  robust  masses  of  transverse  fibres  in  the  Pons  and 
the  Corpus  callosum,  as  well  as  a  number  of  processes  which  are  to  be 
traced  back  to  cell  migrations  inside  the  cerebral  wall.  Among  such 
processes  is  counted  the  formation  of  the  olivary  bodies,  for  the  anlage 
of  these  parts  originally  belongs  to  the  dorsal  half  of  the  medulla  and 
only  later  passes  into  the  ventral  half. 

Fig.  19. 

Median  section  through  the  brain  of  a  human  foetus  of  the  third  month. 
For  explanation  of  numbers  see  Fig.  17. 

The  disparity  between  the  development  of  the  ventral  and  dorsal  parts 
of  the  medullary  tube  reaches  its  maximum  in  the  two  parts  of  the  fore- 
brain.  The  region  of  the  Hypothalamus  lying  below  the  Sulcus  limitans 
[Monroi]  remains  in  general  in  an  early  embryonic  stage,  wherefore  its 
median  section  appears  scarcely  different  in  the  fully  developed  brain 
from  the  embryonic.  The  parts  of  the  Hypothalamus  are :  the  C.  mamil- 
lare,  the  Tuber  cinereum  with  the  Infundibulum,  the  Chiasma,  the 
Recessus  opticus  and  the  Lamina  terminalis.  Of  these  parts  the  C. 
mamillare  and  part  of  the  Tuber  cinereum  belong  to  the  next  to  the  last. 


the  others  to  the  last  transverse  ring  of  the  primitive  cerebral  tube.  We 
differentiate  that  part  of  the  Hypothalamus  belonging  to  the  Diencephalon 
as  Pars  mamillaris,  that  part  belonging  to  the  Telencephalon  as  Pars 
optica.  On  account  of  the  small  extent  of  the  total  region  one  must 
not  in  descriptions,  put  much  weight  on  the  genetic  divisibility  of 
both  parts,  and  we  may  the  same  as  heretofore  consider  the  Pars 
optica  hypothalami  as  part  of  the  wall  of  the  third  ventricle. 

Fig.  20. 

Median  section  through  the  adult  human  brain.     For  explanation  of  num- 
bers see  Fig.  17. 

The  Thalamencephalon,  lying  above  the  Sulcus  Monroi  is  divided  into 
the  Thalamus  proper,  the  Epithalamus  and  the  Metathalamus.  The 
latter  comprises  the  geniculate  bodies  and  their  surroundings.  The  Epi- 
thalamus comprises  the  habenular  structures  and  the  Corpus  pineale. 
The  old  name  Corpus  pineale  was  retained  for  the  reason  that  by  it  a 
quite  definite  form  of  Epiphysis  is  designated.  The  word  Epiphysis 
is  a  general  term  used  for  different  outgrowths  occurring  in  the  roof  of 
the  Prosencephalon.  In  the  roof-region  of  the  Diencephalon,  in  verte- 
brate animals,  epiphyses  grow  out  from  at  least  three  different  places: 
in  front,  in  the  middle  and  behind.^  'The  Corpus  pineale  originates  at 
the  posterior  end  of  the  ventricle,  and  it  appears  comparatively  late. 

The  parts  of  the  hemispheres  early  differentiating  from  each  other  are : 
the  Pallium,  the  Corpus  striatum  and  the  Rhinencephalon.  All  the 
other  parts,  Fornix,  horn  of  Ammon,  Corpus  callosum,  etc.,  arise  later 
and  their  history  needs  here  no  discussion. 

I  have  reprinted  here  the  synoptical  tables  of  the  primary  parts  of  the 

>•  This  Archive  1892,  p.  366. 



brain  published  on  an  earlier  occasion,  and  remark  that  the  numerals 
correspond  with  those  used  in  Figs.  17,  19,  20. 



Medulla  spinalis.  The  term  Funiculus  is  used  for  the  large  division 
of  the  cord ;  Fasciculus  for  its  single  tracts. 

The  conventional  Anterior  pyramidal  tract  and  Lateral  pyramidal 
tract  are  called  Fasciculus  cerebrospinalis  anterior  and  lateralis. 
We  were  obliged  to  do  this  because  the  students,  as  experience  shows, 
always  have  difficulty  in  distinguishing  from  each  other  the  conceptions 
of  the  pyramids,  pyramidal  cords,  pyramidal  tracts  and  also  eventually, 
pyramidal  cell  fibres.  The  pyramids,  according  to  the  older  conception 
of  Burdach,^  are  externally  marked  ofif  parts  in  the  Medulla  oblongata. 
The  so-called  pyramidal  cords,  in  the  older  sense,  are  fibrous  cords  which 
appear  upon  superficial  inspection  as  a  prolongation  of  the  fibrous 
masses  belonging  to  the  pyramids.  In  this  sense  we  speak  of  the  pyra- 
midal cords  of  the  Pons.  These,  as  is  known,  increase  in  bulk  from 
below  upward,  and  thus  like  so  many  other  cords  of  the  central  system, 
mark  a  pathway  which  is  entered  by  fibres  of  a  diiiferent  character. 

Since  Flechsig's  fundamental  researches  on  the  organization  of  the 
central  system,  the  terms  pyramidal  cord  and  pyramidal  tract  have  been 
used  in  a  still  more  special  sense  for  those  fibre-bundles  which  descend 
from  the  central  convolutions  of  the  cerebrum  into  the  spinal  cord.  The 
pyramidal  tracts  of  Flechsig,  although  contained  in  the  pyramidal  cord 
of  the  Pons,  form  only  one  part  and  not  a  very  large  part  of  it.  There- 
fore the  conceptions  are  different.  But  a  relation  between  Flechsig's 
pyramidal  tracts  and  the  pyramidal  cells  of  the  cerebrum  can  be  estab- 
lished since  the  former  originate  from  processes  of  the  pyramidal  cells. 
But  here  also  there  is  no  possibility  of  a  concise  designation  since  a  pre- 
dominant part  of  the  pyramidal  cells  of  the  cerebral  cortex  has  nothing 
in  common  with  the  pyramidal  tracts  of  Flechsig.  If  we  designate  the 
latter  as  Fasciculi  cerebrospinales  we  are  in  harmony  with  the  already 
existing  lateral  cerebellar  tracts,  or  Fasciculi  cerebellospinales.  The 
ground  bundle  or  "  Strangreste "  of  Flechsig  we  have  translated  as 
Fasciculi  proprii. 

Ventriculus  quartus.  The  fourth  ventricle  is  divided  into  three 
parts:  a  Pars  inferior  [Calamus  scriptorius],  a  Pars  intermedia, 
and  a  Pars  superior.  The  most  inferior  part  belongs  to  the  Medulla 
oblongata  and  is  surrounded  by  the  Corpora  restiformia.  At  the  point 
where  these  are  surrounded  by  the  N.  cochleae  and  the  Recessus  lateralis, 
the  Pars  intermedia  begins,  and  further  on  is  elongated  into  the  region 
between  the  Brachia  pontis.  This  is  the  broadest  part  of  the  rhomboid 
fossa,  but  it  passes  over  into  the  narrow  portion  at  the  upper  end  of 
the  Fovea  superior.    This  narrow  portion,  the  Pars  superior,  belongs  to 

2  Burdach,  Bau  und  Leben  des  Gehirns.    II,  p.  32.    Burdach  distinguishes, 
between  Pyramids  and  Pyramidal  cords. 


the  Isthmus  and  is  bounded  below  by  the  Brachia  conjunctiva  [cerebelli], 
and  is  arched  over  by  the  Vellum  medullare  anterius. 

The  most  obvious  division  of  the  floor  of  the  rhomboid  fossa  is  the 
longitudinal.  The  two  Sulci  limitantes  laterally  hem  in  the  Eminentiae 
teretes,  or  the  region  of  the  motor  nuclei.  The  sulci  stretch  uninter- 
ruptedly from  the  lower  end  of  the  Calamus  to  the  entrance  of  the 
Aquaeduct.  Lateralward  from  the  sulci  there  lies  in  the  Calamus  the 
obliquely  placed  triangular  Ala  cinerea.  Then  there  follows  a  flattened 
prominence  which  has  a  medial  convex  border  and  which  terminates  in 
a  point  inferiorly  as  well  as  superiorly.  This  prominence  is  the  Area 
acustica.  The  so-called  Tuberculum  acusticum,  one  of  the  terminal 
nuclei  of  the  N.  cochlearis,  lies  at  the  lateral,  corner  of  this  area.  The 
median  region  of  the  area  is  occupied  by  the  Nucleus  vestibularis 
medialis.*  The  Striae  medullares,  when  present  run  across  the  Area 
acustica.  Above  the  Area  acustica  follows  the  Fovea  superior,  which 
like  the  Fovea  inferior  represents  a  part  of  the  Sulcus  limitans.  From 
there  on  the  Eminentia  teretes  occupy  the  entire  width  of  the  floor  of  the 
rhomboid  fossa. 

Taenia  ventriculi  quarti,  taenia  thalami,  taenia  chorioidea  and 
Taenia  fornicis  at  fimbriae.  By  the  word  Taenia  we  uniformly 
designate,  after  Reichert,*  all  those  sharp  edges,  along  which  the  compact 
substance  of  the  brain  continues  into  the  epithelial  lining  of  the  cor- 
responding Telae  chorioideae.  This  condition  can  be  understood  only 
ontogenetically.  The  larger  part  of  the  primitive  wall  of  the  embryonic 
neural  tube  thickens  in  the  course  of  development  and  becomes  nervous 
tissue.  In  the  roof  of  the  third  and  fourth  ventricles,  as  well  as  in  a 
strip  of  the  medial  wall  of  the  hemisphere,  the  formation  of  nervous 
tissue  does  not  occur  and  the  continuity  of  the  tubes  is  brought  about 
by  means  of  a  thin  epithelial  lamina  in  which  the  adjoining  nervous 
parts  of  the  brain  continue,  but  rapidly  decrease.  The  epithelial  parts 
of  the  wall  here  and  there  undergo  complicated  foldings  toward  the 
cerebral  cavities  and  their  outer  surfaces  are  covered  thoroughout  by 
highly  vascular  connective  tissue  laminae,  the  Telae  chorioidea.  Through 
the  separation  of  the  meninges  and  the  telae,  the  epithelial  laminae 
follow  the  latter,  separating  from  the  brain  mass.    Alongside  the  margins 

3  The  surface  which  here  is  designated  as  Area  acustica,  Schwalbe 
(Nervenlehre,  p.  420)  has  described  as  Tuberculum  acusticum,  and  I  myself 
had  adopted  this  mode  of  description  in  my  work  on  the  Rhombencephalon 
(p-  93)-  But  this  may  lead  to  confusion  since  the  Tuberculum  acusticum  of 
the  neurologists  occupies  only  the  lateral  corner  of  the  Area. 

*  Reichert,  Bau  des  menschlichen  Gehirns.  Leipzig  1861,  II,  p.  59  fl,  p.  69 
ff.  Reichert  also  speaks  here  of  a  Taenia  fornicis,  a  term  which  we  again 
have  accepted. 


of  separation  the  taeniae  are  preserved  as  fine  linear  hems,  which  form- 
erly were  enumerated  under  a  variety  of  names.  Morphologically  con- 
sidered the  taeniae  are  margins  of  the  artificial  openings  in  the  brain 
tube;  therefore  they  must  everywhere  form  closed  recurrent  lines. 
They  also  indicate  everywhere  the  lines  of  demarcation  between  intra- 
and  extraventricular  parts  of  the  surface  of  the  brain.  The  taeniae  as 
sharp  transitional  seams  are  throughout  our  nomenclature  differentiated 
from  the  medullary  striae  which  are  connected  with  them.  We  there- 
fore distinguish  the  Taenia  thalami  from  the  Stria  medullaris;  the 
Taenia  chorioidea  near  the  Lamina  affixa  from  the  Stria  terminalis ;  the 
Taenia  fornicis  et  fimbriae  from  the  Fornix  and  the  Fimbria. 

The  Taenia  ventriculi  quarti  begins  at  the  Obex,  passes  in  front  of  the 
end  of  the  Funiculus  gracilis  and  the  Funiculus  cuneatus,  and  goes 
obliquely  over  upon  the  Corpus  restiforme,  which  laterally  surrounds  it. 
As  the  margin  of  the  Recessus  lateralis  it  descends  deeply  toward  the 
base,  but  further  on  joints  the  cerebellum  following  the  stalk  of  the 
Flocculus  and  the  Velum  medullare  posterius.  Its  medial  end  piece 
forms  a  point  which  tongue  like  ascends  over  the  Nodulus. 

The  Taenia  of  the  third  ventricle  forms  with  that  of  the  lateral 
ventricle  a  continuous  strip  in  which  we  can  distinguish  three  main 

the  Taenia  thalami, 

the  Taenia  chorioidea  and 

the  Taenia  fornicis  and  fimbriae. 

The  Taenia  thalami  begins  in  front  of  the  C.  pineale  and  follows  on 
either  side  the  free  margin  of  the  Stria  medullaris ;  it  continues  into  the 
narrow  epithelial  plate  which  lines  the  Plexus  chorioideus  medius  on  its 

Fig.  21. 

Cross  section  through  the  Tela  chorioidea  ventriculi  tertii  and  its  surroundings. 

II.  Lateral  ventricle.  St.t.  Stria  terminalis. 

III.  Third  ventricle.  V.t.  Vena  terminalis. 
Cc.  Gjrpus  callosum.  L.  Lamina  affixa. 

F.  Fornix.  I.  Taenia  thalami. 

Th.  Thalamus.  2.  Taenia  chorioidea. 

St.m.  Stria  medullaris.  3.  Taenia  fornicis. 

The  figure  shows  the  transition  of  the  Taeniae  into  the  epithelial  plate  of  the 
Plexus  chorioidei. 


under  surface.  At  the  Foramen  Monroi,  the  Taenia  thalami  turns 
backward  into  the  Taenia  chorioidea.^ 

The  layer  of  substance  which  covers  the  V.  terminalis  continues  as  a 
thin  lamella  over  the  adjoining  part  of  the  optic  thalamus  as  Lamina 
affixa.®  Then  with  a  free  projecting  margin  it  passes  over  as  the 
Taenia  chorioidea  into  the  epithelium  of  the  Plexus  chorioideus 
lateralis.  The  width  of  the  Lamina  affixa  at  first  increases  from  in  front 
backwards  and  then  decreases;  it  attains  at  its  maximum  5-6mm.  In 
the  inferior  horn  the  Taenia  chorioidea  lies  close  to  the  Stria  terminalis.^ 

The  Taenia  chorioidea  descends  alongside  the  Cauda  corporis  striati 
into  the  inferior  horn  as  far  as  its  anterior  end.  Here  it  turns  into  the 
margin  of  the  Fimbria  hippocampi  and  is  continued  into  the  Taenia 
fornicis.  The  two  taeniae  of  the  fornix  finally  join  in  the  median  line 
above  the  foramen  of  Monro. 

'  The  Lamina  affixa  is,  as  lately  emphasized  by  Hochstetter,*  like  the  epi- 
thelium of  the  lateral  vascular  plexus  and  like  the  fornix  and  the  Septum 
pellucidum,  a  remnant  of  the  medial  wall  of  the  hemisphere.  Its  original 
relation  to  the  Thalamus  can  be  seen  from  the  accompanying  cross  section 
of  the  brain  of  a  two  months  old  embryo.     (Fig.  23.) 

All  blood  vessels  entering  the  brain  penetrate  its  surface  extraventrir 
cularly.  This  is  true  also  of  the  vessels  entering  the  optic  thalamus  and 
especially  of  the  strong  Vena  terminalis.  This  vein  enters  the  extreme 
anterior  corner  of  the  free  surface  of  the  Thalamus;  the  curved  angle 
between  the  Taenia  chorioidea  and  the  Taenia  fornicis. 

Fig.  22. 
Scheme   for  demonstration   of   the   relations   of  the   Striae,   Taeniae   and  the 
Lamina  chorioidea  epitheliaUs.  

s  A  very  beautiful  illustration  of  this  condition  is  to  be  found  in  the  work 
by  Gall  and  Spurzheim.    PI.  VL 

«  Lamina  cornea  after  Schwalbe.     Nervenlehre,  p.  507. 

■'  Detailed  descriptions  are  found  in  Mihalkovics,  Entwickelungsgeschichte 
des  Gehirnes.     Leipzig  1877,  p.  115. 

8  Compare  Hochstetter's  paper  in  the  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Vol.  X,  Nr. 
9,  p.  29s,  and  my  note  pertaining  to  it,  Ibid,  Nr.  11,  p.  358.  Reichert  says  con- 
cerning the  same  (1.  c.)  II,  p.  40:  "  In  reality  the  lateral  ventricle  opens  out- 
wardly at  no  place  in  the  adult Therefore  it  always  remains  an  artifact 

if  one  pushes  the  optic  thalamus  through  this  artificial  slit  into  the  lateral 


Like  the  Ventriculus  septi  pellucidi,  the  small  canal  in  which  the  V. 
terminalis  runs  alongside  the  Stria  terminalis,  may  be  described  as  a 
constricted  part  of  the  external  surface. 

A  cross  section  through  the  Thalamus  and  through  the  Corpus  striatum 
(Fig.  21 )  must  strike  on  either  side  of  the  median  plane  three  taeniae, 
most  medianward  the  Taenia  thalami  and  further  lateralward  the 
closely  approximated  Taenia  chorioidea  et  fornicis. 

From  the  above  description  it  follows  that  the  Taenia  chorioidea  only 
apparently  belongs  to  the  Thalamus;  in  reality  it  is  part  of  the  Telen- 

Fasciculus  longitudinalis  medialis  is  the  so-called  posterior  long- 
itudinal bundle  of  the  neurologist.  This  bundle  proves  to  be  ontogeneti- 
cally  and  anatomically  the  continuation  of  the  anterior  spinal  tracts  and 
the  designation  as  "  posterior  fasciculus  "  is,  therefore,  very  confusing 
for  the  correct  conception  of  it. 

Ascending  and  descending  roots,  Tractus  spinalis  n,  trigemini, 
Nucleus  spinalis  n.  trigemini.  The  older  mode  of  designation  was 
that  of  "  ascending  trigeminal  root,"  and  it  was  based  on  the  hypothesis 
of  a  central  origin  of  the  sensory  nerves.  When  later  the  origin  of  the 
sensory  nerves  in  the  ganglia  became  known,  it  was  easy  enough  to 
change  the  "  ascending  roots  "  into  descending.  With  such  an  inver- 
sion of  the  designations,  especially  in  the  case  of  the  N.  trigeminus,  one 
comes  into  conflict  with  the  motor  root  descending  from  the  midbrain. 
As  a  natural  expedient  there  results  the  designation  "  spinal "  for  the 
roots  running  to  the  spinal  cord.  Such  spinal  roots  belong  not  only  to 
the  N.  trigeminus  but  also  to  the  Nn.  vestibularis,  intermedins,  glosso- 
pharyngeus  and  vagus.  The  spinal  roots  of  the  last  named  nerves  form 
the  Tractus  solitarius.  These  spinal  roots  are  throughout  accompanied 
by  tracts  of  gray  matter  —  the  Nuclei  tractus  spinalis  nn.  trigemini,  the 
Nuclei  n.  vestibularis  lateralis  and  spinalis,  and  the  Nuclei  tractus 



Fig.  23, 

Cross  section  through  the  brain  of  human  embryo   (Mr.)   at  the  end  of  the 
second  month. 
II,  III  and  Th.  as  above.  3.  Taenia  fornicis. 

1.  Taenia  thalami.  C.  st.  Corpus  striatum. 

2.  Taenia  chorioidea.  V.i.  Ventriculus  impar. 

On  one  side  of  the  section  the  Thalamus  and  C.  striatum  are  separated;  on 
the  other  side  they  are  united. 

Nuclei  of  nerves.  Aside  from  some  minor  details,  the  study  of  the 
nuclei  of  the  nerves  of  the  brain  has  led  to  a  definite  conclusion.  This 
is  true  not  only  of  the  long  known  and  easily  found  motor  nuclei  of  the 
Nn.  hypoglossus,  accessorius,  facialis,  abducens,  oculomotorius  and  tro- 
chlearis,  but  also  of  the  terminal  nuclei  of  the  sensory  nerves  and  the 
N.  acusticus.'  In  regard  to  the  nuclei  of  the  Acusticus  the  existing 
differences  do  not  refer  to  the  real  conditions  but  to  nomenclature. 
Nevertheless,  the  Commission  preferred  to  confine  itself  to  the  two  main 
groups:  Nuclei  n.  vestibularis  and  Nuclei  n.  cochlearis.  I  give  the  fol- 
lowing systematized  list  of  all  Nuclei  of  nerves  XII-III. 


Columna  motoria  medialis 

Nucleus  n.  hypoglossi 
Nucleus  n.  abducentis 
Nucleus  n.  trochlearis 
Nucleus  n.  oculomotorii 

Columna  motoria  lateralis 

Nucleus  ambiguus  [N.  IX,  X,  XI] 
Nucleus  n.  facialis 

Nuclei  motorii  n.  trigemini 

Nucleus  princeps 
Nuclei    minores     [radicis    de- 

Columna  recipiens 

Nuclei  funiculi  gracilis  et  cuneati 

[Nuclei  sensitivi  spinales] 
Nucleus  alae  cinereae  [N.  IX,  X] 
Nuclei  acustici 

•  Compare  especially  the  illustrations  in  A.  Kolliker's  Gewebelehre,  6  Edit. 
Leipzig  1893. 


Nuclei  n.  cochlearis  [Deiters] 

N.  n.  cochlearis  ventralis  Nucleus  n.  vestibularis  medialis 
Nucleus  n.  cochlearis  dorsalis         [Schwalbe] 

[nucl.  tuberculi  acustici]  Nucleus  n.   vestibularis  spinalis 

Nuclei  n.  vestibularis  [Radix  descendens] 

Nucleus  n.  vestibularis  superior  Nuclei  tractus  solitarii  [N.  IX,  X 

[Flechsig,  Bechterew]  et  N.  intermedii] 

Nucleus  n.  vestibularis  lateralis  Nuclei  tractus  spinalis  n.  trigemini 

Gyrus  fornicatus,  subdivided  into  G.  cinguli  and  G.  hippocampi, 
corresponds  to  the  "grand  lobe  limbique"  of  Broca.  This  lobe  Broca 
divided  into  a  "  circonvolution  du  corps  calleux  "  and  a  "  circonvolution 
de  I'hippocampe."  By  means  of  the  Rhinencephalon,  which  borders,  with 
the  Area  parolfactoria  (Brocae),  upon  the  G.  cinguli,  and  the  Substantia 
perforata  lateralis,  which  borders  upon  the  G.  hippocampi,  the  two  ends 
of  the  G.  fornicatus  are  jointed  to  form  a  closed  ring.  The  Gyrus 
cinguli  is  surrounded  by  the  Sulcus  cinguli,  which  sends  a  deep  branch, 
the  Ramus  marginalis,  past  the  Praecuneus  to  the  margin  of  the  hemis- 
phere while  its  direct  continuation  runs  along  the  Praecuneus  as  an  in- 
constant Ramus  subparietalis.  The  formerly  so-called  Sulcus  calloso- 
marginalis  consisted  of  the  first  part  of  the  Sulcus  cinguli  and  its  Ramus 
marginalis.  Schwalbe  in  his  neurology  (p.  536)  has  called  Broca's  lobe 
limbique  the  Lobus  falciformis  and  besides  attributed  to  it  the  forma- 
tion of  the  marginal  arch,  the  Corpus  callosum,  the  Fornix,  including 
the  Fimbria  and  Fascia  dentata,  and  the  Septum  pellucidum. 

Fissura  hippocampi,  Pes  hippocampi,  Fissura  calcarina,  Calcar 
avis,  Fissura  coUateralis,  Trigonum  collaterale  and  Eminentia 
coUateralis.  To  the  names  representing  the  lateral  fissure  (primary 
fissure)  there  correspond  throughout  the  similarly  named  thickenings  of 
the  ventricular  wall.  But  the  principle  cannot  be  carried  through  generally. 
The  Fissura  parietooccipitalis  corresponds  to  the  inward  arching 
of  the  occipital  radiation  of  the  Corpus  callosum  in  the  Bulbus  cornu 
posterioris  and  the  Fossa  sylvii  corresponds  to  the  Corpus  striatum. 
The  upper  part  of  the  embryonic  Fissura  chorioidea,  pushed  away  from 
the  surface  by  the  Corpus  callosum  represents  the  narrow  groove  be- 
tween the  Taenia  fomicis  and  the  Taenia  chorioidea.  (Fig.  21.)  The 
lower  part  of, the  primitive  Fissura  chorioidea  joins  the  lower  limb  of 
the  Fissura  transversa  cerebri.  The  latter  fissure  leads  into  the  inter- 
space between  the  hemispheres,  including  C.  callosum  and  Fornix  on  one 
side,  and  the  parts  of  the  Diencephalon  and  Mesencephalon  on  the  other 
side.  Before  the  removal  of  the  meninges,  and  the  tearing  away  of  the 
epithelial  layers  attached  to  them,  the  Fissura  transversa  leads  only 
into  an  extraventricular  region. 

Gyrus   subcallosus.     Pedunculus   corporis   callosi   and   Pedunculus 


septi  pellucidi,  are  three  terms  for  one  and  the  same  structure  which 
need  a  more  detailed  explanation.  The  names  designate  that  rounded 
protuberance,  which  delimited  by  a  deep  groove,  is  visible  immediately 
anterior  to  the  Commissura  anterior  and  the  upper  end  of  which  follows 
closely  the  Rostrum  of  the  Corpus  callosum,  while  the  lower  end  reaches 
to  the  medial  corner  of  the  Substantia  perforata  laterahs. 

Of  the  three  names,  Pedunculus  corporis  callosi  is  the  oldest.  Accord- 
ing to  Cruveilhier  and  Henle  it  is  to  be  traced  back  to  Vicq  d'  Azyr. 
The  relations  of  the  Pedunculus  in  question  to  the  Corpus  callosum  are 
expressed  by  the  fact  that  from  the  former  on  either  side  a  fibre  bundle 
continues  in  the  Stria  longitudinalis  medialis  of  the  Corpus  callosum.^ 
Gall  probably  first  pointed  out  the  relations  to  the  Septum  pellucidum, 
but  this  investigator  has  at  the  same  time,  in  his  joint  work  with  Spurz- 
heim,  traced  the  posterior  end  of  this  fibre  tract  up  to  the  Uncus  of  the 
Gyrus  hippocampi  and  illustrated  it  by  an  excellent  picture.^  Gall 
describes  a  fibrous  nerve  bundle  running  forward  from  the  apex  of  the 
temporal  lobe,  which  turns  medianward  after  its  origin,  ascends  over 
the  Chiasma,  and  runs  along  in  front  of  the  Commissura  anterior. 
Farther  on  this  fibre  tract  divides  and  broadens  to  a  thin  nervous  mem- 
brane, which  forms  with  that  of  the  opposite  side  the  Septum  pellucidum. 
Gall  does  not  use  the  name  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi  but  the  name  occurs 
later  in  the  work  of  Burdach,^  who  refers  to  Gall's  description,  but  in 
his  own  description  follows  the  reverse  direction.  According  to  Burdach 
a  myelated  lamina  continues  from  the  Septum  toward  the  basal  surface 
of  the  brain  and  joins  the  fibres  from  the  cerebral  trunk.  The  tract 
thus  formed  ends  posteriorly  in  part  in  the  Uncus  and  in  part  in  the  roof 
of  the  inferior  horn. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  for  a  considerable  time  the  anatomists  neglected 
the  relations  of  the  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi,  sive  corporis  callosi,  to 
the  temporal  lobe  as  described  by  Gall  and  Burdach,  until  they  were 
again  brought  to  prominence  by  Broca,  Zuckerkandl  and  myself.  For 
a  full  survey  of  these  relations  the  removal  of  the  Chiasma  and  Tractus 
opticus  is  necessary. 

The  German  authors  succeeding  Burdach  have,  for  the  most  part,  ac- 
cepted his  designation  of  the  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi.  It  is  used  in 
this  sense  by  Arnold,  Valentine,  C.  Krause,  and,  furthermore,  by  Reichert 
in  his  great  work  on  the  Brain.    Vicq  d'Azyr's  Pedunculus  corporis  cal- 

^  Henle,  Nervenlehre.     Braunschweig  1871,  p.  93  and  p.  132. 

2  Gall  and  Spurzheim,  Anatomic  und  Physiologie  des  Gehirnes.  Paris 
1810,  I  2,  p.  624  and  PI.  XIII  (63).  Gall's  picture,  which  I  did  not  know  before, 
agrees  in  all  essential  points  with  the,  one  I  have  published  in  my  treatise 
on  the  Formentwickelung  des  menschlichen  Gehirnes  (Fig.  27). 

3  Burdach,  Bau  und  Leben  des  Gehirnes,  II,  p.  135. 


losi  was  retained  by  the  French  anatomists  (Cruveilhier,  Sappey,  Testut 
and  others),  and  Henle  also  preferred  this  term.  Up  to  that  time  we 
have  to  deal  with  two  terms  for  the  same  structure  which  was  uniformly 
described  by  all  authors  as  lying  in  front  of  the  Commissura  anterior, 
in  its  sharply  defined  part,  but  whose  terminal  part  is  traced  farther- by 
some  than  by  others.  Schwalbe's  neurology  has  considerably  complicated 
the  situation,  in  that  independently  from  each  other  are  described  a 
Pedunculus  corporis  callosi  and  a  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi.*  Schwalbe's 
Pedunculus  corporis  callosi  is  the  structure  also  described  by  others 
under  this  name,  but  his  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi  is  something  new. 
Schwalbe  designates  by  this  name  the  continuation  of  the  plate  of  white 
medulla  of  the  Septum  into  the  medulla  of  the  adjacent  convolutions  of  the 
frontal  lobe  as  it  appears  in  frontal  section.  Schwalbe  says  in  a  descrip- 
tion of  a  frontal  section  running  between  the  Rostrum  corporis  callosi  and 
the  columns  of  the  Fornix,  that  the  white  lamellae  of  the  Septum  proceed 
continuously  into  the  white  substance  between  the  base  of  the  lenticular 
nucleus  and  the  gray  cortex  of  the  lower  surface  of  the  frontal  lobe  and 
then  adds :  "  One  has  designated  this  continuation  of  the  medullary 
lamellae  as  Pedunculi  septi  pellucidi."  this  "  One ''  made  me  at  first 
rather  doubtful  whether  or  not  there  had  crept  in  a  confusion  in 
Schwalbe's  work  in  that  the  structure  described  by  this  investigator  as 
Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi  might  be  the  structure  thus  designated  by 
former  authors.  The  peduncle  of  the  older  authors  is  a  prominent  plastic 
thickening  of  the  surface.  The  peduncle  of  Schwalbe  is  a  cross-sectional 
figure.  The  peduncle  of  the  authors  turns  backward  to  the  Substantia 
perforata  lateralis  and  to  the  temporal  lobe.  The  peduncle  of  Schwalbe 
turns  laterally  into  the  medullary  substance  of  the  frontal  lobe. 

We  can  simultaneously  bring  to  view  in  a  properly  cut  section  (Fig. 
24)  the  old  and  Schwalbe's  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi.  Betwen  the  latter 
and  the  white  covering  of  the  Pedunculus  autorum,  there  lies  a  thin 
layer  of  gray  matter. 

*  G.  Schwalbe,  Nervenlehre,  p.  493,  p.  502  and  Fig.  315. 



Fig.  24. 

Frontal  section  through  the  anterior  horn  of  the  lateral  ventricle. 
N.c.  Nucl.  caudatus.  G.s.  Gyrus  subcallosus. 

N.I.  Nucl.  lentiformis.  A.B.  Area  Brocae. 

CI.  Claustrum.  Tr.o.  Trigonum  olfactoriutn. 

S.p.  Septum  pellucidum.  S.p.l.  Subst.  perforata  lateralis. 

R.c.c.  Rostrum  corporis  callosi. 

The  explanation  of  Schwalbe's  statement  seems  to  lie  in  a  passage  of 
Reichert's  work.  In  Fig.  37,  pi.  VII,  Vol.  II,  of  his  atlas,*^  Reichert 
depicts  a  frontal  section  through  the  brain  in  the  region  of  the  Ventriculus 
septi  pellucidi  and  remarks  concerning  it  that  the  lower  part  of  the  medial 
wall  of  the  lateral  ventricle  consists  of  a  thin  medullary  lamina,  which 
is  divided  by  the  Lamina  genu  in  an  upper  and  a  lower  part.  The 
upper  is  the  Septum  pellucidum ;  "  the  lower  can  be  brought  into  the 
region  of  the  peduncle  of  the  Septum  pellucidum,  although  by  this  term 
is  designated  the  somewhat  thicker  part  of  the  perpendicular  medial  wall 
of  the  Pallium  lying  immediately  behind  it."  Reichert,  however,  still 
describes  the  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi  in  the  conventional  way  (e.  g. 
PI.  X.,  Fig.  19, 1. 1.) ;  and  as  we  see,  he  especially  emphasizes  in  the  above 
cited  passage  that  the  white  strip  showing  in  the  section  as  a  continuation 
of  the  septum  is  fundamentally  different  from  the  Pedunculus  proper. 

Reichert  has  also  introduced  another  not  less  delicate  term  in  his 
Commissura  pedunculorum  septi  ^  to  which  he,  moreover,  added  a  Com- 
missura  columnarum  fornicis.  Reichert  says  concerning  the  peduncular 
commissure  that  it  continues  downward  into  the  Lamina  terminalis,  up- 
ward and  forward  into  the  geniculate  lamina  of  the  Rostrum  of  the 
Corpus  callosum.^  This  same  structure  Henle  described  as  Commis- 
sura baseos  alba,  saying:  "In  the  floor  of  the  groove  which  runs 
between  the  two  Pedunculi  corporis  callosi,  from  the  anterior  commis- 
sure to  the  beginning  of  the  Corpus  callosum,  the  white  substance  of 
the  lower  marginal  thickenings  of  the  right  and  left  half  of  the  brain  is 
joined  by  a  commissure,  which  I  shall  designate  as  a  white  basal 

Reichert's  per  se  contestable  designation  of  a  Commissura  pedun- 

*a  Reichert.     Bau  des  menschlichen  Gehirnes. 

»  Reichert;  1.  c.  11,  p.  70-76. 

"  Reichert,  1.  c.  II,  Uebersichtstabelle,  p.  3. 

Berlin  1861. 


culorum  septi  as  well  as  Henle's  Commissura  baseos  alba,  appear  very 
superfluous,  for  they  designate  by  no  means  independently  differentiated 
structures.  What  has  been  designated  by  these  names  is  the  end  plate  of 
the  Rostrum  of  the  Corpus  callosum  (The  Lamina  rostralis  of  our  list). 
The  groove  like  curved  plate  unites  the  medullary  masses  of  the  adja- 
cent cortical  region;  also  the  Area  Brocae  and  the  Gyrus  subcallosus, 
in  the  same  way  as  other  parts  of  the  Corpus  callosum,  unite  corre- 
sponding areas. 

The  interpretation  of  the  Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi  and  Pedunculus 
corporis  callosi  has  been  fundamentally  changed  by,  the  more  recent  in- 
vestigations on  the  olfactory  centre,  and  in  the  course  of  these  investiga- 
tions we  have  come  to  designate  the  structure  in  question  as  an 
inpendent  gyrus, —  the  Gyrus  subcallosus. 

Rhinencephalon.  The  comparative  anatomical  investigations  of 
Broca,^  of  Zuckerkandl '  and  of  W.  Turner  ^  as  well  as  my  ^  ontogenetic 
investigations,  have  proved  that  the  olfactory  brain  or  Rhinencephalon 
is  to  be  distinguished  as  a  part  independent  from  the  rest  of  the  hemis- 
phere—  the  Pallium.^  The  bulk  of  the  olfactory  part  of  the  brain  in- 
creases or  decreases  according  to  the  development  of  the  sense  in  ques- 

^  Broca,  Recherches  sur  les  centres  olfactifs.  Revue  d'Anthropol  1879,  p. 
38s  ff. 

*  Zuckerkandl,  Ueber  'das  Riechcentrum,  Stuttgart  1887,  p.  15,  says: 
"  Finally  I  wish  to  mention  the  Gyrus  subcallosus,  by  which  designation  I 
understand  that  part  of  the  medial  wall  of  the  hemisphere  which  is  inserted 
between  the  frontal  end  of  the  Gyrus  fornicatus  and  the  Rostrum  of  the 
Corpus  callosum  and  which  up  to  the  present  time  was  wrongly  called  Pedunc- 
ulus corporis  callosi.  The  Gyrus  subcallosus  is  not  confined  to  the  just 
described  small  area,  but  it  proceeds  outward,  in  the  shape  of  a  ribbon-like 
strip  which  is  adjacent  to  the  posterior  margin  of  the  Lamina  perforata,  to 
the  point  of  the  temporal  lobe  where  it  meets  the  outer  olfactory  root.  The 
place  of  junction  is  sometimes  marked  by  a  small  tubercle.''  Zuckerkandl 
further  says,  p.  6b:  "The  name  Pedunculus  corporis  callosi  for  the  structure 
on  the  medial  wall  of  the  hemisphere  is  not  well  chosen,  for  it  forms  just  as 
little  a  peduncle  for  the  Corpus  callosum  as  does  any  other  part  of  the  medial 
wall  of  the  hemisphere.  Moreover  the  term  does  not  pertain  to  the  Gyrus- 
like  character  of  the  part  of  the  hemisphere  in  question.  Therefore  it  would 
be  better  to  call  the  winding  portion  according  to  its  position  the  Gyrus 

'  Sir  W.  Turner,  the  Convolutions  of  the  Brain.  Verhandlungen  des 
intern,  medic.     Congresses  in  Berlin,  1890,  Vol.  II,  p.  8  ff. 

^  W.  His,  Formentwickelung  des  menschlichen  Gehirnes.  Leipzig  1889, 
p.  714  ff.  Zur  allgemeinen  Morphologie  des  Gehirns.  This  Archive  1892,  p. 
346  ff. 

2  The  terms  Rhinencephalon  and  Pallium  are  taken  in  the  sense  of  W. 
Turner.  The  old  conception  of  the  brain  mantle  is  somewhat  narrower,  since 
it  excluded  the  Insula. 


tion.  Broca  in  this  regard  distinguished  anosmatic  and  osmatic  brains, 
the  latter,  of  which  Turner  subdivided  into  microsmatic  and  macros- 
matic.  •  Man  belongs  to  the  microsmatic  animals  and  his  Rhinen- 
cephalon,  therefore,  shows  a  comparatively  weak  development.  To  it 
belongs,  not  only  the  Bulbus,  Tractus  and  Trigonum  olfactorium,  the 
Substantia  perforata  lateralis,  but  also  the  so-called  Pedunculus  corporis 
callosi  —  the  present  Gyrus  subcallosus  —  and  a  small  area  lying  in 
front  of  it,  the  Area  Brocae  or  parolfactoria.  The  designation  of  a 
Gyrus  subcallosus  was  originated  by  Zuckerkandl,^  and  it  was  intro- 
duced because  the  part  in  question  represents  a  part  of  the  cortex  and 
does  not  stand  in  the  rather  indefinite  relation  of  the  peduncle  either 
to  the  Corpus  callosum  or  the  Septum  pellucidum.  Cross  sections  of 
the  Gyrus  subcallosus  show  in  their  interior  gray  matter,  and  at  the 
surface  only  a  thin  cortical  layer  of  white  matter. 

Comparative  anatomical  explanations  of  the  Rhinencephalon  and  its 
relations  to  the  Gyrus  fornicatus  (the  lobe  limbique  of  P.  Broca)  are 
found  in  the  investigations  oi  Broca,  Zuckerkandl  and  Turner,  to  which 
I  here  refer.  But  the  development  of  the  human  Rhinencephalon  may 
merit  a  short  discussion  for  the  explanation  of  the  anatomical  conditions. 
As  early  as  the  beginning  of  the  second  month,  the  anlage  of  the  Rhinen- 
cephalon is  differentiated  from  the  anterior  end  of  the  hemisphere  as  a 
protuberance  appearing  beside  the  Lamina  terminalis  and  surrounded  by 
a  furrow  (Turner's  Fissura  rhinica)   (Figs.  25  and  26).    The  anterior 

3  Zuckerkandl,  1.  c.  p.  15  and  p.  60. 



Fig.  25. 

Lateral  view  of  the  brain  of  a  four  and  one-half  weeks  old  human  embryo. 
Constructional  sketch.    Labeling  as  in  Fig.  18  and  in  addition. 
Hp.  Anlage  of  hypophysis.  Rl.  Lip  of  Rhombencephalon. 

Hs.  Cerebral  hemisphere.  St.  Peduncle  of  Corpus  striatum. 

Ms.  Anlage  of  Vermis  of  cerebellum.       Zh.  Diencephalon. 
Mo.  Medulla  oblongata. 

half  of  the  Rhinencephalon,  which  at  first  turns  dorsalward,  and  the 
posterior  half  are  separated  from  each  other  by  an  incisure  which  is 
especially  strongly  marked  on  the  medial  surface  (Figs.  18  and  19).  The 
anterior  olfactory  lobe  is  in  contact  with  the  later  formed  frontal  lobe 
and  the  posterior  with  that  of  the  temporal  lobe.  Above  the  posterior 
olfactory  lobe  develops  that  depression  in  the  wall  of  the  hemisphere 
which  we  later  on  designate  as  Fossa  Sylvii  (Fig.  27).  With  the  pro- 
gressing development  of  the  hemispheres  the  anterior  olfactory  lobe  is 
more  and  more  displaced  towards  the  base  by  the  frontal  lobe  and  finally 
lies  deeper  than  the  posterior  olfactory  lobe.  The  anterior,  as  well  as 
the  posterior  olfactory  lobe,  consists  of  a  part  turned  toward  the  base 
and  a  part  looking  medianward.  From  the  basal  part  of  the  anterior 
olfactory  lobe  are  developed:  the  Bulbus,  the  Tractus  and  the  Trig- 
onum  olfactorium  which  we  include  in  a  narrower  anatomical  sense 
under  Lobus  olfactorius. 



Fig.  26. 

Median  section  of  the  forebrain  of   a   four  and  one-half  weeks   old  human 
embryo.    Labehng  as  in  Fig.  18. 

The  basilar  part  of  the  posterior  olfactory  lobe  is  preserved  as  the  Sub- 
stantia perforata  lateralis,  which  always  remains  definitely  characterized 
by  its  position  at  the  entrance  of  the  Fossa  Sylvii  and  by  its  connection 
with  the  Gyrus  hippocampi  of  the  temporal  lobe.  Secondarily  it  is  arched 
over  by  the  pole  of  the  temporal  lobe.  Medianward  the  Substantia 
perforata  lateralis  continues  into  the  Gyrus  subcallosus,  which  latter 
is  in  the  fully  developed  human  brain  only  an  insignificant  structure,  but 
which  appears  much  more  prominent  in  the  foetal  brain  (Figs.  26  and 
19).  In  front  the  Gyrus  subcallosus  is  separated  from  the  medial  part 
of  the  anterior  olfactory  lobe  of  the  Area  Brocae  by  a  deep  incision,  the 
Sulcus  parolfactorius  posterior  (the  embryonic  Fissura  prima).  We 
designate  as  Sulcus  parolfactorius  anterior  the  groove  which  passes 
in  front  of  the  Trigonum  olfactorium  and  the  Area  Brocae,  and  which 
separates  Broca's  area  from  the  beginning  of  the  Gyrus  cinguli. 

Limen  insulae.  In  the  human  foetus  of  three  and  four  months  the 
anterior  olfactory  lobe  is  connected  with  the  temporal  lobe  by  a  sharp 
arched  ridge  and  with  the  latter  borders  upon  the  area  of  the  future 
Substantia  perforata  lateralis.*  Alongside  this  ridge  is  developed  the 
so-called  lateral  root  of  the  Olfactorius,  our  Striae  olfactoriae  later- 
ales.  The  ridge  forms  also  in  the  mature  brain  a  sharp  demarcation 
between  the  region  of  the  Insula  and  Substantia  perforata  lateralis  and 
joins  in  an  arch  like  manner  the  frontal  and  temporal  lobes.  Broca  calls 
it  le  bord  falcif orme  du  lobe  limbique ;  Schwalbe  °  calls  it  the  Insel- 
schwelle, —  Limen  insulae.  The  Limen  insulae  is  to  be  considered  part 
of  the  Rhinencephalon  just  like  the  Striae  olfactoriae  laterales. 

*  KolHker,  Zur  Entwickelung  des  Auges  und  Geruchsorganes. 
1883;  p.  19  ff,  PI.  IV,  Figs.  22  to  24. 
^  Schwalbe  Nervenlehre,  p.   533. 



Diagram  for  the  representation  of  the  relations  of  the  anterior  and  posterior 
olfactory  lobes  (v.R.  and  h.R.)  to  each  other  and  to  the  lobes  of  the  cerebral 
hemispheres  in  different  stages  of  development. 

F.  Location  of  Lobus  frontalis.  O.  Location  of  Lobus  occipitalis. 

P.  Location  of  Lobus  parietalis.  T.  Location  of  Lobus  temporalis. 

Organa  sensuum. 

Spatia  zonularia.  In  regard  to  the  mode  of  insertion  of  the  fibres  of 
the  Zonula  Zinnii  into  the  lenticular  capsule  and  the  spaces  lying  be- 
tween the  fibres  (formerly  described  as  Canales  Petiti)  compare  the  paper 
recently  published  by  Schon.^ 

Recessus  memb.  tymp.  superior  is  the  median  tympanic  recess  of  W. 
Krause '  or  upper  tympanic  recess  of  Prussak.  This  is  the  space  over 
the  Processus  brevis  of  the  Malleus  between  the  Membrane  flaccida  and 
the  neck  of  the  Malleus,  and  under  the  Lig.  mallei  externum.  Anteriorly 
the  space  is  cut  ofif  from  the  anterior  tympanic  recess  while  posteriorly  it 
is  connected  with  the  posterior  recess.^ 

Tuberculum  and  Apex  auriculae  [Darwini].  Through  the  investi- 
gations of  G.  Schwalbe  the  uncertainty  was  removed  which  until  recently 
existed  in  regard  to  these  structures.  Schwalbe  has  especially  demon- 
strated that  Darwin's  prominence  of  the  ear  corresponds  to  the  apex  of 
the  ear  in  mammals  and  that  longitudinal  measurements,  morphologically 
comparable,  must  be  made  not  with  reference  to  the  highest  point  of  the 
external  ear,  but  with  reference  to  Darwin's  comer  (the  Apex  verus 
of  Schwalbe).  The  point  appearing  occasionally  at  the  highest  point  of 
the  ear  is  designated  by  Schwalbe  in  reference  to  its  role  in  antique  art 
as  Satyr's  point." 

8  Schon,  Zonula  and  Ora  serrata.  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Vol.  X,  p. 
360  ff. 

■^  Anatomic  II,  p.  331. 

*  Compare  the  illustration  in  Schwalbe's  Anatomie  der  Sinnesorgane. 
Erlangen  1887,  p.  513. 

»  Compare  Schwalbe's  Beitrage  zur  Anthropologie  des  Ohres.  Separate 
reprint  from  the  Festschrift  for  R.  Virchow  1891,  Vol.  I,  in  which  there  are 
found  statistics  concerning  the  frequency  of  occurrence  of  Darwin's  apex. 


Pili.  The  significance  of  the  words  Lanugo,  Capilli,  etc.,  may  be 
taken  for  granted.  Vibrissae  are  the  hairs  of  the  nose,  Tragi  the  hairs 
of  the  external  auditory  canal,  Hirci  the  axillary  hairs. 


The  Commission  on  nomenclature  appointed  by  the  Anatomical  Society 
now  considers  the  task  entrusted  to  it  concluded  and  after  its  approval 
by  the  Society,  the  Nomina  anatomica  is  to  be  recommended  for  general 

Truly  the  work  is  not  perfect,  but  the  Commission  may  assert  that 
it  has  worked  assiduously  and  faithfully  to  complete  it.  Moreover,  it  is 
firmly  convinced  that  by  its  general  acceptance,  our  anatomical  language 
compared  with  the  present  one,  will  gain  considerably  in  simplicity  and 
clearness.  According  to  an  estimate  of  Krause,  our  Hst  contains  about 
4,500  names.  One  of  the  more  complete  textbooks  has  10,000  of  them, 
one-half  of  which  are  synonyms.  If  we  may  hope  that  our  lists  of  names 
will  be  adopted  unchanged  for  the  use  of  schools,  then  this  will  be  for  the 
memory  of  the  student  equal  to  a  saving  of  over  5,000  names.  This  by 
itself  is  not  an  immaterial  result.  If,  with  the  adoption  of  the  established 
names,  it  is  brought  about  that  the  terms  used  have  only  one  meaning, 
and  if  at  the  same  time  certain  general  principles  regarding  the  forma- 
tion and  use  of  anatomical  names  have  gained  ground,  then  the  results 
will  be  still  more  important. 

It  may  be  especially  emphasized  that  our  undertaking  had  to  have  in 
view  the  creation  of  a  common  language  for  schools.  The  progressing  in- 
vestigations need  on  their  part  often  special  terms  for  their  lucidity, 
which  in  no  way  claim  to  enter  into  the  use  of  schools.  Many  terms  used 
in  the  explanation  of  new  discoveries  bear  from  the  beginning  the  char- 
acteristics of  provisional  means  of  explanation.  To  restrict  this  language 
of  the  investigator  in  any  way  is  entirely  beyond  our  plan.  Moreover, 
it  is  left  to  every  teacher  to  use  his  own  terms  in  his  lectures,  or  on  the 
other  hand  to  omit  such  names  of  the  Hsts  which  appear  to  him  to  be 
superfluous.  But  this  much  can  and  must  be  obtained,  that  the  terms  which 
we  daily  use  and  which  we  hand  over  to  our  students  be  simple  and  not 
ambiguous.  This  cannot  be  done  without  certain  sacrifices  on  the  part 
of  the  individual;  any  compromise  expects  such.  He  who  has  spoken 
all  his  life  of  a  M.  cucuUaris  has  to  become  used  to  the  M.  trapezius. 
More  serious  difificulties,  which  cannot  be  overcome  by  good  will  alone, 
arise  only  where  existing  names  prove  to  be  incompatible  with  the  scien- 
tific convictions  of  the  individual.  We  hope  that  after  all  the  care  which 
was  taken  in  the  choice  of  the  names,  the  number  of  such  names  which 
cannot  be  generally  accepted  will  be  only  a  limited  one.    Without  being 


over  sanguine  we  believe  that  we  should  be  able  to  reduce  the  number  of 
names,  which  will  not  receive  general  acceptance,  to  a  small  number,  let 
us  say  a  hundred  or  at  most  a  few  hundred.  This  would  be,  in  com- 
parison to  the  present  conditions  at  any  rate,  a  very  fortunate  result,  and 
such  a  residuum  may  in  time  be  totally  assimilated. 

It  is  especially  necessary  to  recognize  fundamental  rules  for  the  further 
growth  of  the  anatomical  language.  But  a  harmonious  growth  will  no 
longer  offer  any  special  difficulties  if  once  proper  foundations  are  laid. 

And  herewith  the  Nomina  anatomica  may  be  most  urgently  recom- 
mended to  the  good  will  of  each  one  interested.  There  exists  in  scientific 
life  a  common  spirit,  the  manifestation  of  which  not  only  brings  honor 
and  satisfaction  to  the  individual,  but  also  progress  and  prosperity  to  all. 
The  acceptance  of  a  common  language  for  schools  must  be  interpreted  and 
achieved  as  such  an  act  of  scientific  public  spirit. 

R.-iemporalxs  - 


Fossa  -r^ratnaUeolwis  Intera,, 

H.retranidlleolaris  lateralis 




The  plan  of  this  work  is:  i.  Name  in  full.  2.  Nationality,  profes- 
sion, place  and  date  of  birth  and  death;  academic  positions  held,  asso- 
ciates, important  discoveries  and  interests.  3.  Full  titles  of  chief  anatom- 
ical writings,  with  place  and  date  of  publication,  and  number  of  editions. 

4.  Anatomical  structures  usually  associated  with  the  name  of  the  author. 

5.  Biographical  sketches  and  memoirs. 

The  following  abbreviations  refer  to  the  works  occasionally  cited 
throughout  the  following  pages.  Toply  has  given  a  good  bibliography  of 
the  history  of  anatomy. 

Bio.  Med.=Dictionaire  des  Sciences  Medicates  — BIOGRAPHIE    MfiDICALE, 

Paris,  C.  L.  F.  Panckoucke,  fiditeur,  MDCCCXX,  7  vols.,  in-8°. 
Carus.=Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  bis  auf  Joh.  Mueller  und  Charl.  Darwin,  by 

J.  Victor  Carus,  Miinchen,  1872,  in-8°. 
Choulant.=Geschichte  und  Bibliographic  der  anatomischen  Abbildung,  Leipzig, 

1852,  by  Dr.  Ludwig  Choulant,  in-4°. 
Ency.    Brit.=Encylopedia    Brittanica.      R.    S.    Peale    Reprint,    pth    edition,    1892, 

25  vols.  in-4°.    Article  —  Anatomy,  by  Sir  William  Turner. 
Gar.=An    Introduction   to   the    History   of    Medicine,   by    Fielding    H.    Garrison, 

Philadelphia,   1914,  in-8°. 
Gurlt-Hirsch.=Biographisches    Lexikon    hervorragender    Aertze    aller    Zeiten 

und   Volker,   von   E.    Gurlt,   herausgegeben   von   August    Hirsch,    1884-88, 

6  vols.  in-8°- 
Hae.=Lehrbuch   der   Geschichte   der   Medicin  und   der   epidemischen   Krank- 

heiten,  by  Heinrich  Haeser,  Jena,  1881,  3  vols.  in-8°. 
Her.=Die  Entwickelungslehre  im  16.  bis  18.  Jahrhundert,  in:     Handbuch  der 

vergleichenden  und   experimentellen   Entwickelungslehre   der  Wirbeltiere. 

Bd.    I,   th.    I,   h.    I,   pp.    1-85,   with   extensive  bibliographies   and  portrait   of 

von  Baer,  by  Oscar  Hertwig,  Jena,  1906,  in-8°. 
Locy.=Biology  and  its  Makers,  by  William  A.  Locy,  New  York,  1908,  in-8°. 
Med.  Lib.^Medical  Library  and  Historical  Journal,  Brooklyn  and  New  York, 

vols.  i-S,  1903-1907,  in-8°. 
N.  &  P.=Handbuch  der  Geschichte  der  Medizin,  Begriindet  von  Th.  Pusch- 

mann,  herausgegeben  von  Neuberger  und  Pagel,  Jena,  1902,  3  vols.  in-8°. 
Pagel.=Biographisches     Lexikon    hervorragender    Aertze    des    XIX.      Jahr- 

hunderts,  von  Julius  L.  Pagel,  Berlin  und  Wien,  1901,  in-8°. 
Pagel  and  Sudhoff.=J.  L.  Pagel's  Einfiihrung  in  die  Geschichte  der  Medizin  -in 

25  akademischen  Vorlesungen.     Zweite  Auflage.     Durchgesehen,  teilweise 

umgearbeitet    und    auf    den   heutigen    Stand    gebracht   von   Karl    Sudhoff    in 

Leipzig.     Berlin,  1915,  in-8°. 
Portal.^Histoire  de  1'  anatomic  et  de  la  chirurgie.  Pans,  1770- 1773,  6  tomes, 

in-8°,  by  Antoine  Baron  Portal. 
Toply .=Geschichte  der  Anatomie,  von  Robert  Ritter  von  Toply.  In  "  Handbuch 

der  Geschichte  der  Medizin."  Begriindet  von  Th.  Puschmann.  herausgegeben 

von  Max  Neuberger  und  Julius  Pagel,  Bd.  II,  pp.  iSS-326,  Jena,  1903,  in-8°- 
Wieger.=Geschichte   der    Medizin    und    ihrer   Lehranstalten    in    Strassburg   vom 

Jahre  1497  bis  zum  Jahre  1872,  von  Friedrich  Wieger,  Strassburg,  1883,  in-4°. 
Winckel.:^Ein   Ueberblick   ueber   die    Geschichte    der    Gynsekologie    von    den 

aeltesten  Zeiten  bis  zum  Ende  des  XIX.    Jahrhunderts.    In  "  Handbuch  der 

Geburtshiilfe,"  x'on  F.  von  Winckel,  Bd.  I,  h.   r,  pp.   1-83,  with  portraits. 


Abano,  Pietro  di  (Petrus  Aponensis,  Pierre  d'Abano,  Apono,  Peter 
von  Abano,  Petrus  d'Abano).  An  Italian  physician  and  philosopher, 
1250-1315.  In  his  treatise  "  Conciliator  differentiarum  philosophorum," 
of  1496,  first  published  in  1472,  there  is  the  first  printed  illustration  of 
the  abdominal  muscles.  This  figure  was  evidently  made  with  the  help 
of  a  dissection.  This  medico-philosophical  work  had,  up  to  1615,  gone 
through  fifteen  editions  in  folio. 

Abano  studied  medicine  and  mathematics  in  Paris,  where  he  was 
granted  the  degree  of  doctor  in  philosophy  and  medicine.  During  his 
student  days  the  sciences  were  but  little  cultivated  in  Italy,  though  after 
his  return  his  learning  was  recognized.  He  served  with  distinction  for 
many  years  as  professor  of  medicine  in  the  University  of  Padua;  a  chair 
especially  created  for  him.  He  is  the  author  of  several  other  works 
besides  his  famous  "  Conciliator." 

His  chief  interests  were  in  attempting  to  reconcile  the  different  ideas 
of  medicine  and  philosophy,  and  in  this  endeavor  his  studies  ranged  such 
a  wide  field  that  he  became  known  as  a  heretic.  He  was  tried  before 
the  inquisition  but  was  acquitted.  At  a  second  trial,  after  his  death,  his 
body  was  condemned  to  be  burned.  His  friends,  however,  fearing  this 
had  secretly  removed  his  body,  so  it  was  burned  in  effigy. 

Little  is  known  of  his  private  life.  He  seems  to  hav^e  been  an  ardent 
student  and  is  known  to  have  travelled  to  Constantinople  for  the  purpose 
of  learning  the  Greek  language. 

Conciliator  differentiarum  philosophorum  et  praecipue  medi- 
corum.  Mantoue,  1472,  in  folio.  Reprinted  in  1476  and  148^  at 
Venice;  at  Padua  in  1490;  at  Pavia  in  1490;  at  Venice  in  1496, 
1548,  1555,  1565,  1590,  1595,  in  folio  and  at  Giessen  in  161 5  in-4° . 
De  venenis,  eorumque  remediis  liber,  Mantoue,  1472,  in  -folio. 
Reprinted  8  times  before  1679. 

AbdoUatif  (Abdallatif,  Abdelletif,  Abd-ul-Latif,  Abdel  Lathyf). 
A  celebrated  Arabian  physician  and  traveller,  and  one  of  the  most 
voluminous  writers  of  his  time,  was  born  at  Bagdad  in  1162,  and  died  at 
the  same  place  in  123 1.  He  early  became  well  versed  in  grammar,  phil- 
ology, jurisprudence,  and  poetry  and  later  turned  to  philosophy  and 
medicine.  He  went  to  Damascus  to  enjoy  the  society  of  the  learned,  and 
later  traveled  extensively  in  Egypt  and  wrote  accounts  of  the  famine 
caused  by  the  inundation  of  the  Nile  in  1200,  and  described  the  monu- 
ments and  people  of  that  country.  He  was  one  of  the  circle  of  learned 
men  Saladin  gathered  around  him  in  Jerusalem. 

AbdoUatif  taught  medicine  and  philosophy  at  Cairo  and  at  Damascus 
for  a  number  of  years.  His  love  of  travel  led  him  in  his  old  age  to  visit 
different  parts  of  Armenia  and  Asia  Minor.  While  in  Egypt  he  was 
studying  some  human  bones  in  a  cemetery  when  he  ascertained  that  the 


lower  jaw  is  formed  of  one  piece;  that  the  sacrum,  though  sometimes 
composed  of  several,  is  most  generally  of  one ;  and  that  Galen,  in  whose 
writings  he,  in  common  with  other  Arabian  physicians  of  his  time,  was 
well  versed,  is  mistaken  when  he  asserts  that  these  bones  are  not  single. 
He  is  thus  the  only  one  of  the  Arabians,  including  Avicenna,  Abulcasis, 
and  Averroes,  who  did  more  than  copy  the  writings  of  Galen  and 

Abeille,  Scipion.  A  military  surgeon,  born  in  Riez,  . . .  .-1697.  He 
served  in  the  field  hospital  in  Flanders  in  the  latter  half  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  He  attempted  a  series  of  volumes  of  a  facetious  turn  on  the 
anatomy  of  the  various  parts  of  the  body,  written  in  verse.  He  did  not 
live  to  complete  the  series,  but  the  following  parts  are  known : 

Nouvelle  histoire  des  os,  selon  les  anciens  et  les  modemes, 
enrichie  de  vers,  Paris,  1685,  in-i2°.  This  is  an  attempt  to  describe 
poetically  the  various  skeletal  elements  of  the  body,  based  on  the 
work  of  Dulaurens. 

Anatomie  de  la  tete  et  de  ses  parties,  Paris,  1689,  in-i2°. 
The  Biographie  Medicale  has  the  following  example  of  his  poetry : 

Ces  dents  que  I'age  gate,  au  moment  qu'il  les  touche, 

Sont  par  leur  juste  arrangement 

Le  plus  agreable  ornement 

D'une  belle  petite  bouche. 

Tout  le  monde  s'en  fait  honneur, 

Et  je  dis,  sans  leur  faire  outrage, 

Que  rien  n'  efface  tant  les  attraits  du  visage 

Que  leur  carie  et  leur  noirceur. 

Abel,  Clerk.  An  English  medical  naturalist  who  accompanied  the 
British  embassy  to  China  in  1816  and  after  his  return  published  a  report 
which  is  of  interest  to  biologists: 

Personal  observations  made  during  the  progress  of  the 
British  embassy  through  China,  and  on  its  voyage  to  and  from 
that  country  in  the  years  1816-IJ,  London,  in-4°. 

Abernethy,  John.  A  London  surgeon  and  teacher  of  anatomy, 
1764-1831.  He  was  a  professor  of  surgery  and  anatomy  to  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons  (1814).  In  George  Macilwain's  biographical  mem- 
oir of  Abernethy  (New  York,  1853,  in-8°)  there  is  given  an  interesting 
account  of  the  methods  of  anatomical  teaching  in  the  early  days  of  the 
19th  century.  Abernethy  did  some  investigative  work  on  the  absorbents 
(lymphatics)  and  published  an  account  of  his  studies  in  the  Philosophical 
Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society. 

Fascia  of=subperitoneal  in  front  of  the  A.  ext.  il. 

Achilles  was  a  Greek  warrior,  whose  parents  were  so  desirous 
for  his  safety  that  he  was  dipped  in  the  river  Styx,  all  but  his  heel  by 


which  he  was  held,  and  came  out  impervious  to  wounds.  He  was  killed 
at  Troy  by  the  arrow  of  Paris,  which  struck  him  in  his  only  vulnerable 
spot.        ^ 

Tendo  Achillis=Tendo  calcaneus. 

Achillini  (Achillinus),  Alessandro.  An  Italian  philosopher  and 
anatomist,  1463- 15 12.  He  was  born  at  Bologna  on  the  29th  of  October 
(1463).  He  studied  first  in  his  own  country,  then  went  to  Paris  where 
he  spent  three  years.  It  is  not  known  where  he  received  his  degree.  In 
1485,  he  was  appointed,  at  the  age  of  22,  to  the  professorship  of  philos- 
ophy, and  it  is  said,  of  medicine,  at  Bologna.  He  retained  this  post  until 
1506,  when  he  was  nominated  to  a  professorship  at  Padua,  with  an  annual 
honorarium  of  250  ducats. 

Achillini  was  celebrated  as  a  lecturer  and  became  known  as  the 
second  Aristotle.  He  and  Mundinus  were  the  first  at  Bologna  to  avail 
them.selves  of  the  permission  given  by  Frederick  II  to  dissect  dead  bodies. 
He  was  greatly  esteemed  by  his  contemporaries  and  was  called  the  great 
Achillinus,  especially  when  referring  to  his  ability  in  disputation. 

He  was  a  pupil  and  later  a  commentator  of  Mundinus  (Mondino), 
and  though  a  great  admirer  of  the  Arabian  philosophy  he  pursued 
anatomy  with  such  fervor  that  his  name  will  be  always  known  as  the 
first  who  described  the  tympanic  bones,  the  incus  and  stapes.  In  1503 
he  showed  that  the  tarsus  consists  of  seven  bones;  he  rediscovered  the 
fornix  and  the  inf undibulum ;  and  he  was  fortunate  enough  to  observe 
the  course  of  the  cerebral  cavities  (Ventriculi  cerebri)  into  the  inferior 
cornua.  He  mentions  the  orifices  of  Wharton's  ducts  (Ductus  sub- 
maxillares  (Whartoni)).  He  knew  the  ileo-caecal  valve  and  his  descrip- 
tions of  the  duodenum,  ileum,  and  colon  show  that  he  was  better  ac- 
quainted with  the  site  and  disposition  of  these  viscera  than  any  of  his 
predecessors  or  contemporaries. 

The  philosophical  writings  of  Achillini  have  been  collected  into  a 
single  volume,  with  the  following  title : 

A.  Achillini  opera  omnia  in  unum  collecta,  cum  annotationibus, 
Venice,  1508,  in  folio. 
His  anatomical  writings  have  been  issued  with  the  following  titles : 
Corporis  humani  anatomia,  Venice,  1516,  in-4°.  In  Mundini 
'Anatomiam  annotationes,  Bologna,  1524,  in-4°.  Anatomicae 
annbtationes  magni  Al.  Achillini  Bononiensis:  editae  per  fratrem 
Joh.  Philotheum,  et  impressae  Bononiae,  per  Hieronymum  de 
Benedictis,  anno  1520,  die  23  septembri,  in  small-4°. 

Ackermann,  Jacob  Fidelis.  German  anatomist  and  botanist, 
1765-1815.     Studied  in  Wiirzberg,  then  in  Mainz;  later  student  of  P. 


Frank,  Scarpa,  Volta  and  Nessi  in  Pavia,  1796-98.  Professor  of  anatomy 
as  successor  to  Soemmering  in  Mainz.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  sur- 
gery in  Jena  as  successor  to  Loder,  1804.  Professor  of  anatomy  in 
Heidelberg,  1805.  Professor  of  botany,  1812.  An  opponent  of  Gall's 
teaching  concerning  the  brain,  skull  and  organs.  Improved  the 
anatomical  institute  in  Heidelberg. 

Ueber  die  korperliche  Verschiedenheit  des  Mannes  von  Weihe 
ausser  der  Geschlechtsteilen. 

Acrel  (Acrell,  Accrell),  Olof.  A  Swedish  surgeon,  1717-1807. 
He  was  born  near  Stockholm,  and  was  early  destined  to  the  ministry  by 
his  father.  Acrel,  however,  did  not  take  kindly  to  theological  studies 
and  began  the  study  of  medicine  in  1732  at  Upsala  under  Linne,  Rosen, 
Roberg  and  Prutz.  He  translated  as  a  student  the  works  of  Boerhaave. 
During  the  war  with  Russia  he  served  as  a  military  surgeon  and  was 
subsequently  raised  to  the  nobility  by  the  king.  He  had  traveled  widely 
and  was  well  versed  in  anatomy  and  surgery.  He  has  published  a  number 
of  works  on  surgery  in  Swedish,  which  are  of  interest  for  the  anatomical 
knowledge  displayed.  He  is  known  in  anatomical  terminology  for  the 
ganglion  on  the  extensor  tendon  of  the  wrist. 

Adolph,  Jean  Traugott.  A  German  physician  and  anatomist, 
1728-1771.  He  was  born  at  Hirschbergon  the  fourth  of  December  (1728). 
He  received  his  doctorate  in  1758  and  in  1760  was  made  professor  in 
ordinary  of  surgery  and  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Helmstaedt.  In 
1768  he  accepted  the  chair  of  surgery,  anatomy  and  physiology  at  the 
University  of  Altdorf.  He  has  written  a  number  of  dissertations  on 
anatomy  and  surgery,  none  of  them  of  importance.  They  are  Hsted  in 
the  Biographic  Medicale. 

Aeby,  Christoph  Theodor.  German  anatomist  and  anthropolo- 
gist, 1835-1885.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  Bern,  1863,  and  in  Prag,  1884. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Basel,  succeeded  by  Rabl. 

Eine  neue  Methode  zur  Bestimmung  der  Schddelform  von 
Menschen  und  Sdugethieren.  Braunschweig,  1863.  Der  Bau  des 
menschlichen  Korpers  mit  besonderer  Riicksicht  auf  seine  morpho- 
logische  und  physiologische  Bedeutung,  Leipzig,  1871. 

Lobus  trapesoides.    M.  recti  labii  prop. 

Aelien  was  a  Greek  author  whose  work,  "  Historiae  animalium, 
sive  de  animalium  solertid  ac  proprietatibus  libri  XVII,"  was  translated 
from  the  Greek  by  Conrad  Gesner  and  published  by  him  in  1556  at 
Zurich  in  folio.    This  work  is  a  compilation,  the  author  deriving  much 


of  his  information  from  Aristotle  and  Pliny,  and  giving  accounts  of 
numerous  travelers  in  Africa  and  Egypt. 

Aetius  of  Amida,  in  Mesopotamia,  was  a  Greek  physician  who 
lived  during  the  early  part  of  the  6th  century  (502-575  A.  D.).  He 
studied  at  Alexandria  and  was  physician  to  the  court  at  Constantinople. 
He  was  a  compiler  of  the  works  of  previous  authors,  his  compilations 
being  made  with  great  care,  and  accompanied  by  his  own  observations. 
Eight  of  his  books  were  issued  from  the  Aldine  press  in  Venice  in  1534. 
Although  Aetius  made  no  advances  in  anatomy  his  works  are  of  interest 
in  that  they  contain  the  anatomical  writings  of  previous  authors.  His 
writings  are  discussed  in  detail  by  the  Biographie  Medicale. 

Agassiz,  Alexander.  An  American  zoologist  and  embryologist, 
son  of  Louis  Agassiz,  1835-1910.  Assistant  in  the  Museum  of  Com- 
parative Zoology  at  Harvard,  1860-65.  He  later  assumed  charge  of 
copper  mining  in  the  Lake  Superior  region.  He  returned  in  1874  to  the 
curatorship  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology ;  director  1902-1910. 
During  fhe  latter  years  he  undertook  a  great  many  exploring  and  collect- 
ing expeditions  which  resulted  in  many  contributions  to  geology,  zoology 
and  botany.  Founded  a  biological  station  at  Newport.  Fie  is  the  author 
of  a  number  of  important  memoirs. 

Embryology  of  the  starfishes,  Boston,  1865.  On  the  develop- 
ment of  the  flounders,  18/8.  Young  stages  of  osseous  fishes, 
18/8.     Embryology  of  the  Aenophora,  1874. 

Biography:  Letters  and  Recollections  of  Alexander  Agassiz, 
Edited  by  G.  R.  Agassis.    Boston,  191 3,  in-8°. 

Agassiz,  Louis-Jean-Rudolph.  A  Swiss-American  zoologist  and 
paleontologist;  founder  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  at 
Harvard  University.  Born  at  Motiers,  Switzerland  (1807).  Lived  in 
United  States  from  1846-1873.  Fie  studied  comparative  anatomy  in 
Zurich,  Heidelberg,  and  Miinchen.  In  1831,  professor  of  natural  history 
at  Neufchatel.  In  1846  he  came  to  North  America  where  he  was  suc- 
cessively professor  in  Boston,  Charleston  and  Cambridge.  At  the  latter 
place  he  was  professor  of  zoology  and  geology  at  Harvard  University, 
1847-1873.  Author  of  numerous. contributions  to  zoology,  paleontology 
and  geology.  He  was  an  active  man  in  the  scientific  work  of  his  time. 
Conducted  many  exploring  expeditions,  the  results  of  which  are  stored 
in  the  Harvard  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology.  Founded  at  the  island 
of  Penikese  the  first  biological  station  in  North  America.  He  was  greatly 
interested  in  the  fishes  and  published  extensively  on  fossil  fishes  especially. 
Recherches  sur  les  poissons  fossiles,  5  vols,  1843-1844. 
Bibliographia  Zoologicm  et  Geologicm,  1854.    Contributions  to  the 


Natural  History  of  the  United  States:    Embryology  of  the  Tes- 
tudinata,  vol.  i,  pt.  2,  1857.    Essay  on  Classification,  1859. 

Biography:  Life  and  Correspondence,  edited  by  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  C.  Agassis,  2  vols,  1885;  Life,  Letters  and  Works,  by 
Jules  Marcou,  2  vols,  i8p6. 

Agnew,  D.  Hayes.  An  American  physician,  1818-1892.  Studied 
in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  where  he  later  became  professor  of 
clinical  surgery  and  medicine.  He  was  interested  in  the  development  of 
the  Philadelphia  School  of  Anatomy,  and  brought  out  in  1868  a  new 
arrangement  of  the  London  Dissector,  which  contained  a  concise  account 
of  the  muscles,  blood  vessels,  nerves,  viscera  and  ligaments. 

Aicholtz  (Aichholtz),  Johann.  An  Austrian  physician,  1520- 
1588.  He  succeeded  Latz  in  the  Collegium  Albertinum  of  Anatomy  in 
Vienna  and  from  1558-80  he  held  demonstrations  in  anatomy. 

Akenside,  Mark.  A  British  poet,  born  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne  on 
November  9,  1721.  He  attained  much  fame  as  a  physician  and  a  poet, 
and  died  on  June  23,  1770.  He  studied  theology  at  the  University  of 
Edinburgh  for  one  session,  then  went  to  Leyden  to  study  medicine,  and 
it  was  there  that  he  wrote  his  famous  thesis  on  the  foetus  (Dissertatio 
de  ortu  et  incremento  foetus  huniani,  Leyden,  1744,  in-4°).  In  1753  the 
University  of  Cambridge  bestowed  on  him  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medi- 
cine. He  became  a  fellow  of  the  College  of  Physicians  in  1754.  He  is 
the  author  of  one  anatomical  work  entitled:  Observations  on  the  origin 
and  use  of  the  lymphatic  vessels,  London,  1757,  in-8° ,  which  Monro  the 
younger  criticised  and  in  which  he  pointed  out  what  he  thought  were 
inaccuracies.  In  1756  Akenside  read  the  Croonian  lectures.  He  was 
physician  in  chief  to  St.  Thomas'  Hospital  and  a  member  of  the  royal 
society.  He  is  more  widely  known  as  the  author  of  "  The  Pleasures  of 
the  Imagination,"  published  in  1744. 

Biography:  Life,  Writings  and  Genius  of  Akenside  by 
Bucke,  1832.    Biographie  Medicate;  Encyclopedia  Brittanica. 

Albert.     See  Albertus  Magnus. 

Albert!,  Michel.  A  physician  and  lawyer  of  Halle,  1682-1757. 
He  studied  theology  at  Altdorf,  and  became  versed  in  medicine,  natural 
history,  philosophy  and  jurisprudence.  Between  1703  and  1755,  Alberti 
published  upwards  of  300  contributions,  some  of  which  make  brief  refer- 
ences to  the  anatomical  knowledge  of  his  day.  The  Biographie  Medicale 
lists  these  publications  and  gives  short  discussions  of  the  more  important 


Alberti,  Solomon.  A  German  physician  and  anatomist,  1540-1600. 
He  is  said  by  Haller  to  have  been  a  student  of  Fabricius  ab  Aquapen- 
dente,  though  this  is  denied  by  the  Biographie  Medicale.  Haller  also 
attributes  to  him  the  distinction  of  first  describing  and  figuring  the  valve 
of  the  colon.  He  is  generally  accredited  with  a  good  description  of  the 
papillae  of  the  kidneys  and  of  the  human  ear  in  his :  Historia  plerarum- 
que  humani  corporis  partium  membratim  scripta,  Wittemherg,  1583, 
in-8°.  There  are  some  new  plates,  especially  on  the  ear  and  kidneys, 'but 
most  of  the  illustrations  are  borrowed  from  Vesalius. 

Albertini,  Ippolito  Francisco.  An  Italian  anatomist  and  physician, 
1662-1746.  He  was  born  at  Crevalcore  in  the  territory  of  Bologna.  He 
studied  medicine  under  Malpighi,  and  later  became  professor  of  medicine 
in  Bologna.  He  later  renounced  medicine  to  enter  the  service  of  the 
church.  He  has  left  a  work  on  the  heart  which  is  of  some  anatomical 
interest.  It  is  entitled:  Animadversiones  super  quibtcsdam  difficilis 
respirationis  vitiis,  a  laesa  cordis  et  praecordiorum  structura  pendentibus. 
Bologna,  1748.    This  work  has  been  translated  into  French  and  German. 

Albertus  Magnus  (known  also  as  Albert  the  Great,  Albert  von 
Bollstadt,  Albertus  Teuthonicus,  Frater  Albertus  de  Colonia,  Albertus 
Ratisbonensis,  and  Albertus  Grotus),  was  a  celebrated  German  phil- 
osopher, 1 193-1280.  He  received  instruction  in  the  writings  of  Aristotle 
at  Padua,  and  became  a  member  of  the  Dominican  order  in  1223.  He 
taught  and  preached  at  Cologne,  Regensburg,  Freiburg,  Strassburg,  and 
Hildesheim.  His  voluminous  writings  on  logic,  physic,  metaphysics, 
ethics,  politics,  natural  history  and  theology  were  published  at  Lyon  m 
21  folio  volumes  by  the  Dominican  Peter  Jammy,  with  the  title: 
"  Alberti  Magni  opera  omnia."  He  systematized  the  whole  of  Aristotle's 
works  as  they  were  presented  to  him  in  Latin  translations  with  the  notes 
of  the  Arabian  commentators.  The  anatomical  term  Vena  papillaris  is 
accredited  to  this  writer. 

Biography:    Albertus  Magnus,  sein  Leben  und  seine  Wissen- 
schaft,  1857,  by  Joachim  Sighart. 

Albin,  Eleazar.  An  English  artist  who  published,  from  1731  to 
1794,  handsomely  illustrated  volumes  on  birds,  insects,  and  fish. 

Albini,     Giuseppe.    An     Italian     anatomist     and     physiologist, 

1830 .    He  was  born  at  Milan.    He  studied  at  Pavia  in  1845,  and  in 

1846-7  at  the  anatomical  institute  of  Panizza.  He  was  assistant  to 
Bruecke  at  Vienna,  after  which  he  spent  some  time  in  visiting  various 
universities.     In  1857  he  was  professor  of  physiology  at  Krakau,  then 


at  Parma  and  later  he  was  called  to  the  University  of  Naples.  From  his 
laboratory  here  many  of  his  students  issued  numerous  important  pub- 
lications. Albini,  himself,  wrote  his  contributions  in  Italian  and  in  Ger- 
man. He  is  the  discoverer  of  minute  nodules  on  the  margin  of  the  mitral 
and  tricuspid  valves  of  the  heart  {Moduli  Albinii),  sometimes  present  in 
the  newborn. 

Albinus,  Bernhard.  A  German  physician,  1653-1721.  Great 
grandson  of  the  celebrated  historian  of  Saxony,  Pierre  Albinus.  He, 
himself,  was  the  father  of  one  of  the  greatest  anatomists  known,  and 
became  recognized  as  one  of  the  most  famous  physicians  of  his  century. 
He  was  born  on  the  7th  of  June,  1653,  at  Dessau,  in  the  principality  of 
Anhalt.  The  true  name  of  the  family,  Weiss,  had  for  three  generations 
been  latinized,  following  a  common  custom  of  the  times.  Albinus  studied 
medicine  in  Leyden  with  Charles  Drelincourt,  Theodore  Croonen,  and 
Luc  Schacht,  and  there  he  received  his  doctorate  in  May,  1676.  The 
year  following  he  returned  from  Dessau  to  Leyden  to  perfect  himself  in 
medicine  and  mathematics.  At  the  end  of  three  years  he  returned  to 
Dessau,  visiting  Holland,  France  and  Lorraine  in  the  mean  time.  In 
1680  he  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  medicine  at  Frankfort-an-der-Oder 
where  for  many  years  his  lectures  attracted  considerable  attention.  Al- 
though he  was  offered  brilHant  inducements  at  Goettingen  and  Leyden 
the  Elector  Frederick  would  not  consent  to  his  leaving  Frankfort. 
Finally,  in  1702,  he  was  permitted  to  go  to  Leyden  where  he  continued 
his  duties  as  professor  in  the  University  of  Leyden  for  nearly  twenty 
years.  Here  he  was  the  founder  of  a  professorial  dynasty  which  con- 
tinued for  over  three-quarters  of  a  century.  Boerhaave,  who  pronounced 
his  eulogy,  said  that  Albinus  was  one  of  the  most  able  and  best  informed 
teachers  of  medicine  who  had  ever  Hved.  His  anatomical  studies  are 
relatively  unimportant  in  themselves,  but  they  attain  great  interest  in 
view  of  their  influence  on  his  son,  Bernhard  Siegfried.  The  following 
publications  of  the  elder  Albinus  may  be  mentioned:  " Dissertatio  de 
venenis,  Frankfort-am-Oder,  1682,  in-4° ;  Dissertatio  de  minimis  cor- 
poris humani  meatibus,  Frankfort-am-Oder,  1685,  in-4° ;  Dissertatio  de 
corpusculis  in  sanguine  contentis,  Frankfort-am-Oder,  1688,  in-4° . 

Albinus,  Bernhard  Siegfried.  A  German  anatomist,  1697-1770. 
One  of  the  greatest  anatomists  who  has  honored  medicine  with  his  learn- 
ing. He  was  not  less  illustrious  in  Germany,  where  he  was  born,  than  in 
Holland,  the  country  of  his  adoption.  He  was  born  on  February  24th 
(1697)  at  Frankfort-an-der-Oder.  Here  he  studied  the  humanities  and 
philosophy  -in  the  school  of  his  famous  father.  His  first  teachers  in 
medicine  were  Bidloo,  Rau,  Decker,  Boerhaave,  and  Ruysch.     He  early 


became  attracted  to  the  study  of  anatomy  and  studied  especially  with 
Ruysch  who  taught  him  the  technique  of  his  wonderful  injections,  which 
had  been  carried  to  great  perfection.  On  the  advice  of  his  father  he 
went,  in  1718,  to  Paris  to  study  with  Winslow  and  Senac.  He  had  hoped 
to  pass  some  years  in  Paris,  but  at  the  end  of  six  months  the  curators 
of  the  University  of  Leyden,  on  the  retirement  of  Rau,  called  him  back 
to  Holland  as  professor  extraordinary  of  surgery  and  anatomy.  Shortly 
after  reaching  Holland  the  university  gave  him  his  doctorate,  without 
either  examination  or  thesis,  thus  illustrating  the  great  confidence  they 
placed  in  his  promised  ability.  In  this  they  were  not  disappointed.  The 
inaugural  address  {"  Oratio  inauguralis  de  anatome  comparata")  which 
Albinus  delivered,  clearly  showed  that  his  was  a  master  mind.  In  1721 
he  succeeded  his  father,  on  the  recommendation  of  Boerhaave,  with  the 
title  of  professor  in  ordinary.  In  1745  he  was  given  the  chair  of  thera- 
peutics. He  devoted  fifty  years  to  his  work  at  the  University  of  Leyden, 
closing  his  life's  work  at  the  age  of  seventy-three. 

Albinus  gave  a  new  direction  to  the  study  of  anatomy.  This  was 
the  necessary  outcome  of  the  impulse  given  by  Boerhaave  to  the  study  of 
medicine.  His  anatomical  descriptions  are  clear,  and  he  employed  the 
best  artistic  talent  for  the  illustration  of  his  works.  The  art  of  anatomical 
illustration  had  remained  stationary  since  the  work  of  Vesalius  and 
Eustachius,  but  Albinus  brought  it  to  greater  perfection,  especially  in  his 
"  Historia  musculorum  hominis,  Leyden,  1734,  111-4°,"  on  which  his  fame 
as  an  anatomist  rests.  In  the  preface  Albinus  states  that  he  made  in  the 
human  body  all  of  the  recorded  observations  himself.  Haller  considered 
this  work  one  of  the  greatest  of  its  kind.  The  work  was  twice  reprinted 
and  translated  into  French  by  Tarin,  in  1753. 

The  influence  of  Albinus  in  bringing  forward  the  importance  of 
human  anatomy  in  medicine  was  very  great.  He  published  an  anatomical 
guide  for  students  in  1746,  with  the  title:  De  ossibus  corporis  humani 
ad  auditores  suos  libellus.  He  is  the  author  also  of:  Tabulce  ossium 
humanorum,  Leyden,  1753,  in  giant  folio;  Tabulae  vasis  chyliferi  cum 
vena  azygos,  ateriis  intercostalibus,  aliisque  vicinis  partibus,  Leyden, 
1 75 1,  in  regal  folio.  The  plates  of  this  magnificent  work  cost  24,000 
florins.  Albinus  edited  also  the  works  of  Vesalius,  of  Harvey,  and  of 
Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente,  as  well  as  the  anatomical  plates  of 

Fossa  innominata   (Scapha).     M.  interosseus  prior  indicts. 
M.  serratus.    M.  spinalis  cervicis.    Processus  acutus  helicis. 

Albinus,  Christian  Bernhard.  A  German  physician,  born  in  Hol- 
land, 1696-1752.  Third  son  of  Bernhard  Albinus.  He  became  a  pro- 
fessor of  medicine  in  the  University  of  Utrecht  in  1747.     His  only  im- 


portant  publication  of  anatomical  interest  is:  De  anatome  errores 
detegente  in  medicina,  oratio,  Utrecht,  1723,  in-4°,  in  which  he  shows 
the  importance  of  dissecting  the  human  body  especially  in  discovering 
the  causes  and  effects  of  disease. 

Albinus,  Friedrich  Bernhard.  A  German  anatomist  and  surgeon, 
1715-1778.  Second  son  of  Bernhard  Albinus.  He  succeeded  his 
brother,  Bernhard  Siegfried,  in  the  chair  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the 
University  of  Leyden  in  1770.  His  writings  are  not  important  from  an 
anatomical  standpoint. 

Albrecht,  Johann  Wilhelm.  A  German  anatomist,  1703-1736. 
He  studied  medicine  in  Jena  with  Wedel,  Teichmeyer  and  Hamberger; 
and  at  Paris  and  Strassburg.  He  was  called  from  Erf ord  to  Goettingen 
in  1734,  as  professor  of  anatomy,  surgery  and  botany.  He  was  the  pre- 
decessor to  Albrecht  von  Haller.  His  writings  are  rather  meager  for 
his  day,  but  he  has  left  two  which  possess  some  anatomical  interest: 
Observationes  anatomicce  circa  duo  cadavera  masculina,  Erf  ord  1730; 
Tractatiis  de  tempestate,  cui  adjecta  observatio  circa  vasa  lymphatica 
ventricidiiinstituta,  Erf  ord  1731,  in-8°. 

Albrecht,  Paul.  A  comparative  anatomist  of  Hamburg,  185 1- 
1894.  He  is  known  for  his  discoveries  in  comparative  osteology.  He  is 
the  author  of  some  75  studies  in  comparative  anatomy  of  which  the  fol- 
lowing may  be  mentioned :  Sur  la  valeur  morpholgique  de  I' articulation 
mandibulaire,  Bruxelles,  1885;  Sur  les  quatres  os  maxillaires,  Bruxelles, 

Albucasis  (Abulcasis,  Albukaism,  Abulquasim,  Abulcasem,  Abou'l 
Kasem  Khalaf  ben  Abras  al  Zaharavi,  Bucasis,  Bulcasis  Galaf,  Alsahara- 
vius,  Alsaravius,  Alscharavius,  Alsaharanus).  A  famous  Arabian  sur- 
geon of  Spain,  born  in  El-Zahra,  near  Cordova,  in  912;  the  exact  date 
of  his  death  being  uncertain  though  usually  placed  at  1031.  The  first 
part  of  his  work  "  Altasrif  (at-tasrif),"  which  was  translated  into  Latin 
in  1519  with  the  title:  Liber  theoricae  nee  non  practicae  Alsaharavii,  con- 
tains some  anatomical  portions,  chiefly  following  Galen. 

Alcana  Mosali.  An  Armenian  physician  who  lived  about  the  mid- 
dle of  the  thirteenth  century,  and  was  practicing  medicine  in  Bagdad 
when  that  city  was  taken  by  the  Tartars  in  1258.  He  devoted  himself 
especially  to  ophthalmology,  and  has  left  a  treatise:  " De  passionibus 
oculorum  liber,"  which  is  a  compilation  of  the  anatomical  and  medical 
nature  of  the  eye  from  Arabian,  Chaldean,  Jewish  and  Indian  sources. 


Alcmeon  (Alkmaion,  Alcman).  A  Greek  writer  of  Crotona,  ca. 
550-500  B.  C.  He  was  one  of  the  disciples  of  Pythagoras,  and  made 
philosophy  the  major  part  of  his  life's  interests,  although  he  was  much 
interested  in  medicine.  He  is  reputed  to  have  been  th^  first  to  write  on 
physiological  subjects  and  is  accredited  with  the  discovery  of  the  optic 
nerve  and  the  observation  of  the  Eustachian  tube  in  the  goat. 

Alcock,  Thomas.  An  English  physician,  1784-1833.  Surgeon  to 
St.  James'  workhouse  in  London,  1813-1828. 

CancU  of=^  space  in  the  outer  fascial  wall  of  the  ischiorectal 

Aldrovandi,  Ulysse.  An  Italian  naturalist,  1522-1605.  He  was 
one  of  the  most  laborious  compilers  and  writers  in  natural  history  of  the 
early  ages.  He  was  born  at  Bologna  on  the  nth  of  September  (1522), 
of  a  very  distinguished  family.  Under  the  influence  of  Rondelet  his 
attention  was  attracted  to  Natural  History  and  to  this  field  of  study  he 
directed  his  attention,  with  the  result  that  he  became  known  as  the 
modern  Pliny.  His  writings,  which  are  enormous,  show  a  complete  lack 
of  any  critical  faculty  on  the  part  of  the  author.  Many  fantastic  tales 
are  included  with  the  actual  facts  of  nature  as  he  represents  them.  At 
Bologna  he  was  granted  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medicine  in  1553,  and 
the  year  following  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  logic,  then  of  philosophy, 
then  botany.  His  studies  were  well  supported  by  the  senate  of  Bologna, 
and  they  assisted  in  the  publication  of  his  works  in  several  folio  volumes. 
All  of  his  works  on  birds,  insects,  mammals  and  monsters,  which  were 
written  in  Latin  with  long  and  cumbersome  titles,  were  several  times 
reprinted  during  the  17th  century.  The  museum  founded  by  Aldrovandi 
in  Bologna  still  exists. 

AH  Abbas  (Ali  Ibn  al-Abbas  al-Majus),  (Haly  Abbas).  A  dis- 
tinguished Persian  physician  of  the  Arabic  period.  He  lived  during  the 
tenth  century,  ending  his  career  in  994.  His  chief  work  is  al-Maliki, 
Liber  Regis  or  the  Kingly  Book.  It  is  chiefly  interesting  from  the 
arrangement  of  the  anatomical  discussions  in  the  section  on  ophthal- 

Ali  Ben  Isa  (Jesu  Haly)  was  one  of  the  most  important  of  the 
Arabian  ophthalmologists,  who  lived  in  Bagdad  in  the  first  half  of  the 
eleventh  century.  H!is  work  on  ophthalmology  was  in  general  use  for 
several  centuries  and  is  still  in  use  among  the  Arabs.    This  work  in- 


eludes  a  section  on  the  anatomy  and  physiology  of  the  eye,  largely 
following  Galen. 

Biography:    Errinerungsbuch  fiir  Augendrtze,  aus  arabischen 
Handschriften  ubersetst  und  erldutert,  Hirschberg  und  Lippert. 

Allen,  Harrison  A.  An  American  physician  and  anatomist,  1841- 
1897.  He  studied  with  Joseph  Leidy  in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania. 
He  served  in  the  Confederate  Army  during  the  Civil  War  and  after- 
wards was  professor  of  comparative  anatomy  and  medical  zoology  in 
the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1867.  From 
1875-1885  he  was  professor  of  physiology  in  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, after  serving  in  the  Philadelphia  Dental  College  as  professor  of 
anatomy  and  surgery.  In  1894  he  was  the  first  director  of  the  Wistar 
Institute  of  Anatomy  and  Biology  in  Philadelphia.  He  has  written  -the 
following  contributions :  Outlines  of  comparative  anatomy  and  medical 
zoology,  1869;  Studies  in  the  facial  region,  18^4;  On  the  mechanism  of 
joints,  i8y6. 

Biography:   Science,  Feby.  25,  i8p8;  Proc.  loth  Ann.  Meeting 

Assn.    Amer.   Anatomists,    i8p^,   pp.    12-26,   with   portrait   and 


Alsaharavius.     See  Albucasis. 

Alten,  Hans  von.  A  German  zoologist,  1887-1915.  He  was  a 
student  of  Weismann,  and  while  studying  under  his  direction  became 
greatly  interested  in  the  anatomy  and  phylogeny  of  the  brain  of  the 
Hymenoptera,  and  studied  especially  the  comparative  anatomy  of  the 
brains  of  the  various  forms,  such  as  the  workers,  soldiers,  drones,  etc., 
which  form  a  hymenopteran  community.  He  was  an  assistant  to  Robert 
Wiedersheim  in  the  anatomical  institute  at  Freiberg  in  Bern.  His  promis- 
ing studies  were  cut  short  by  an  early  death. 

Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  48,  no.  4,  pp.  ioc)-ii2,  ipi^ 

Altmann,  Richard.     A  German  histologist,  1852-1900.     Born  in 

Eylau,  West  Prussia;  studied  in  Greifswald,  Konigsberg,  and  Marburg, 

1872;  1879  as  assistant  and  1890  as  prosector  in  Leipzig.    In  1887-1900 

a.  o.  professor  at  the  University  of  Leipzig,  at  the  anatomical  institute. 

Granula  Altmanni. 

Biography:    Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.   18,  pp.  589-590, 

Ameghino,  Florentine.  A  South  American  paleontologist,  1854- 
191 1.  The  most  distinguished  student  of  the  fossil  mammalia  of  South 
America,  he  early  became  interested  in  the  rich  faunas  of  the  Argentine 
formations  and  in  1875  published  his  first  contribution  to  the  paleontology 


of  this  region,  which  has  since  yielded  many  otherwise  unknown  groups 
of  mammals.  Ameghino's  first  paper  dealt  with  the  occurrence  of  human 
remains  and  implements  mingled  with  quaternary  mammals  of  Argentine. 
That  his  early  interest  continued  for  many  years  is  shown  by  a  paper, 
published  in  191 1,  reviewing  the  entire  subject  of  fossil  man  in  South 
America  up  to  the  year  of  his  death.  Ameghino  accomplished  an  amaz- 
ing amount  of  work  in  the  face  of  the  direst  difficulties,  -supporting  his 
researches  by  the  proceeds  of  a  small  stationer's  shop  in  La  Plata,  work- 
ing in  the  rear  of  his  shop,  removed  from  library  facilities,  and  for  many 
years  estranged  from  the  naturalists  of  his  own  country.  His  work  first 
received  recognition  in  France.  He  was  director  of  the  Museo  Nacional 
of  Buenos  Aires,  1902-1911;  was  a  member  of  many  learned  societies 
at  home  and  abroad  and  at  his  death  was  honored  by  a  public  funeral. 
The  city  erected  a  striking  monument  to  him.  He  was  a  prolific  writer, 
having  published  179  contributions  to  vertebrate  paleontology  and 
geology,  ranging  from  small  papers  of  a  few  pages  to  large  folios  of 
many  hundreds  of  pages,  all  richly  illustrated. 

La  Antiguedad  del  Hombre  en  el  Plata,  2  vols.,  in-8° ,  600  pp., 
25  plates,  and  'joo  figs.,  Paris  and  Buenos  Aires,  1880-1881.  Con- 
tribucion  al  conocimiento  de  las  mamiferos  fosiles  de  la  Republica 
Argentina,  2  vols.,  folio,  1060  pp.  and  over  2000  figures  on  p8 
plates,  1889. 

Biography:  Doctor  Florentino  Ameghino,  1854-ipii,  by 
Juan  B.  Ambrosetti  in  "  Anales  del  Museo  Nacional  de  Historia 
Natural  de  Buenos  Aires,"  Tomo  xxii,  (ser  3a,  t.  xv)  p.  vii-lxxii, 
1912,  with  portrait;  see  also  Pop.  Sci.  Monthly,  March,  1912. 

Ammon  (Amen,  Amun).  One  of  the  chief  of  the  Egyptian  deities, 
supposed  to  be  the  same  as  Zeus  or  Jupiter.  According  to  one  form  of 
the  old  Greek  myth  the  gods  of  Greece,  after  being  overpowered  by  the 
giants,  escaped  into  Egypt,  where  Jupiter  assumed  the  form  of  a  ram, 
and  was  worshipped  by  the  Egyptians  as  a  deity. 
Amnion's  horn=^Hippo campus  major. 

Amusco,  Jean  Valverde  (Joan  Valverde  de  Hamusco).  A  Span- 
ish anatomist  of  the  i6th  century.  He  was  born  in  the  province  of 
Palencia,  Spain,  and  became  one  of  the  most  celebrated  anatomists  of 
his  country  and  time.  He  accompanied  the  cardinal  Joan  of  Toledo  to 
Rome  as  his  physician,  and  while  there  he  took  lessons  in  anatomy  under 
Realdo  Colombo,  who  instructed  him  in  the  dissection  of  several  human 
cadavers.  In  Spain  the  anatomy  of  Galen  was  still  in  the  ascendency. 
Amusco  introduced  the  work  of  Vesalius  and  taught  his  great  dis- 
coveries. He  published  in  Spanish  an  abstract  of  the  work  of  this  author, 
combined  with  the  opinions  of  Colombo  {Historia  de  la  composicion  del 


cuerpo  humano,  Rome,  1556,  in  folio).  This  compilation  has  some 
original  observations  on  the  cutaneous  veins,  the  uterus,  and  superficial 
muscles.  On  the  advice  of  Colombo  and  Mercuriali,  the  author  trans- 
lated this  work  into  Latin.  It  was  also  translated  into  Italian  either  by 
the  author  or  by  Antoine  Tabo.  The  work  was  illustrated  with  42  copper 
plates  of  figures  drawn  by  Gaspard  Bezerra.  Amusco's  great  service  to 
anatomy  was  in  the  introduction  of  the  work  of  the  great  masters  of 
anatomy  into  Spain,  and  to  make  known  there  the  great  discoveries  of 
the  i6th  century. 

Amussat,  Jean-Zulema.    A  prominent  surgeon  in  Paris,  1796-1856. 
Valvula  pylorica. 

Anaxagoras  of  Clazomenae,  in  Asia  Minor  (500-428  B.  C).  He 
was  initiated  into  the  secrets  of  philosophy  by  Anaximenes  and  later  had 
as  disciples  and  admirers,  Pericles,  the  poet  Euripides,  Socrates,  and 
Themistocles.  His  influence  is  said  to  have  been  the  turning  point  in 
the  history  of  philosophy,  and  his  doctrine  of  the  origin  of  things  from 
minute  parts  paved  the  way  for  the  Atomic.  Theory,  and  was  important 
in  the  development  of  medicine.  Plutarch  says  he  made  dissections  and 
he  is  reputed  by  others  to  have  been  the  first  to  observe  the  ventricles 
of  the  brain.  Anaxagoras  regarded  the  passage  of  bile  into  the  lungs, 
pleural  cavities  and  blood  vessels  as  the  cause  of  the  majority  of  fevers. 
Aristotle  later  combated  this  idea.  The  majority  of  the  writings  of 
Anaxagoras  are  lost,  but  certain  fragments  attributed  to  him  have  been 
collected  by  Schaubach  (Leipzig,  1827). 

Anderlini,  Lucius  Frangois.  A  citizen  of  Bologna  and  surgeon  in 
the  city  of  Saint-Angelo  in  the  duchy  of  Urbino,  published  a  poem  on 
anatomy  entitled :  L'Anatomico  in  Parnasso,  0  sia  compendio  delle 
parti  del  corpo  umano,  exposto  in  versi.    Pesaro,  1739,  in-4°. 

Andernach,  Johann  Winther  von.    German  physician,  1478-1574. 
Professor  of  medicine  in  Louvain,  Strassburg,  and  Paris. 
Ossicles  of=Wormian  bones. 

Andersch,  Karl  Daniel.  A  German  anatomist,  1732-1777.  A  stu- 
dent of  Haller's.  He  distinguished  the  9th,  loth  and  nth  cerebral  nerves 
as  distinct  structures. 

Ganglion  petrosum  et  temporale. 

Andreae,  Tobias.  A  German  physician,  1633-1685.  He  was  born 
at  Bremen.     He  was  professor  of  medicine  in  Frankfort-an-der-Oder, 


1674-1680.  Predecessor  to  Albinus,  the  elder,  and  accredited  with,  assist- 
ing him  in  the  erection  of  the  first  anatomical  theater.  He  was  a  great 
champion  of  the  philosophy  of  Descartes. 

Angelo.    'See  Michelangelo  Buonarroti. 

Anglicus,  Bartholomaeus.  A  physician  who  in  1485  published  in 
his  "  De  proprietatibus  rerum,"  written  about  1260,  one  of  the  first 
woodcuts  illustrating  anatomical  subjects. 

Antommarchi  (Antotnarc'hi),  Francesco.  An  Italian  physician, 
1780-1838.  Prosector  to  Paola  Mascagni  (1752-1815)  the  professor  of 
anatomy  at  Florence.  Antommarchi  edited  (1819)  two  of  the  artistic 
volumes  of  Mascagni's  anatomies.  He  later  was  physician  to  Napoleon  I 
at  St.  Helena,  and  reported  on  his  autopsy.  The  works  edited  by 
Antommarchi  are:  Prodromo  della  grande  anatomia,  seconda  opera 
postuma  di  Paolo  Mascagni,  posta  in  ordine,  e  poblicata  a  spese  di  una 
Societa  innominata,  da  Francisco  Antommarchi,  Florence,  i8ip,  petit 
in-folio.  This  work  was  accompanied  by  a  folio  of  20  plates:  Tavole 
figurate  di  alcune  parti  organiche  del  corpo  umano  degli  animali  e  dei 
vegetabili,  esposte  nel  prodromo  della  grande  anatomia  di  Paolo  Mas- 
cagni, Florence,  i8ip,  in-folio.  The  plates  were  drawn  and  possibly 
engraved  by  Antoine  Serantoni.  They  illustrate  gross  and  micro- 
scopic features  of  the  human  body,  and  of  animals  and  plants. 

Antonius  della  Torre,  Marcus.     See  Marcantonio  della  Torre. 

Aquapendente.     See  Fabricius,  Hieronymus. 

Aranzio  (Arantius,  Aranzi),  Giulio  Cesare  (Jules-Cesar).  An 
Italian  anatomist,  1530-1589.  Physician  to  Pope  Gregory  XIII  and  one 
of  the  most  celebrated  anatomists  of  the  i6th  century.  He  was  born  at 
Bologna  and  studied  under  Vesalius  at  Padua,  and  later  became  one  of 
his  most  distinguished  followers.  He  took  his  doctorate  in  Bologna  and 
a  short  time  afterwards  was  elected  professor  of  medicine  and  surgery 
at  the  University  of  Bologna  at  the  age  of  2^.  He  retained  this  position 
for  32  years.  In  spite  of  his  elevation  in  rank  he  continued  to  extend 
and  confirm  the  work  of  Vesalius  in  human  anatomy.  We  are  indebted 
to  Aranzio  for  the  first  correct  account  of  the  anatomy  of  the  uteru= 
during  gestation  and  of  the  foetus  and  placenta  (De  humano  foetu 
opusculum,  Bologna,  1564,  in-8°).  This  work  was  reprinted  five  times 
within  the  next  century  and  was  translated  into  French  by  Frangois 
Plazzoni.    He  was  the  first  to  show,  while  yet  a  student  (1548),  that  the 


muscles  of  the  eye  do  not,  as  was  formerly  imagined,  arise  from  the 
dura  mater,  but  from  the  margin  of  the  optic  cavity.  He  showed,  in  the 
work  cited  above,  that  the  cotyledons  on  the  placentae  of  animals  are  also 
to  be  found  in  the  human  placenta.  He  described  distinctly  the  inferior 
horns  of  the  ventricles  of  the  brain  and  proposed  the  term  hippocampus. 
He  studied  the  anatomy  of  the  heart  and  discovered  the  ductus  venosus. 
His  name  is  associated  with  the  nodes  on  the  semilunar  valves  of  the 
heart  (Moduli  valvtdae  semilunaris  (Arantii)).  Aranzio  came  near  the 
discovery  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood  and  made  numerous  observa- 
tions on  the  valves  of  the  heart  and  on  the  anastomoses  of  blood  vessels 
which  are  interesting.  He  is  the  author  of :  Observationes  anatomicee, 
i6^p,  and  of  a  work  on  surgery  which  shows  considerable  ability. 

Ductus  venosus  (Ligamentum  venosum).    Corpora  (Noduli) 
valvularum  semilunarum.    Pes  hippocampi.     Ventriculus  Arantii. 

Aratos  (Aratus).  A  Greek  physician,  315-240  B.  C.  He  was 
the  son  of  Athenodoros,  a  Greek  sculptor.  Aratos  lived  in  Ephesus, 
Athens,  and  Macedonia.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  write  an 
efnbryology  which  formed  part  V  of  an  extensive  work  in  medicine, 
embracing  pharmacology,  natural  history,  etc.  This  was  written  in 
poetical  form  and  is  said  to  have  been  popular  with  the  Romans.  The 
embryology  was  entitled:    dv^pwiroyovia. 

Areteus  (Aretaios),  the  Cappadocian,  who  lived  in  the  reign  of 
Hadrian,  although  better  known  as  a  medical  writer  made  some 
anatomical  observations,  chiefly  on  the  lungs  and  pleura.  He  knew  that 
the  nerves  take  their  origin  in  the  head  and  that  they  are  the  organs  of 
sensation.  He  maintained  the  glandular  nature  of  the  kidney,  of  which 
he  gave  an  excellent  description,  and  described  the  anastomosis  of  the 
capillary  extremities  of  the  vena  cava  with  those  of  the  portal  vein. 

Biographie   Medicale.     Johns   Hopkins   University  Hospital 
Bulletin,  vol.  20,  pp.  371-376,  ipop. 

Aristotle  (Aristoteles),  the  Asclepiad.  (384-322  B.  C.).  Born 
at  Stagira.  He  was  a  student  of  Plato  and  gave  to  medicine  the  begin- 
nings of  zoology,  comparative  anatomy,  and  embryology.  He  made 
many  wonderful  discoveries  in  many  fields  of  biology:  recognized  the 
heart  as  the  center  of  the  vascular  system,  but  did  not  distinguish  between 
arteries  and  veins;  recognized  the  ventricles  of  the  brain  and  described 
the  meninges ;  compared  the  structure  of  the  lungs  to  that  of  a  sponge ; 
described  the  ureters ;  and  it  is  said  that  he  had  some  knowledge  of  the 
lymphatics.  His  observations  in  zoology,  comparative  anatomy  and  com- 
parative embryology  are  of  the  very  first  importance.     In  embryology 


he  watched  the  development  of  the  chick  in  the  egg;  knew  that  drone 
bees  develop  without  previous  fertilization  and  recognized  the  move- 
ments of  the  fetal  heart.  Those  of  his  writings  which  deal  with  anatomy 
are:  i)  De  Historia  Ammalium;  2)  De  Partibus  Animalium;  3)  De 
Generatione  Animalium.  The  writings  of  Aristotle  have  gone  through 
uncounted  editions  and  have  been  translated  into  nearly  all  languages. 
Diaphragma.    Bregma.    Trachea.    Umbilicus, 

Arlebout,  Isbrand  Gisbert.  A  Dutch  physician  of  the  i8th 
century  who  is  the  author  of:  Fridenci  Ruyschii  operum  anatomicorum 
index,  Amsterdam,  I'J2I-IJ2^,  in-4".  This  is  said  to  be  an  indispensable 
guide  to  the  works  of  Ruysch.  He  is  also  the  author  of:  Catalogus 
praeparatorium  Ruyschii,  Amsterdam,  1733,  ^^'^-4°. 

Arlt,  Carl  Ferdinand,  Ritter  von.  A  Viennese  ophthalmologist, 
1812-1887.  He  was  born  at  Obergraupen,  near  Tiplitz,  Bohemia.  He 
was  professor  of  ophthalmology  in  the  University  of  Prague,  1849-1856; 
the  same  in  Vienna,  1883-1887.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  Archiv  fiir 
Ophthalmologic,  and  is  known  in  anatomical  literature  for  the  sinus  of 
Artl,  a  depression  on  the  internal  surface  of  the  lachrymal  sac. 

Amaud  de  Ronsil,  Georges.  A  French  surgeon,  a  member  of  the 
academy  of  surgery  and  professor  in  the  lilcole  de  Saint-Come  in  Paris. 
He  died  in  1774.  He  was  a  member  of  the  College  of  Surgeons  in  Lon- 
don, where  he  spent  some  time.  He  is  the  author  of:  Treatise  on 
hermaphrodites,  London,  ij^o,  and  A  Discourse  on  the  Importance  of 
Anatomy,  London,  1767. 

Arnold,  Friedrich.  German  anatomist  and  physiologist,  1803- 
1890.  Student  of  Tiedemann.  Professor  and  director  of  the  anatomical 
institute  at  Zurich,  1835.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Frei- 
burg, 1840;  in  Tiibingen,  1845;  Heidelberg,  1852-1876. 

Handbuch  der  Anatomic,  Freiburg,  1845^  iji.  Tabulce  anatomi- 
es, Turici.  1838-1843.  Anatomische  ■und  physiologische  Unter- 
suchungen  ueber  das  Auge  des  Menschen,  Heidelberg,  1832. 
Icones  nervorum  capitis,  Heidelberg,  i860.  Kopfteil  des  vegeta- 
tiven  Nervensystems,  Heidelberg. 

Apex  columellce.  Arteria  phrenico-costalis ; —  tympanica 
anterior.  Fasciculus  Arnoldi.  Fibres  arcuatce  =  orbitales  chias- 
matis.  Foramen  zygomatico-orbitale.  Ganglion  oticum;- — -inter- 
crurale:  —  splanchnicum.  Gubernaculum  tali  Lamina  arctic, 
verm;  — vitrea  choroiden;  — suprachoroiden.  Ligamentum  artic. 
pubis;  —  bifurcatum;  —  bigeminum;  —  carpi  radiale;  —  carpi 
commune;  —  jugale  oss.  sesam.  peais;  —  laciniatum  metatarsi; 
—  sacrococcygeum;  —  transversarium      posterius;  —  trigrminum; 


—  volare  artic.  carpi.  Membrana  externa  et  media  vagince.  Mus- 
culus  cephalopharyngeus ;  —  levator  humeri  interior;  —  urethralis. 
Nervus  Arnoldi;  —  cerehralis;  —  tentorii.  Nucleus  nervus  faci- 
alis.   Processus    nasalis.    Pyramis    Arnoldi.    Ramus    cervicalis; 

—  communicans  Arnoldi;  —  labiomentalis ;  —  musculo-auricularis. 
Stebstantia  ferruginea;  —  reticularis  —  Sulcus  centralis  modioli. 
Trabecula  lamina  spiralis.  Tunica  propria  folliculi.  Zona  fasci- 
culata;  —  reticularis.    Zonula  Arnoldi. 

Arnold,    Julius.     A    German    pathologic    anatomist,    1835-1915. 
Professor  of  pathologic  anatomy  at  University  of  Heidelberg,  1866-1915. 
Beitrdge  zur  Entzvicklungsgeschichte  des  Auges.,  18/4.     Ueber 
Plasmastrukturen  und  ihre  funktionelle  Bedeutung,  1914. 

Biography :    Nekrohg  von  P.  Ernst,  in  "  Folio'  haematol." 
Leipzig,  1915,  xix.  Arch.,  220-225. 

Artedi,  Pierre.  A  Swedish  naturalist,  1705-1735.  He  studied 
first  at  the  college  of  Hemosand  with  the  idea  of  entering  ecclesiastic 
life,  but  soon  abandoned  this  for  natural  history,  and  in  1728  went  to 
Upsala  to  study  with  Linne,  with  whom  he  became  very  friendly  and 
with  whom  he  worked  and  studied  until  he  was  drowned  in  a  canal  near 
Amsterdam.  He  chose  at  first  the  study  of  minerals  and  mammals,  but 
soon  devoted  his  time  to  the  study  of  fishes.  He  wrote  a  Philosophia 
ichthyologica  which  he  dedicated  to  Linne  and  left  a  quantity  of  manu- 
script on  ichthyology  which  was  put  into  shape  and  published  in  Latin 
by  Linne.  His  work  was  printed  in  1738  and  a  more  complete  edition 
was  brought  out  in  1789-92  by  Jean  Jules  Walbaum.  His  work  is  im- 
portant as  being  a  pioneer  investigation  in  ichthyology. 

Asch,  Georges  Thomas  d'.  A  Russian  army  surgeon,  1729-1807. 
He  studied  medicine  at  Goettingen  under  Haller  and  later  became  sur- 
geon-in-chief to  the  Russian  army  and  had  the  title  of  councilor  to  the 
emperor.  His  Dissertatio  inauguralis  de  prima  pare  nervorum  medullae 
spinalis,  Goettingen,  1750,  in-4°,  is  highly  spoken  of  by  Haller. 

Asellio  or  Aselli  (Asellius),  Gaspard  (Gaspare).  An  Italian 
anatomist,  1581-1626.  He  was  bom  at  Cremona,  and  passed  the  greater 
part  of  his  life  at  Milan,  where  he  was  held  in  high  esteem  and  where 
he  died  on  the  24th  of  April,  1626,  at  the  age  of  forty-five  years.  He 
taught  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Pavia  for  some  years  with  great  success. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  a  more  modest  man  than  the  majority  of  the 
anatomists  of  the  i6th  century  and  made  no  great  boasts  of  his  dis- 
coveries, which  were  very  important.  In  Pavia,  on  the  23rd  of  July,  1622, 
while  demonstrating  for  some  friends  the  recurrent  nerves  in  a  recently 


fed  dog,  on  opening  the  abdomen  Asellio  perceived  a  great  number  of 
white  filaments  ramifying  throughout  the  mesentery.  At  the  moment  he 
took  them  for  nerves  but  on  cutting  some  of  them  he  saw  issue  forth  a 
milk-like  fluid.  He  was  overjoyed  at  the  accidental  discovery  of  the 
lacteal  vessels  of  the  mesentery.  He  soon  recognized  that  these  vessels 
are  for  the  transmission  of  the  chyle.  He  observed  the  origin  of  these 
vessels  in  the  internal  membrane  of  the  intestine  which  contained  the 
partly  digested  food.  But  he  confused^the  entire  subject  by  regarding 
the  mesenteric  lymph  nodes  as  a  pancreas,  believing  that  the  lacteal 
vessels  arose  in  the  pancreas  and  were  transmitted  to  the  liver.  Asellio 
published  in  1627  his  important  and  epoch-making  work  describing  this 
discovery,  with  the  title:  De  lactibus  seu  lacteis  venis,  quarto  vasorum 
mesaraicorum  genere,  novo  invento,  Dissertatio ;  qua  sententiae  ana- 
tomicce  muUw,  vel  perperam  receptee  convelluntur,  vel  parum  perceptce 
illustrantur,  Milan,  in-4°.  This  work  was  three  times  reprinted,  and  in 
1645  it  was  published  in  folio  with  the  works  of  Spighel.  It  is  also  con- 
tained in  the  Theatrum  anatomicum  of  Manget.  The  name  of  Asellio 
is  connected  with  that  of  Thomas  Bartholin  and  Olaiis  Rudbeck  in  dis- 
tinguishing the  nature  of  the  chyliferous  vessels  of  the  mesentery  and 
there  has  been  considerable  discussion  as  to  what  part  each  of  these  men 
played  in  this  work. 

Pancreas  of  =  lymph  glands  in  the  mesentery. 

Assezat,  Jules.  A  French  journalist  and  anthropologist,  1832- 

.  Triangle  of  =  lines  connecting  nasion  and  alveolar  and  nasal 

Atreya.  An  East  Indian  physician,  who  founded  a  famous  system 
of  medicine,  and  who  wrote  a  good  description  of  the  bones  of  the  human 
body,  which  has  been  handed  down  in  his  writings  as  they  are  interpreted 
by  Charaka.  Atreya  is  said  to  have  taught  in  the  Taxila  university 
during  the  6th  century  B.  C,  where  the  famous  physician  Jivaka,  a  con- 
temporary of  Buddha,  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  his  students. 

Hoernle,  A.   F.  Rudolf,   ipo^.  Studies  in  the  Medicine  of 
ancient  India,  Oxford,  in-8°. 

Auerbach,  Leopold.  A  German  anatomist  in  Breslau,  1828-1897. 
Ausserordntlich,  professor  of  neuropathology  at  Breslau,  1872.  He  dis- 
covered the  plexus  myentericus  in  1864-5. 

Ueber  einen  Plexus  gangliosus  myogastricus,  Carlsbad,  1863. 
Untersuchungen  ueber  die  Lymph-  und  Blutgefdsse  des  Darms. 


Untersuchungen  ueber  die  Spermatogenese  von  Paludina,  i8g6. 
Plexus  myentericus.     Ganglia. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  14,  pp.  2^^-267,  1898, 
with  bibliography. 

Auzeby,  Pierre.  A  French  physician  and  surgeon,  1736-1791. 
He  studied  surgery  at  Toulouse  and  at  Bordeaux,  then  went  to  Paris, 
where  he  became  dentist  to  the  king.  In  1762  he  received  the  degree  of 
dental  surgeon  at  Lyon,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  His 
treatise  is  one  of  the  few  relating  to  dentistry :  Traite  d'odontalgie,  ou  I' on 
presente  un  nouveau  systeme  sur  I'origine  et  la  formation  des  dents,  et 
une  description  de  differentes  maladies  qui  affectent  la  bouche,  Lyon, 
[771,  in-i2°. 

Averroes  (Averrhoes,  Abul  Walid  Mohammed  Ibn-Ahmed  Ibn- 
Mohammed  Ibn-Rosbd,  Aboul  Velyd  Mohammed  Ibn  Rochd)  An 
Arabian  physician  1126-1198.  He  was  born  at  Cordova,  Spain,  where 
he  became  one  of  the  most  learned  of  the  Arabians.  He  was  proficient 
in  jurisprudence,  grammar,  astronomy,  medicine  and  philosophy.  His 
book  "  Ketab-al-Kulhjat"  or  "  Colliget"  (Book  of  Universals)  was  an 
attempt  to  found  a  system  of  medicine  upon  Aristotle's  philosophy. 
Averroes  et  I'Averro'isme,  Paris,  1861,  by  E.  Renan. 

Avicenna  (Abu  Ali  el-Hosein  Ibn-Abdallah  Ibn-Sina),  (980-1037), 
was  born  at  Af shena  in  Bokhara,  Turkistan.  He  was  a  famous  philoso- 
pher, physician  and  author;  upwards  of  100  treatises  are  ascribed  to  him. 
Some  of  them  are  tracts  of  a  few  pages,  others  are  works  extending 
through  several  volumes.  His  "  Canon  medicinas  "  (Al  qanun  fi  't-tibb) 
was  used  as  a  textbook  in  many  of  the  European  universities  up  to  1650. 
This  work  was  translated  into  Latin  and  went  through  30  editions.  An 
Arabic  version  of  it  appeared  in  Rome  in  1593;  a  Hebrew  edition  in  1491 
at  Naples. 

Biography:  Johns  Hopkins  Hasp.  Bull.,  vol.  19,  1908,  pp.  157- 
160,  with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Avila,  Louis  Lovera  de.  Physician  to  Charles  V  of  Spain,  who 
wrote  in  1542  a  romantic  work  entitled:  Libro  de  Anatomia,  in  which 
he  describes  the  human  body  as  a  microcosm. 

Azara,  Joseph  Nicholas  d'.  A  Spaniard  who  was  celebrated  for 
his  long  diplomatic  career  and  for  his  contributions  to  literature  and  art, 
was  born  in  1731  at  Barbunales.  He  pursued  his  studies  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Salamanca.     He  is  the  author  of :  "  Apuntamientos  para  historia 


natural  de  los  quadrupedos  del  Paraguay  y  Rio  de  la  Plata,  Madrid,  1802, 
2  vols,  in- 4°. 

Azout,  Adrien  (In  Latin  Auzotius).  A  celebrated  mathematician 
and  physician  of  the  17th  century,  born  at  Rouen  and  died  at  Paris  in 
169 1.  He  was  one  of  the  first  members  of  the  academy  of  science  in 
Paris.  He  is  the  author  of  a  letter  which  is  of  interest  in  connection 
with  the  lymphatic  system :  "  Epistola  ad  Pecquetum  de  vasis  lacteis  et 
receptaculo  chyli,  Paris,  1657,  in-4°. 

Azyr.     See  Vicq  d'Azyr. 

Azzoguidi,  Germain  (i 740-1814).  A  brilliant  physician  of  Bo- 
logna. Elected  professor  in  the  ancient  university  at  Bolonga  at  the  age 
of  24.     He  was  loved  and  respected  by  his  intimates  and  colleagues. 

Observationes  ad  uteri  construe tionem  pertinentes,  Bologna, 

Bachmann,  Augustus.     See  Rivinus,  Augustus. 

Bachtischua,  Dschabril  ben,  was  an  Arabian  anatomist  who,  in 
the  9th  century,  began  the  translation  of  the  anatomy  of  Galen  but  never 
finished  the  task. 

Baer  (Behr),  Karl  Ernst  von  (1792-1876).  The  father  of  the 
new  embryology,  was  a  native  of  Esthland,  in  the  Baltic  Sea  provinces 
of  Russia,  and  was  successively  professor  at  Dorpat,  Konigsberg,  and  St. 
Petersberg.  Prosector  to  Burdach  in  Konigsberg,.  1817;  Professor  of 
Zoology  in  Konigsberg;  in  1834-67  as  academician  for  Zoology  in  St. 
Petersberg;  later,  1841-52,  Professor  of  comparative  anatomy  in  the 
Academy  of  Zoology;  Anatomy  and  Physiology  in  the  same  place.  In 
conjuction  with  Rudolf  Wagner  he  was  instrumental  in  calling  together, 
in  1 861,  the  first  Congress  of  Anthropologists. 

Von  Baer  and  Christian  Pander  were  students  of  Dollinger  in  Wurz- 
burg,  and  it  was  through  the  influence  of  von  Baer  that  Pander  took  up 
the  study  of  development.  Von  Baer's  influence  on  modern  embryology 
has  been  widely  commented  on.  The  following  may  be  briefly  mentioned : 
Von  Baer  greatly  enriched  the  field  of  embryology  by  setting  a  higher 
standard  of  work;  established  the  germ-layer  theory;  made  comparative 
iembryology  possible ;  discovered  the  mammalian  ovum,  and  observed  that 
the  notochord  occurs  in  all  vertebrate  animals.  Minot  says  of  Von  Baer 
that  he  worked  out  "almost  as  fully  as  was  possible  at  this  time,  the 


genesis  of  all  the  principal  organs  from  the  germ-layers,  instinctively 
getting  at  the  truth  as  only  a  great  genius  could  have  done." 

De  ovimammaliumatqua  hominisgenesi.  LipsicB,  1827.  Ueber 
Entwickelungsgeschichte  der  Tiere.  Beobachtung  und  Reflexion. 
1828,  I  Teil;  1837,  II  Teil;  1888,  III  Teil,  herausgegeben  von^ 
Stieda-Konigsberg.  Die  Metamorphose  des  Eies  der  Batrachier 
vor  der  Erscheinung  des  Embryo  und  Folgerungen  am  ihr  fUr  die 
Theorie  der  Erzeugung,  Arch.  Anat.  u.  Phys.,  1834.  Reden.  I. 
Teil.  Joh.  Swammerdam's  Leben  und  Verdienste  um  die  Wis- 
senschaft.  Petersburg,  1864.  Beitrag  zur  Entzvickelungsgeschichte 
der  Schildkroten.  Arch.  Anat.  u.  Phys.,  1834.  Vorlesungen  iiber 
Anthropologie,  i.  Bd.,  Konigsherg,  1824,  mit  II  Taf. 

Cavity  of=the  segmentation  cavity  of  the  blastula.  Vesicle 
ofz=the  ovum. 

Biography:  Nachrichten  ub.  Leben  u.  Schriften  des  .  .  . 
Dr.  Karl  Ernst  von  Baer,  mitgeth.  von  ihm  selbst.  Veroffentlicht 
.  .  .  von  der  Ritterschaft  Esthlands.  2  Ausg.  Braunschweig. 
1886,  8° ,  ^ip  S.  m.  Portr.  L.  Stieda-K.  E.  v.  Baer,  eine  biog. 
Skizze,  Braunschw.  1878.  Locy  (IV.  A.)-Von  Baer  and  the  Rise 
of  Embryology,  Pop.  Sci.  Mon.,  1905. 

Bagard,  Charles.  A  French  physician  born  at  Nancy,  1696-1772. 
He  was  an  active  man  in  the  intellectual  life  of  his  time  and  is  interesting 
to  anatomists  on  account  of  his  dissertation : 

De  utero  duplici  in  fosmina  viso  cum  vestigiis  fceconditatis  in 
utroque  utero,  Nancy,  i753,  in-4°. 

Baillarger,  Jules-FranQois-Gabriel.  A  French  alienist  in  Paris, 
1806-1891.  Founder  of  the  "  Annales  Medico-psychologiques  du  systeme 
nerveux  ",  1843- 

Recherches  sur  la  structure  de  la  couche  corticate  des  cir con- 
volutions du  cerveau,  1890. 

Band  of  Baillarger.    Striae  Baillargeri. 

Baillie,  Matthew.  An  English  physician  and  anatomist,  1761- 
1823.  Known  chiefly  on  account  of  his  pathological  anatomy :  The  mor- 
bid human  anatomy  of  some  of  the  most  important  parts  of  the  human 
body,  London,  1793.  This  work  went  through  several  editions  and  was 
translated  into  Itahan,  German  and  French.  Baillie  was  a  student  of 
John  Hunter;  brother  to  Joanna  Baillie  the  poetess,  and  nephew  to 
William  and  John  Hunter,  Fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians. 

Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  2,  pp. 
554-572,  1901. 

Balbiani,  fidouard-Gerard.     A  French  embryologist,  1825- 

He  studied  law,  natural  history  and  medicine  at  Paris,  where  he  received 



his  M.  D.  in  1854.  Chief  technician  for  the  histological  laboratory  of 
Claude  Bernard  at  the  Museum,  1867.  Professor  of  comparative  embry- 
ology at  the  College  de  France,  1874.  One  of  the  first  French  cytolo- 
gists.  Founder  with  Ranvier  and  Henneguy  of  the  "  Archives  d' Anatomic 

Body  of^:^vitelline  body,  the  yolk  nucleus  of  the  egg. 

Balfour,  Francis  Maitland.  A  brilliant  English  embryologist, 
1851-18S2.  Studied  with  Michael  Foster  at  Cambridge;  with  Anton 
Dohrn  at  the  Naples  Zoological  Station;  was  a  student  and  friend  of 
Huxley.  Fellow  and  lecturer  on  animal  morphology  at  Cambridge; 
Professor  of  animal  morphology,  1882. 

A  Monograph  on  the  development  of  the  elasmolranch  fishes, 
London,  18^8.  Comparative  Embryology,  London,  1880-81. 
Translated  into  German,  1881,  by  Dr.  C.  Vetter.  Balfour  and 
Parker  —  On  the  structure  and  development  of  Lepidosteus. 
Phil.  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  London,  1882.  Comparison  of  the  early 
■stages  in  the  development  of  vertebrates.  Quart.  Journ.  Micros. 
ScL,  vol.  15,  iSy^.  Elements  of  Embryology,  by  Foster  and  Bal- 
four, 1874. 

Banister,  Jean.    An  English  physician  who,  in  1578,  published: 

The  history  of  man,  sucked  from  the  sap  of  the  most  approved 
anatomists,  London,  1578,  in-8°. 

Barclay,  John.  An  eminent  Scottish  anatomist,  1760-1826. 
Assistant  to  John  Bell  in  Edinburgh.     Lecturer  on  anatomy  in  Edinburgh, 

New  anatomical  nomenclature,  Edinburgh,  1803.  Description 
of  the  arteries  of  the  human  body,  Edinburgh,  1812.  Series  of 
engravings  representing  the  bones  of  the  human  skeleton,  with  the 
skeleton  of  some  of  the  lower  animals,  Edinburgh,  i8ip. 

Biography:  Introductory  lectures  to  a  course  of  anatomy  deliv- 
ered 'by  the  late  John  Barclay.  With  a  memoir  of  the  life  of  the 
author.   Edinburgh,  1828. 

Bardeleben,  Adolf  von.  A  German  anatomist  and  surgeon,  1819- 
1897.  Studied  anatomy  and  physiology  with  Johannes  Miiller,  Schlemm, 
Tiedemann  and  Bischoff  in  Berlin  and  Heidelberg.  In  1843  anatomical 
prosector  in  Giessen ;  privatdocent  with  Bischoff  to  1848  at  which  time  he 
was  made  ausserordl.  pirofessor.  Did  much  to  advance  surgery  in  Ger- 

Ueber  die  Lage  des  Blinddarms  beim  Menschen,  184^. 
Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,   Bd.    11,   pp.   303-305. 
Pagel.     Gurlt-Hirsch. 


Bardinet,  Barthelemy-Alphonse.    French  physician,  1809-1874. 
Ligament  of  Bardinet. 

Barkow,  Hans  Karl  Leopold.  German  anatomist  and  zoologist, 
1798-1873.  Student  of  Rudolphi  and  Rosenthal,  and  the  latter's  pro- 
sector.    Professor  of  anatomy  in  Breslau,  1826-1873. 

Disquisitiones  circa  origin,  et  decurs.  arteriar.  mawial.,  Lips., 
1829,  4  tab,  4°.  Disqui.  nonnullae  angiol.,  Vratisl.,  1830,  4°. 
Die  venen  der  ob.  etrem.  d.  Menschen,  Breslau,  1868,  folio  mit  taf. 
Die  angiol.  sammlung  im  anat.  mus.  d.  konigl.  univ.  zu  Breslau, 
Bres.,  i86p,  4°,  mit  taf.  Die  verkrummungen  der  Gefdsse, 
Breslau,  i86p,  fol.  mit  ip.  taf.  Die  Ursachen  der  Schlagader- 
verkrummungen  u.  d.  Urs.  d.  Schlagadererweiterungen,  Breslau, 
1872,  fol.  mit.  taf.  Syndesmologie,  Breslau,  1841.  Erlduterungen 
zur  Skelett-und  Gerhirnlehre,  Breslau,  1865. 

Arterial  septales  scroti  (scrotales  post.).  Gyrus  supracallos. 
inferior.  Ligamentum  accessorium  cart;  —  astragah-calcaneum 
inteross;  —  calcaneo-cuboideum ;  —  calcaneo-fibulare ;  —  calcaneo- 
naviculare  ;  —  capitis  costce;  —  colli-costcB ;  —  cuboideo-sphen ;  — 
elasticum;  —  fibulce  tali;  —  laterale  ext.  artic.  pedis;  —  longitudi- 
nale  Barkowi;  —  malleoli  externi;  —  medium  et  p'osticum  dentis; 
— ■  sacrococcygeum;  —  scaphoideo-cuneiforme;  —  scaphoideo- 
sphenoideum;  —  sphenoideo-metatarseum ;  —  suspensorium  mar- 
supii.  Marsupium  patellare.  Musculus  longitudinalis  ant.  et  post; 
—  triangularis  infundibuli.  Os  unciform e.  Planum  elasticum;  — 
fibrosum  dorsale.  Plexus  fascicularis.  Rami  semicirl.  temporales. 
Sinus  opertus  minor.  Stratum  prof,  et  superf.  lig.  sacrococcygei. 
Tractus  ethmoidalis. 

Barrowby,  William.  An  English  physician  of  the  i8th  'cen- 
tury who,  in  1736,  published. 

Syllabus  anatomicus,  prcelectionihus  annuatim  habendis  adapt-a- 
tus.   London,  1736,  in-8°. 

Barry,  Martin.  An  English  embryologist  in  Suffolk,  1802-1855. 
In  1843  he  observed  the  union  of  the  spermatozoan  with  the  ovum  in  the 

Barteis,  Ernst  Daniel  August.  A  German  physiologist  and 
anatomist,  1778-1838.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Helm- 
staedt  1803.    Professor  of  physiology  at  Breslau. 

Anthropologische  Bemerkungen  ueber  das  Gehirn  und  den 
Schddel  des  Menschen,  mit  bestaendiger  Beziehung  auf  die  Gal- 
lischen  Entdeckungen,  Berlin,  1805,  in-8°. 

Barth,  Joseph.  An  Austrian  anatomist,  was  born  in  the  Island 
of  Malta  (1745-1818).  Professor  of  anatomy  in  the  University  of 
Vienna,  1773,  and  in  1776,  oculist  to  Emperor  Joseph  II. 

Anfangsgruende  der  Muskellehre.  Vienna,  1786,  in  fol.  mit 
61  taf. 


Bartholin  (Bartholinus),  Caspar,  Senior.  A  famous  theologian 
(1585-1629)  who  founded,  at  the  University  of  Copenhagen,  a  profes- 
sorial dynasty,  which,  with  the  members  of  the  related  family  Worm, 
taught  in  the  University  into  the  i8th  century,  up  to  the  time  of  the 
destruction  of  the  University  in  1728.  These  men  were:  Caspar 
Bartholin,  Senior,  (1585-1629)  ;  Thomas  Bartholin,  (1616-1680)  ;  Eras- 
mus Bartholin,  (1625-1698) ;  Caspar  Bartholin,  Junior,  (1655-1738); 
Ole  Worm,  Senior,  (1588-1654);  Wilhelm  Worm,  (1633-1704);  Ole 
Worm,  Junior,  (1667-1708).  The  wife  of  Caspar  Bartholin,  Senior, 
and  the  wife  of  Ole  Worm,  Senior,  were  the  daughters  of  Thomas  Fincke, 
(1561-1656).  "  The  Danes  to  this  day  are  exceedingly  proud,  and  with 
good  reason,  of  the  family  of  Bartholin,  who  not  only  taught  at  Copen- 
hagen throughout  the  entire  17th  century,  but,  through  their  students, 
brought  to  their  university  a  fame  which  extended  over  all  Europe." 
(W.  S.  Miller,  Johns  Hops.  Hosp.  Bull.,  vol.  25,  No.  276,  p.  45). 

Caspar  Bartholin,  Senior,  was  the  father  of  Thomas,  and  Erasmus, 
both  of  whom  were  professors  in  universities.  The  long  terms  of  ser- 
vice of  the  Bartholin  family  recalls  a  similar  record  for  the  Munros  at 
the  University  of  Edinburg  and  the  Albinus  family  at  the  University  of 
Ley  den. 

Caspar  Bartholin,  Senior,  was  professor  of  medicine  at  Copenhagen 
in  1613;  and  of  theology  in  1624.  The  following  works  are  attributed 
to  him : 

Anatomica  institufiones  corporis  humani,  utriusque  se.vus 
historiam  et  declarationem  exhibentes,  cum  pluribus  novis  observa- 
tionibus,  opinionibus,  necnon  illustriorum,  quw  in  anthropologia 
occurrunt,  contfoversiarum  decisionibus.  Wittemberg,  1611,  in-i2° . 
Controversice  anatomicce  et  affincs  nobiliores  et  rariores.  Goslar, 
163  T,  in-8°. 

Bartholin,   Caspar,  Junior.     Danish  anatomist,    1655-1738.     Son 

of  Thomas  Bartholin.    Successor  to  his  father.    Professor  of  medicine, 

anatomy  and  of  physics  at  the  University  of  Copenhagen,   1675-1701. 

Later  General  Procureur  for  the  University  and  physician  to  the  king. 

Exercitationes  miscellancs  varii  argumentii,  imprimis  anatomi- 

ci.    Leyden,  16/3,  in-8°.    Diaphragmatis  structura  nova.    Accessit 

modus  novus  prceparan'di  viscera  per  injectiones  liquidorum,  cum 

instrumenti  novi  descriptione.     Paris,   1676,  in-8° .     De   ovariis 

mulierum,  et  generationis  hisforia,  epistola  anatomica.    Rome,  1677. 

De  olf actus  organo,  Copenhagen,  1679,  in-4°. 

Anus  cerebri.  Capsula  atribiliaria.  Ductus  sublingualis.  Glan- 
dula  vestibularis  major. 

Bartholin,  Thomas.  Danish  anatomist,  1616-1680.  A  teacher  of 
Steno  (Stensen).    Professor  of  mathmatics  at  the  University  of  Copen- 


hagen,  1647;  previously  professor  of  philology  1646;  of  anatomy  1648. 
Bartholin  studied  and  traveled  widely  and  became  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated teachers  of  his  day.  He  shares  with  Rudbeck  and  Aselli  the  recog- 
nition of  the  lymphatic  system.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  accept  and 
defend  Harvey's  ideas  concerning  the  circulation  of  the  blood.  He  is 
the  author  of  more  than  sixty  treatises  largely  dealing  with  anatomy, 
and  many  of  them  treating  of  new  discoveries. 

Anatomia,  ex  Gaspardi  Bartholini  'parentis  Institutionibus, 
omniumque  recentiorum  et  pfopriis  observationibus  locupletata. 
Ley  den,  1641,  in-8° .  De  lacteis  thoracis  in  homine  brutisque 
nuperrime  observatis,  disputatio:  Respnd.  Michaele  Lyser,  Copen- 
hagen, 1652.  Vasa  lymphatica  in  homine  nuper  inventa,  Copen- 
hagen, 1654,  in-4°.  Historiarum  anatomicarum  et  medic-arum 
rariorum  centuries  I  et  II,  Copenhagen,  1654,  in-8°.  De  integu- 
mentis  corporis  humani,  Copenhagen,  16^5,  in-4° .  De  usu  thoracis 
et  ejus  partium,  Copenhagen,  16$/,  in-4°.  Opuscula  nova  anatom- 
ica  de  lacteis  thoracicis  et  tymphccticis  vasts,  in  unum  volumen 
comprehensa,  aucta  et  recognita.    Copenhagen,  1670,  in-8° . 

Bartholin,  Thomas  (Junior),  1659-1690.  Studied  medicine  at 
Copenhagen,  Leyden,  Oxford,  London,  Paris  and  Leipzig.  Became  pro- 
fessor of  history  at  Copenhagen.  He  left  sundry  publications,  among 
them  one  which  is  concerned  with  observations  of  worms  in  vinegar. 

Bartholomaus,  von  Glanville.    See  Anglicus,  Barthalomseus. 

Baudeloque,  Jean-Louis,  Senior.  Parisian  gynecologist,  1746- 

Conjugata  externa. 

Baudelot,  flmile.    A  French  comparative  neurologist, -1875. 

Member  of  the  Academy  of  Science. 

Recherches  sur  le  systeme  nerveux  des  poissons,  Paris,  1883, 
in  folio,  edited  by  Emile  Blanchard,  with  list  of  Baudelofs  publica- 
tions and  a  short  biographical  sketch. 

Bauhin,  Caspar.  A  Swiss  anatomist  and  botanist,  1560-1623.  In 
1580  he  publicly  dissected  the  human  cadaver;  was  made  doctor  of  medi- 
cine the  same  year.  He  became  so  proficient  in  languages  and  science  that 
at  Basel,  his  native  city,  he  was  successively  appointed  Professor  of 
Greek,  1582;  of  anatomy  and  botany  (a  chair  created  especially  for  him) 
in  1589;  in  1596  physician  to  Frederic,  Duke  of  Wittemberg;  in  1614 
professor  of  practical  medicine  and  shortly  afterwards  city  physician. 
His  favorite  fields  of  study  were  anatomy  and  botany.     His  writings 


deal  with  medicine,  botany  and  anatomy.     Of  his  anatomical  writings 
mention  is  made  of : 

De  humani  corporis  partibus  externis,  hoc  est  universalis 
methodi  anatomicw  quam  ad  Vesalium.  accomodavit,  liber  primus, 
multis  novis,  iisdemque  raris  observationibus  propriis  refertus. 
Basel,  1588,  in-8° .  Theatrum  anatomicum  infinitis  locis  auctum,  ad 
morhos  accomadatum,  et  ab  erroribus  ab  auctore  repurgatum, 
'observationibus  et  figuris  aliquot  novis  illustratum,  Basel,  1592. 
De  ossium  natura,  Basel,  1604,  in-4.° . 

Valvula  coli. 

Bauhin,  Hieronym  Heinrich.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Basel, 

Bauhin,  Johann  Caspar.  1606-1685.  A  Swiss  physician  and 
anatomist,  son  of  Caspar  Bauhin  (1560-1623).  He  succeeded  to  his 
father's  chair  in  the  university.  He  wrote  nothing  of  importance  save 
a  few  general  dissertations  on  medicine.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Basel, 
1 629- 1 660. 

Baur,  George  Herman  Carl  Ludwig.  An  American  paleontolo- 
gist, 1859-1898.  Born  at  Weisswasser,  Bohemia,  into  a  family 
noted  for  its  learning.  Studied  in  University  of  Munich  (1878)  under 
Bayer,  von  Siebold,  and  Nageli;  at  Leipzig  under  Leuckart,  Credner, 
Carus ;  again  at  Munich  he  studied  paleontology  with  Karl  von  Zittel,  and 
histology  and  ehibrology  with  Karl  von  Kupffer,  whose  assistant  he  be- 
came; 1884-90,  assistant  to  Professor  O.  C.  Marsh,  Yale  University; 
1890-92,  docent  of  comparative  osteology  and  paleontology  at  Clark  Uni- 
versity; 1892-98,  paleontology  at  University  of  Chicago.  Author  of  144 
contributions  to  comparative  anatomy  and  paleontology. 

Biography:  George  Baur^s  life  and  writings.  Amer.  Natl.,  vol. 
33,  ^0.  38 j,  i8pp,  pp.  15-30,  with  portrait  and  list  of  publications 
by  Wm.  Morton  Wheeler.  See  also,  SCIENCE,  1898,  N.  S.,  8, 
pp.  68-70. 

Beale,  Lionel  Smith.  English  physician  and  dentist,  1828-1896. 
Professor  of  physiology  and  pathological  anatomy  in  London.  Professor 
of  the  principles  and  practice  of  medicine  at  King's  College. 

Die  Struktur  der  einfachen  Gewebe  (Trans.  Leipzig,  1862). 
Anatomy  of  the  dental  tissues,  1865.  On  some  points  in  the  anat- 
omy of  the  liver,  1855,  London.  A  treatise  on  the  physiological 
anatomy  of  the  lungs,  London,  1862. 

Cells  of=bipolar  cells  of  the  heart. 


Beau,  Joseph-Honore-Simon.    Paris  physician,  1806-1865. 

Lines  of^=transverse  corrugations  on  the  fingernails  after 
typhoid  fever.  Gomphencephalon.  Omphalencephahn.  Rhom- 
bencephalon.    Thrombencephalon. 

Beclard,   Pierre-Augustin.     French  anatomist,   1785-1825.     Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Paris,  1812-18;  of  anatomy,  1823-25. 
Elements  d'Anatomie  generelle,  4th  ed.,  Paris,  iSg^. 

Beecher,  Charles  Emerson.  An  American  paleontologist,  1856- 
1904.  Though  his  interests  were  chiefly  among  the  fossil  invertebrates 
Beecher's  philosophical  studies  on  the  trilobites  and  brachiopods  have 
had  a  marked  influnece.  His  important  studies  along  these  lines  have 
been  collected  into:  Studies  in  Evolution,  New  York,  ipoi,  in-8° .  He 
received  the  degree  of  Ph.  D.  in  1889  from  Yale  University  where  he 
later  served  as  a  teacher  and  investigator. 

American  Journal  of  Science,  June,  IQ04. 

Belchier,  John.  An  English  surgeon,  born  at  Kingston  in  1706; 
died  at  London,  1785.  His  paper  on  the  growth  of  bone,  which  is  con- 
cerned with  the  feeding  of  madder  to  pigs,  is  one  of  the  early  contribu- 
tions to  this  subject.'  This  memoir  was  published  in  the  Philosophical 
Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  Vol.  39,  p.  287,  1736. 

Bell,  Sir  Charles.  The  leading  British  anatomist  of  his  period,  ' 
1774-1842,  but  is  now  better  known  as  a  physiologist  and  a  neurologist. 
Brother  to  John  Bell,  the  Scottish  surgeon.  Charles  Bell  had  an  un- 
common artistic  gift  and  his  numerous  anatomical  works  are  illustrated 
by  his  own  pen.  He  went  to  London  in  1804  and  began  teaching  anatomy 
in  his  own  house,  and  later  at  Great  Windmill  Street.  He  lectured  also 
to  artists.  Accepted  the  professorship  of  surgery  at  the  University  of 
Edinburgh  in  1836. 

A  System  of  Dissections  explaining  the  Anatomy  of  the 
Human  Body,  the  manner  of  displaying  the  parts  and  their  varie- 
ties in  Disease.  Vol.  I,  Edinburgh,  1799;  vol.  II,  1803.  Essays 
on  the  Anatomy  of  Expression  in  Painting,  London,  1806,  in-8° . 
A  System  of  operative  Surgery,  founded  on  the  basis  of  Anatomy, 
2  vols.,  London;  18 14,  8°.  Engravings  of  the  Arteries.  14  plates, 
London,  1811,  8° .  A  treatise  on  the  Diseases  of  the  Urethra, 
Vesica  urinaria.  Prostate,  and  Rectum.  London,  1822,  8°.  The 
Hand;  Its  Mechanism  and  Vital  Endowments  as  Evincing  Design. 
London,  1833,  8°.  The  Anatomy  of  the  Brain,  explained  in  a 
series  of  engravings.  London,  1802,  4°.  -A  Dissertation  on  Gun- 
shot Wounds.  London,  1814,  8°.  The  Nervous  System  of  the 
Human  Body,  as  explained  in  a  series  of  papers  read  before  the 


Royal  Society  of  London.  With  an  appendix  of  cases  and  con- 
sultations on  nervous  diseases.     Edinburgh,  1836. 

Nerve  of^=a  branch  of  the  brachial  plexus  supplying  the  ser- 
ratus  magnus  muscle.    Nervus  thoracalis  longus. 

Biography:  Sir  Charles  Bell,  the  man  and  his  works.  Johns 
Hopkins  Hospital  Bulletin,  vol.  21,  no.  231,  ipio,  pp.  i'ji-181,  by 
Eugene  R.  Corson.  See  also:  Bull.,  Johns  Hopk.  Hosp.,  vol.  25, 
pp.  iS^-iSg,  with  figures. 

Bell,  John.  Scottish  anatomist  and  surgeon,  1763-1820.  Brother 
of  Charles  Bell,  and  like  him  possessed  of  an  uncommon  artistic  gift, 
which  he  employed  in  the  illustration  of  his  writings.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  modern  surgery  of  the  vascular  system.  He  opened 
a  private  school  of  anatomy  in  Edinburgh,  in  1790. 

Anatomy  of  the  human  body,  3  vols.,  i^pj-iSo^,  edited  by 
Charles.     Principles  of  surgery,  1801-1807. 

Muscle  of^a  band  of  muscular  fibres  on  the  wall  of  the 

Biography:  John  Bell,  Surgeon.  Bull.,  Johns  Hopkins  Hos- 
pital, vol.  23,  pp.  241-250,  ipi2. 

Bellinger,  Francis.  An  English  physician,  who  wrote  a  "  Tracfa- 
tus  de  foetu  nutrito,"  London,  17 17,  in-8°. 

Bellini,  Lorenzo  (Laurentio).  An  Italian  anatomist,  1643-1704. 
Born  at  Florence.  A  student  of  Oliva,  Redi  and  Borrelli.  Professor  of 
philosophy  and  theoretical  medicine  in  Pisa,  1663.  Professor  of  anatomy 
in  Pisa,  1663-1693.  Physician  to  the  Grand  Duke  Cosmo  of  Tuscany; 
chief  physician  to  the  Pope,  Clement  XL  He  became  widely  known  as  an 
anatomist,  as  a  physician,  as  a  poet  and  scholar.  As  an  anatomist  he  is 
chiefly  known  for  his  work  on  the  kidneys.  He  recognized  the  papillse 
of  the  tongue  as  taste  organs,  and  described  their  connection  with  nerves. 

Exercitatio  anatomica  de  structura  et  usu  renum,  Florence, 
1662,  in- 4°. 

Gustus  'organum  novissime  deprehensum,  Bologna,  1665, 
in-i2.    Laurentii  Bellini  opera  omnia.     Venice,  1708,  in-4°. 

Tubuli  renales  recti.  Ducts  of=the  straight  tubules  of  the 
kidney.  Ligament  of=a  fasciculus  of  the  capsular  ligament  of 
the  hip. 

Biography:  Notizie  edite  ed  inedite  delle  vite  e  delle  op  ere  di 
Marcello  Malpighi  e  di  Lorenzo  Bellini.  Gaetano  Atti,  Bologna, 

Beneden,  Eduard  van.  A  Belgian  embryologist,  1856-1910.  Son 
of  Pierre  Joseph  van  B.,  born  at  Louvain.     Studied  in  Leyden  and  be- 


came  a  professor  there.     Later  professor  in  Liittich.     Editor  of  the 

"  Archives  de  Biologic,"  1880-94,  with  van  Bambeke. 

Recherches  sur  la  composition  et  la  signification  de  I'oeuf 
basees  sur  I' etude  de  son  mode  de  formation  et  des  premiers  phe- 
nomenes  embryonnaires,  BruxeUes,  18/0.  La  maturation  de  I'oeuf, 
la  fecondation  et  ses  premieres  phases  du  developpement  emhryon- 
naire  des  mammifires  d'apres  des  recherches  faites  ches  le  lapin, 
BruxeUes,  18^5.  Contribution  a  I'histoire  de  la  vesicule  germv- 
native  et  du  premier  noyau  emhryonnaire,  i8j6. 

Biography:  Nekrolog  in  "Archives  de  Biologie,"  ipio. 

Beneden,  Pierre-Joseph  van.  A  Belgian  zoologist,  1809-1894.  In 
1 83 1  curator  of  the  museum  of  natural  history  in  Lou  vain;  1845  pro- 
fessor of  zoology  in  Gent;  1846  professor  of  zoology  and  paleontology 
at  Louvain.  Known  chiefly  for  his  studies  in  parasitology,  and  author, 
with  Gervais,  of  contributions  to  the  paleontology  of  the  whales. 

Osteographie  des  cetaces  vivants  et  fossiles  (with  Gervais), 
Paris,  1868-77. 

Benedetti,  Alessandro.  A  celebrated  Italian  physician  and  anato- 
tomist  born  in  Legnano,  near  Verona,  in  Lombardy;  i46o?-i525.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  at  Padua,  then  Venice.  Founder  of  the  first  ana- 
tomical theater  in  Padua  (1490).  He  made  no  original  discoveries  in 
anatomy,  but  left  an  interesting  work: 

Anatomies  sive  historic^  corporis  humani  libri  quinque. 
Venice,  1493,  in-8°.     This  work  went  through  several  editions. 

B6raud,  Bruno-Jean-Jacques.     A  French  surgeon,  1823-1865. 
Ligamentum  pericardii.     Valve  of^Krause's  valve. 

Berengario  da  Carpi,  Jacopo  (Jacques).  Known  also  as  Baren- 
garius.  Barenger.  Carpi.  Carpus.  Carpensis.  Born  at  Carpi  (ca. 
1470-1530).  An  extensive  commentator  of  Mondino's  works.  Professor 
of  surgery  at  Pavia  and  Bologna.  Fallopio  calls  him  the  first  restorer 
of  anatomy.  He  is  said  to  have  dissected  more  than  100  bodies ;  to  have 
given  an  accurate  description  of  the  larynx  and  to  have  been  the  first  to 
introduce  anatomical  figures  in  his  works.    His  chief  contribution  is : 

Commentaria,  cum  amplissimis  additionibus,  super  anatomia 
Mundini,  cum  textu  ejus  in  pristinum  nitorem  redacto,  Bologna, 
1521,  in-4°.  Translated  into  English  and  published  in  London 
in  1664,  in- 1 2°.  Pagel  and  Sudhoff,  p.  206. 

Bergen,  Karl  August  von.  A  celebrated  German  anatomist  and 
botanist  born  at  Frankf urt-an-der-Oder ;  1704-1760.  Studied  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Leyden  with  Boerhaave  and  Albinus.    Professor  extraordinary 


of  botany  at  the  same  place  1738-44  (as  successor  to  his  father,  Johann 
Georg  Bergen)  when  he  succeded  GoeHcke  as  professor  of  pathology  and 
therapeutics,  a  chair  which  he  filled  with  distinction  to  the  time  of  his 
death  in  1760.  He  deserves  to  be  ranked  among  the  best  anatomists  of 
his  day.  He  is  distinguished  principally  for  his  researches  on  intercostal 
nerves,  the  ventricles  of  the  brain,  the  pia  mater  and  the  arachnoid.  He 
was  a  man  of  deep  penetration  and  had  a  talent  for  accurate  observation. 
Dissertatio  inauguraiis  de  nervi  intercostali.  Francfort-sur- 
L'Oder,  1731,  in-4°. 

Programma,  seu  Exercitatio  splanchnologico-anatomica,  qua 
ventricidorum  cerebri  lateralium  riovam  sistit  tabulam.  Francfort- 
sur-L'Oder,  1733,  in-4°.  Programma  sive  Exercitatio  meningolo- 
gica,  qua  de  structura  pitrmatris  inter  alia  novam  nee  hacbenus 
visam,  tradit  observationem.     Francfort-sur-L'Oder,  1736,  in-4°. 

Bergen,  Johann  Georg  von  (Jean  Georges  de).  Father  of  the 
preceding.  A  member  of  a  distinguished  family,  he  occupied  in  Frank- 
furt-an-der-Oder  the  chair  of  anatomy  and  botany,  in  which  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son.  He  died  in  1738.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  medi- 
cal dissertations  among  which  may  be  mentioned : 

Dissertatio  de  concepiione  foetus  humani,  Wittenberg,  1688, 
in- 4°. 

Dissertatio  de  circulatione  sanguinis,  alias  a  cordis  prelo,  hodie 
simul  a  vi  vasorum  contractili  deducta,  Frankfurt-am-Oder,  1705, 

Berger,  Johann  Gottfried.  A  German  physician  born  at  Halle, 
1659-1756.  Professor  at  the  University  in  Wittenberg  and  in  Leipzig. 
Said  to  have  been  the  first  to  show  the  muscle  fibres  of  the  iris.  He 
is  the  author  of  numerous  dissertations,  among  which  are  to  be  noted : 

Dissertatio  de  corde,  Wittemberg,  1688,  in-4°. 

Dissertatio  de  ovo  et  pullo,  Wittemberg,  i68p,  in-4°. 

Bergmann,  Ernst  von.     A  German  surgeon,  1836-1908.     Professor 
of  surgery  at  Dorpat,  1871 ;  in  1878  at  Wiirzberg  and  in  1882  at  Berlin. 
Chordce  volubiles.       Commissura  post,  cerebri.       Conductor 
sonorus.       Conus    aquceductus     cerebri.       Fasciculus     radiorum. 
Fibr(B  Bergmanni.     Filamenta  lateralia   et  perpendicularia.     Or- 
ganon    pneumaticum.     Pecten    Bergmanni.     Pedunculus    flabelli- 
formis.    Penicillus  Bergmanni.    Psalterium  Bergmanni.    Reces- 
sus  cymbiformis.     Scala  rhythmica.     Surculus  dichotomi.      Tela 
filipendula.     Trigonum  durumr  et  molle.     Verticillium  Bergmanni. 
Biography:  Ernst  von  Bergmann,  von  Arend  Buchholtz.  Leip- 
zig, 191 1,  in-8°. 

Bernard,  Claude.     A  noted  French  physiologist,  1813-1878. 
Legons  sur  les  phenombnes  de  la  vie,  1878. 
Canal  of ;  duct  of  =  ductus  pancreaticus  accessorius. 


Bernheimer,  Stefan.     An  Austrian  oculist,  1861- 

Fibres  of  =  a  bundle  of  white  fibres  connecting  Luy's  body 
with  the  optic  tract. 

Berres,  Joseph.  An  Austrian  anatomist,  1796-1844.  A  student 
of  microscopical  anatomy  in  Vienna.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  use 
"  Daguerreotypes  "  in  the  illustration  of  his  subject. 

Berretini,  Pietro.  An  Italian  artist,  1596-1669.  To  him  are 
ascribed  27  large  anatomical  plates.  Choulant  gives  (p.  85)  an  example 
of  his  work, 

TabidcB  anatomicce  a  eel  pictore  Petro  Berretino  Cortonensi  de- 
lineatce  et  egregie,  Rome,  1741. 

Berlin,  Exupere-Joseph.  Born  in  Trambley  near  Rennes,  1712- 
1781.  At  the  age  of  25  he  became  associate  anatomist  of  the  Academy 
of  Sciences  in  Paris,  where  he  was  noted  for  his  observations  on  the 
nerves  of  the  heart  and  on  the  anatomoses  of  the  mammary  and  epigastric 
arteries,  as  well  as  for  his  memoir  on  the  structure  and  function  of  the 

Ergo  causa  motus  alterni  cordis  multiplex,  Paris,  1740,  in-4°. 
Lettres  sur  le  nouveau  systeme  de  la  voix  et  sur  les  lymphatiques, 
Paris,  1748,  in-i2°.  TraitS  de  osteologie,  Paris,  1754,  in-i2° . 
Translated  into  German  by  J.  P.  G.  Pflug,  Copenhagen,  177 7-1778, 
4  vol.,  in-8°. 

Septum  Bertini.  Columnce  renales  (Bertini).  Ligamentum 
ilio-femorale.     Ossicula  Bertini-conchce  sphenoidales. 

Bertrandi,  Jean  Ambroise  Marie.  An  Italian  physician  born  in 
Turin,  1723-1765 ;  is  the  author  of : 

Dissertatione  anatomicce  de  hepatce  et  oculo,  Turin,  1748.  See 
Biography  by  Louis.    Paris,  1767. 

Betz,  Phillipp  Friedrich.     German  physician,  1819-1899. 

Ligamentum  epiglottico-palatinum.  Sinus  foveas  navicularis. 
Cells  of  =  large  pyramidal  cells  in  the  Rolandic  area. 

Bezold,  Friedrich  von.    Munich  otologist,  1842-1908. 

Fossa  mastoidea.  Ganglion  of  =  ganglion  cells  in  the  inter- 
auricular  septum.    Recessus  meatus  auditorii  externi. 

Bianchi,  Jean  Baptiste.  Was  born  at  Turin;  1681-1761.  He 
attained  the  reputation  of  being  the  first  anatomist  and  the  most  cele- 
brated physician  of  his  time.  In  1715  the  King  of  Sardinia  built  him  a 
very  commodious  amphitheater  for  his  lectures.    He  was  professor  of 


anatomy  in  Turin.    Judging  from  his  writings  his  interests  were  largely 
in  the  direction  of  pathological  structures. 

Historia  hepatica,  seu  de  hepatis  structura,  usibus  et  morhis, 
opus  anatomicum,  physiologicum  et  pathologicum,  Turin,  1710, 
in- 4°. 

Ductus  lacrymales  novi,  eorum  anatome,  usus,  morbi,  cura- 
tiones,  Turin,  1715,  in-4°.  Demonstratio  anatomica  sinuum  basis 

Bichat,  Marie-Frangois-Xavier.  During  the  short  period  of  seven 
years  which  Bichat  devoted  to  his  scientific  studies  he  came  to  be  recog- 
nized as  one  of  the  foremost  biologists  of  all  time.  Born  in  Thoirette, 
department  of  the  Ain,  France,  November  nth,  1771,  he  ended  his 
career  at  the  early  age  of  30  (1801)  having  exhibited  unusual  talents  for 
prolonged  and  intense  application  to  the  pursuit  of  his  favorite  science. 
It  is  said  that  during  one  winter  Bichat  examined  600  bodies  in  con- 
nection with  his  studies  in  pathology.  He  was  a  student  of  Desault,  the 
surgeon,  in  Paris  in  1793,  whose  assistant  he  became,  and  whose  works 
he  edited  on  the  death  of  that  surgeon  in  1795.  In  1797  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  anatomy  in  Paris  which  position  he  held  to  the  end  of  his 
life.  Bichat  began  the  publication  of  his  results  in  1800,  but  during  the 
course  of  the  next  year  he  slipped  on  the  dissecting  room  stairs  and 
died  from  gastric  derangement.  He  is  best  known  as  the  founder  of  the- 
new  science  of  Histology,  although  he  did  not  employ  the  microscope. 
He  divided  the  tissues  into  21  (non-microscopic)  varieties.  At  the  age 
of  28  he  became  physician  to  the  Hotel  Dieu,  which  position  gave  him 
many  new  opportunities  for  the  advancement  of  his  work.  He  was  one 
of  the  first  to  introduce  operative  surgery. 

Traite  des  membranes  en  general,  et  de  diverses  membranes  en 
particulier,  Paris,  1800,  in-8°.  This  work  was  almost  immediately 
translated  into  German,  and  went  through  several  editions  in  the 

Anatomie  generale,  appliquee  a  la  physiologie  et  a  la  medicine, 
Paris,  1801,  2  vol.  in-8°.  This  work  also  zvas  translated  into  Ger- 
man and  went  through  several  editions  in  the  original. 
Anatomie  descriptive,  Paris,  1801-1802,  in-8°. 
Canalis  Bichati  (Cisterna  V.  Magnce).  Foramen  Bichati. 
Ligamentum  Bichati-sacrospinosum  (sacroiliacum).  Protuberantia 
Bichati.  Corpus  adiposum  buccce.  Fissure  of  =  space  belozv  the 
corpus  callosum. 

Biography:  Bichat.  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital  Bulletin,  vol.  14. 
no.  14P,  pp.  ip/soi,  1903,  with  portraits  and  titles  of  works.  By 
William  Sydney  Thayer. 

Notice  historique  sur  la  vie  et  les  travaux  de  Marie  Fr.-Xav.- 
Bichat,  in  "  Traite  des  Membranes,  etc.,  par  Bichat.  Nouvelle  edi- 
tion augmentee  d'une  notice,  etc.,  par  M.  Husson,  Paris,  1802,  8vo, 
Ann.  xi. 


Bichat,  his  Life,  Researches  and  Character,  by  Albert  C.  Eycles- 
nymer.  Interstate  Medical  Journal,  vol.  xv.  No.  J,  pp.  1-20,  1908, 
with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Bidder,  Heinrich  Friedrich.  German  anatomist  in  Dorpat,  1810- 
1894.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Dorpat,  1836-42 ;  of  physiology  at  Dorpat, 

De  Cranii  conformatione,  Dorpat,  184/.  Neue  Beobachtungen 
iiber  die  Bewegungen  des  weichen  Gaumes,  Dorpat,  1838.  Ueber 
die  Malpigischen  Korper  der  Niere,  Dorpat,  1846.  (Bidder  und 
Kupffer)  Untersuchungen  ueber  die  Textur  des  RUckenmarks, 
Leipzig,  184/. 

Ganglion  Bidderi  =  one  of  two  ganglia  on  the  cardiac  nerves 
in  the  septum  between  the  atria  just  above  the  atrioventricular 

Bidloo,  Godefroi  (Govert).  Celebrated  anatomist  and  surgeon  of 
Holland,  living  in  Amsterdam,  where  he  was  born  in  1649.  He  ended  his 
career  at  Leyden  in  April,  1713.  A  student  of  Ruysch ;  lecturer  in  ana- 
tomy and  surgery  in  Leyden,  1694  to  the  end  of  his  life. 

Anatomia  corporis  humani,  centum  et  quinque  tabulis  per  arti- 
flciosissimum  G.  de  Lairesse  ad  vivum  delineatis,  demonstrata, 
veterum  recentiorumque  inventis  explicata,  plurimisque  hactenus 
non  detractis  illustrata,  Amsterdam,  i68§,  in  fol.  Reprinted  in 
Leyden  in  1/39;  in  Utrecht  in  1750.  Opuscula  omnia  anatomico- 
chirurgica,  edita  et  inedita,  Leyden,  iJiS- 

Biesiadecki,  Alfred  von.  Polish  physician  and  pathologic  anato- 
tomist,  1839-1888. 

^     Fossa  of  ■=  fossa  iliac osubf as cialis. 

Bigelow,  Henry  Jacob.    Boston  surgeon,  1816(8 ?)-i890. 
Ligamentum  ypsiloforme.    Septum  femoris. 

Simet,  Claude.     Surgeon  in  Lyon  who  published  in  1664: 

Quatrains  anatomiques  des  os  et  des  muscles  du  corps  humain, 
ensemble  un  Discours  sur  la  circulation  du  sang,  Lyon,  in-8°. 

Bischoff,  Theodor  Ludwig  Wilhelm  von.  German  anatomist  and 
embryologist,  1807-82.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Heidel- 
berg, 1836-43;  anatomy  at  Giessen,  1843-44;  anatomy  and  physiology  at 
Giessen,  1844-54 ;  anatomy  in  Munich,  1854-78.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
to  demonstrate  cell  division  in  animal  tissues. 

Entwickelungsgeschicte  der  Sdugethiere  und  des  Menschen, 
Leipzig,  1842.  Ueber  die  Bildung  des  Saugetiereis  und  seine  Stel- 
lung  in  der  Zellenlehre.  Sitzungsb.  d.  K.  Bayr.  Akad.  filr  Wissen- 
schft.,  bd.  I,  p.  242,  1863.  Untersuchungen  ueber  des  Kaninche- 
neies,  Braunschw.  1843;  des  Hundescies,  Braunschw.  1846;  des 
Meerschweinchens,    Giessen,   1852;   des  Reheies,    Giessen,    1854. 


Historisch-kritische  Bemerkungen  zu  den  neuesten  Mitteilungen 
iiber  d.  erste  Entivicklung  der  Sdugethiereier,  Munchen,  iSyj. 
Tunica  folliculi.     Crown  of  =  corona  radiata. 

Bizzozero,  Giulio.    An  Italian  physician,  1846-1901. 
Red  cells  of  =  nucleated  red  blood  corpuscles. 

Blaes.     See  Blasius. 

Blainville,  Henri-Marie-Ducrotay  de.  French  zoologist  and 
anthropologist,  1 777-1 850.  An  illustrious  naturalist  known  chiefly  for 
his  Osteography,  an  enormous  work  on  comparative  osteology.  He  was 
born  at  Arques,  near  Dieppe,  September  12,  1777.  A  student  of  Cuvier, 
he  took  the  degree  M.  D.  in  1808  and  in  1812  he  was  appointed  to  the 
chair  of  anatomy  and  zoology  in  the  Faculty  of  Sciences  at  Paris.  In 
1830  he  succeeded  Lamarck  in  the  chair  of  natural  history,  and  succeeded 
Cuvier  in  comparative  anatomy  in  1832,  which  chair  he  held  for  18 
years.  He  was  a  voluminous  writer  and  his  Osteographie  is  an  immense 
monument  to  his  name. 

Prodrome  d'une  nouvelle  distribution  methodique  du  regne 
animal,  1816.  Osteographie  ou  Description  Iconographique  com- 
paree  du  Squelette  et  du  Systeme  dentaire  des  Mammiferes  recentes 
et  fossiles  pour  servir  de  Base  a  la  Zoologie  et  a  la  Geologic. 
This  is  an  enormous  work  of  8  folio  volumes,  4  of  which  are 
devoted  to  323  lithographic  plates  of  the  skeletons  of  mammals, 
printed  in  elephant  folio,  iSjp.  Histoire  des  Sciences  naturelles 
au  Moyen  Age,  1845. 

Ears  of  =  asymmetry  in  size  or  shape. 

Biography:  In  Vol.  i,  Texte  of  the  '  Osteographie'  there  is 
an  "  iJtude  sur  la  Vie  et  les  Travaux  de  M.  de  Blainville."    18 jp. 

Blandin,  Philippe-Frederic.  Parisian  anatomist  and  surgeon, 

Traite  d' Anatomic  topographique,  Bruxelles,  183^. 
Glandula  lingualis  anterior.     Ganglion  submaxillare. 

Blankaard  (Blancard,  Blancardus),  iltienne  (Stephen).  A  Dutch 
physician  of  the  17th  century  (1650-1702)  w'ho  demonstrated  by  injec- 
tion in  1675,  the  continuity  of  arterial  and  venous  capillaries.  (See 
Domenico  de  Marchetti.) 

Tractatus  novus  de  circulatione  sanguinis  per  fibras,  nee  non 
de  valvulis  in  Us  repertis,  Amsterdam,  1678,  in-i2° . 

Anatomia  practica  rationalis,  sive  variorum  cadaverum  morbis 
denatorum  anatomico  inspectio,  Leyden,  1688,  in-i2° . 


Blasius  (Blaes),  Gerard  (Gerhard).     An  eminent  Dutch  anatomist 

of  the  17th  century;  ? -1682  ( ?).    A  student  of  Thomas  Bartholin 

and  a  teacher  of  Stensen.  In  1660  he  was  made  professor  of  medicine 
and  director  of  the  hospital  at  Amsterdam.  He  was  associated  with 
Swammerdam  in  recognizing  the  valves  of  the  lacteal  vessels ;  he  ad- 
vanced the  knowledge  of  the  meninges.  He  made  some  interesting  obser- 
vations on  the  pathologic  ossification  of  arteries.  He  was  greatly  inter- 
ested in  comparative  anatomy  and  made  observation  on  snakes,  turtles, 
dog  and  pigeon. 

Dissertatio  anatomica  de  structura  et  usu  renum,  Amsterdam, 
1665.  Ohservata  anatomica  in  homine,  simia,  equo,  vitulo,  tes- 
tudine,  echino,  glire,  serpente,  ardea,  variisque  animalibus  aliis; 
accedunt  extraordinaria  in  homine  reperta,  praxim  medicam  aequce 
ac  anatomen  illicstrantia,  Leyden  et  Amsterdam,  16'^ 4,  in-8°. 
Zootomia,  seu  anatomes  variorum,  animalium  pars  prima,  Amster- 
dam, 1616,  in- 1 2°,  with  88  plates. 
Ductus  parotideus. 

Blumenbach,  (Jean  Frederic)  Johann  Friedrich.  A  German 
anthropologist,  zoologist  and  physiologist,  1752-1840.  Known  as  the 
founder  of  modem  anthropology.  In  1776  conservator  of  the  cabinet 
of  natural  history,  then  professor  of  medicine  in  Gottingen,  in  1778, 
and  in  1812  secretary  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Sciences. 

Dissertatio  inauguralis  de  generis  humani  varietate  nativa, 
Gottingen,  177^.  Geschichte  und  Beschreibung  der  Knochen  des 
menschlichen  Koerpers,  Gottingen,  1786.  Observations  on  some 
Egyptian  mummies  opened  in  London,  addressed  to  Sir  Joseph 
Banks,  London,  1794.  Handbuch  der  vergleichenden  Anatomic, 
Gottingen,  1805. 

Clivus  Blumenbachii. 

Bochdalek,    Viktor    (Vincenz).     Prague    anatomist,    1801-1883. 

Professor  of  anatomy  in  Prague,  1845-71. 

Neue  Untersuchungen  der  Nerven  des  Ober  und  Unterkiefers, 


Foramen.     Ganglion.    M.  orbitce  (gracillimus). 

Bock,  Karl  Ernst.  German  physician,  anatomist  and  pathologist, 
1809-1874.  Son  of  the  anatomist,  Karl  August  Bock  (1782-1833). 
Professor  of  pathological  anatomy  in  Leipzig. 

Handatlas  des  Menschen,  7th  ed.,  Leipzig,  1889.  Handbuch 
der  anatomic  des  Menschen,  Leipzig,  1838.  Anatomisches  Taschen- 
buch,  1864. 

Boe,  Francois  de  la  (Sylvius).  1614-1672.  Sometimes  confused 
with  Jacques  du  Bois  (Dubois) .    Born  at  Hanau,  near  Frankfurt-am-Main. 


He  traveled  extensively,  as  was  the  custom  at  that  time,  and  visited  the 
chief  universities  in  Holland  and  Germany.  He  settled  in  Amsterdam 
in  1632;  became  professor  of  practical  medicine  in  Leyden  in  1658  to 
succeed  Albert  Kyper.  While  in  Amsterdam  he  had  studied  attentively 
the  writings  of  Descartes  and  van  Helmont  on  which,  later,  he  estabhshed 
a  system  of  medicine,  in  which  he  was  among  the  first  to  include  patholo- 
gical anatomy,  on  the  basis  of  his  numerous  dissections  of  cadavers.  This 
work  attained  great  fame.  He  described  more  carefully  than  had  pre- 
viously been  done  the  various  parts  of  the  brain,  and  especially  the 
sinuses  of  the  dura  mater.  He  followed  what  we  today  regard  as  the 
true  principles  of  science,  in  proposing  his  ideas  with  reservation. 

Disputationum  medicarum  decas,  primarias  corporis  humani 
functiones  naturales  ex  anatomicis,  practicis,  et  chymicis  experi- 
mentis  deductas  complectens:  quarum  I.  agit  de  alimentorum  fer- 
mentatione  in  ventriculo.  (Leyde,  i6^p,  in-/}°);  II.  de  chyli  et 
fcecibus  alvinibus  secretione,  atque  in  lacteas  venas  propulsione  in 
intestinis  perfecta;  III.  de  chyli  mutatione  in  sanguinem,  circulari 
sanguinis  motu,  et  cordis,  arteriarumque  pulsu;  IV.  de  spiritum 
anitnalium  in  cerebro  cerebelloque  confectione,  per  nervos  distri- 
butione  atque  u~su  vario ;  V.  de  lienis  et  glandulorum  usu;  VI.  de 
bilis  et  hepatis  usu  (Leyden,  1660,  in-4°);  VII.  de  respiratione 
usuque  pulmonum ;  VlII.  de  vasis  lymphaticis  et  lympha;  IX.  de 
febribus  prima;  de  febribus  altera.  Am,sterdam,  1663,  Leyden, 
1670,  in-i6°. 

Boeckel,  Jean.     1535-1605.     Physician  to  the  city  of  Hamburg; 

was  born  in  Anvers.    Professor  of  medicine  in  that  city. 

Anatome,  sive  descriptio  partium  corporis  humani,  Helm- 
stcedt,  1585. 

Boeder,  Philippe  Henri.  A  physician  and  anatomist  of  Strass- 
burg,  1718-1759.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  the  University 
of  Strassburg,  which  chair  he  filled  with  distinction.  He  published  a 
dissertation  entitled : 

Dissertatio  de  glandulorum  thyroidece,  thymi  et  suprarenaJium 
natura  et  functionibus,  Strasbourg,  1753,  in- 4°. 

Boedecker,  Karl  Friedrich  Wilhelm.  Dentist  in  New  York  and 
Berlin,  1 846-1910.  Professor  of  embryology  in  the  University'  of 

The  anatomy  and  pathology  of  the  teeth,  1894. 
Deskriptive  und  topographische  Anatomic  des  Menschen,  ipo4 
(with  Heitsmann). 

Boehmer,  Phillippe  Adolphe.  A  noted  medical  educator  of  Halle, 
1717-1789.    His  father  was  director  of  the  University  and  chancellor  of 


the  principality  of  Magdeburg.  He  entered  the  study  of  medicine  and 
became  successively,  first  physician  to  the  Duke  of  Saxe-Weimar; 
professor  of  anatomy  in  the  University  of  Halle,  in  1741 ;  in  1769 
dean  of  the  faculty  of  medicine,  and  first  professor;  in  1787  coun- 
cilor to  the  King  of  Prussia  and  dean  of  the  university.  He  held  this 
last  position  until  his  death,  November  ist,  1789.  He  was  a  voluminous 
writer  on  medical  subjects. 

Observationes  bin<s  anatomic  as  de  quatuor  et  quinque  ramis  ex 
arcu  artericB  magnw  adscendentibus,  Leipzick,  17 4.1,  in-4°.  Institu- 
tiones  osteologice,  in  usum  prcslectionum  academicarum,  cum  iconi- 
hus  anatomicis.  Halle,  1/51,  in-8°.  Epistola  anatomica  problem- 
atica  de  ductibus  mammarum  lactiferia,  experimento  novo  con- 
firmata.    Leipzig,  1742,  in-4°. 

Boerhaave,  Hermann  (1668-1738).  A  noted  teacher  of  medical 
subjects,  who  is  said  to  have  introduced  the  modern  method  of  clinical 
bedside  teaching.  One  of  the  most  gifted  of  the  Dutch  medical  investi- 
gators, he  was  noted  for  his  studies  in  anatomy,  pathology,  zoology  and 
medicine.  He  was  born  at  Voorhout,  near  Leyden.  He  diligently  studied 
microscopic  anatomy  and  became  so  interested  in  the  subject,  that  late 
in  life  he  gathered  Swammerdam's  complete  writings  together  and  pub- 
lished them,  in  1737,  under  the  title  "  Biblia  Naturae."  Boorhaave  was 
gifted  with  a  high  order  of  ability  in  elocution,  and  was  a  man  of  immense 
erudition.  It  is  said  that  he  lectured  on  medicine  for  five  hours  a  day 
while  he  was  a  professor  of  medicine  and  botany  in  the  University  of 
Leyden  (1709).  In  1714  he  was  made  rector  of  the  University.  In 
1715  he  succeeded  Bidloo  in  the  chair  of  the  practice  of  medicine,  and  in 
1718  the  subject  of  chemistry  was  placed  under  his  direction.  After  his 
death,  in  1738,  the  city  of  Leyden  erected  a  magnificent  tomb  to  his 
memory,  with  the  inscription:  Sdlutifero  Boerhaavii  genio  sacrum. 
Boerhaave  has  left  a  large  number  of  writings  on  medicine,  botany,  and 
philosophy.  The  following  may  be  mentioned  as  being  of  anatomical 
interest : 

Instifutiones  medicce  in  usus  exercitationis  annuce  domesticos, 
Leyden,  1708.  Epistola  ad  Ruyschium  clarissimum  pro  sententia 
Malpighiana  de  fabrica  glandularum  in  cor  pore  humano,  Amster- 
dam, 1722.  Historia  insectorum,  sive  Biblia  natures  de  J.  Swam- 
merdam,  traduit  en  Latin  par  Gaubius,  avec  une  preface  de  Boer- 
haave. Leyden,  I737-  Opera  anatomica  et  chirurgica  Andreae 
Vesalii,  cura  H.  Boerhaave,  et  B.  S.  Albini,  Leyden,  1725,  2  i/ols, 
in  folio. 

Glands  of  =  sweat  glands. 

Biography:  The  great  Dutch  pathologist  and  physician,  Her- 
mann Boerhaave,  1668-1737;  a  retrospect.  Edinb.  Med.  Journ., 
191 5,  n.  s.,  xiv,  pp.  375-385;  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  Mscu- 
lapius,  vol  I,  pp.  95-107,  1901. 


Boettcher,  Arthur.     German  anatomist,  1831-1889. 

Entwicklung  und  Bau  des  Gehorlahyrinthes,  Dresden,  i86p. 
Canal  of  =  minute  canal  between  utricle  and  saccule.     Cells 
of  =  layer  of  cells  on  basilar  membrane  of  cochlea.    Crystals  of  = 
sperm  crystals.     Ganglion  of  =  on  vestibular  branch  of  cochlear 
nerve.    Space  of  =  Cotunnius"  space.    Sulcus  liga.  spiralis. 

Boetticher,  Andre  Jules.  A  Dutch  physician  born  at  Wolfen- 
biittel,  1672-1719.  He  became  professor  of  anatomy,  surgery  and  botany 
at  Giessen,  in  1698 ;  then  professor  of  pathology  at  Helmstadt  and  later 
professor  of  medicine. 

Dissertatio  de  vocis  organic,  Leyden,  1697,  in-4°.  Dissertatio 
de  ossibus,  Giessen,  i6p8,  in-4°.  Dissertatio  de  respiratione  foetus 
in  utero,  Helmstadt,  1J02,  in-4°. 

Bogros,  Jean-Annet.     French  anatomist,  1786-1823. 

Memoire  sur  la  structure  des  nerfs,  Paris,  iSzj,  in-8°. 
Spatium  retroinguinale  (retroperitoneale) . 

Bojanus,  Ludwig  Heinrich.  A  German  comparative  anatomist, 
1776-1827.    Professor  in  the  University  of  Wilna,  1804. 

Introductio  in  anatomen  comparatam,  Wilna,  1813,  in-8°. 
Paregon  ad  anatomen  testudinis,  cranii  vertebratorum  animalium 
comparationem  faceins,  Wilna,  1821,  in-4°.  Anatome  testudinis 
europcsce,  Wilna,  1819-1821,  2  fasc.  in  folio,  40  plates. 

Boll,  Franz  Christian  (1849-1879).     Professor  of  physiology  in 
Rome  in  1876.    Made  important  observations  on  the  visual  purple.       1 
Untersuchungen  Uber  die  Zahnpulpa  (Arch.  Mikros.  Anat., 

Untersuchungen  Uber  die  Endigungen  der  Pulpanerven, 
Ibidem,  j868. 

Bonn,  Andreas.  Surgeon  and  anatomist  of  Amsterdam;  1738- 
1818.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  the  famous  Athenaeum  in 
Amsterdam,  1771-1798.  His  work  entitled :  "  De  contimiationibus  mem- 
branarum,  Leyden,  1763"  is  regarded  as  the  forerunner  of  Bichat's 
"  Traite  des  Membranes."  Bonn  gave  an  excellent  discussion  of  the  dis- 
tribution of  the  cellular  membranes. 

Bonnet,  Amadee.     French  surgeon,  1802-1852. 
Capsula  bulbi  Tenoni. 

Bonnet,  Charles.  One  of  the  greatest  comparative  zoologists  and 
philosophical  naturalists  of  the  i8th  century  (172D-1793).  He  proposed 
in  his  "Corps  organises"  theories  of  development  which  have  been  of 


great  value  to  all  biologists  (Whitman,  C.  O.  —  Bonnet's  Theory  of  Evo- 
lution, in  "Wood's  Hole  Biol.  Lectures,  1894,  pp.  225-241  ").  His  re- 
corded meditations  and  observations  upon  generation  and  regeneration 
began  when  he  was  a  youth  of  16  and'  continued  for  over  35  years. 
Bonnet  held  no  public  offices  during  his  life,  but  spent  his  best  years 
in  quiet  retirement,  devoting  himself  to  his  studies.  He  was  born  to  a 
wealthy  family  in  Geneva,  and  was  prepared  for  a  legal  career,  but  it 
is  said  that  he  never  allowed  the  law  to  interfere  seriously  with  his 
studies.  He  traveled  not  at  all,  never  being  known  to  have  left  his 
own  district.  His  complete  works  were  published  before  his  death  under 
the  title:  "  Oeuvres  d'histoire  naiurelle  et  de  philosophie,"  Neufchatel, 
I'jj^-i'jS^.    His  most  interesting  biological  publications  are : 

Contemplation  de  la  Nature,  1764,  Amsterdam.  Considerations 
sur  les  Corps  organises,  Geneva,  1762;  2nd  ed.  1768.  Trans,  into 
German,  1775,  in-8° .  Essai  analytique  sur  les  Facultes  de  I'Ame. 
Copenhagen,  1760.  Memoire  sur  les  Germes,  1773.  Memoires  sur 
la  Reproduction  des  membres  de  la  salamander  aquatique,  i77^- 

Bordeu,  Theophile.  Founder  of  the  vitalistic  school.  Physio- 
logical anatomist,  physician  and  surgeon,  1722-1776.  Born  at  Iseste. 
He  became  a  highly  successful  practitioner  and  was  called  to  attend  the 
elite,  but  in  spite  of  a  large  practice  he  always  found  time  to  continue 
his  researches  in  anatomy  and  physiology. 

Memoire  sur  les  articulations  des  os  de  la  face.  Recherches  ana- 
tomiques  sur  les  differentes  positions  des  glands  et  sur  les  action. 
Paris,  1752. 

Biography:  An  extensive  account  in  the  Biographie  Medicate. 
Pagel  and  Sudhoff,  p.  323. 

Born,  Gustav.  A  German  anatomist,  1851-1900.  The  inventor  of 
plastic  methods  in  embryology,  known  as  the  Born  wax  plate  method. 
Studied  in  Breslau,  Bonn,  Strassburg,  and  Beriin,  where  he  was  asso- 
ciated as  student  with  Heidenhain,  Pfitiger  and  Waldeyer.  Assistant  to 
Hasse  in  Breslau  at  the  anatomical  institute;  1876  prosecfor;  1886  a.  o. 
professor,  in  charge  of  embryology  at  the  anatomical  institute.  His 
scientific  interests  lay  along  several  lines;  comparative  anatomy,  embry- 
ology, regeneration  and  plastic  methods.  He  is  the  author  of  more  than  40 
contributions  to^  anatomy. 

Die  Plattenmodellmethode,  1883,  1888,  ipoo.  Ueber  die  Fur- 
chung  des  Eies  bei  Doppelbildungen,  1887.    Ueber  die  Structur  des 

Keimbldschens,  1894.  .      ^  .    ,        ,       .         „  ,     o 

Biography:  Gustav  Born,  m  Anatomtscher  Anzeiger,  Bd.  18, 
pp.  139-143,  with  bibliography. 

Botallo  (Botalli,  Botal,  Botali),  Leonardo.  Councilor  and  physi- 
cian to  King  Charles  IX,  of  France,  to  the  queen,  and  to  Duke  William 


of  Brabant,  in  the  sixteenth  century.  The  exact  dates  between  which  he 
Hved  do  not  seem  to  be  known,  but  1530  is  usually  assigned  for  his  birth, 
which  took  place  in  Asti,  in  Piedmont.  He  studied  medicine  in  Italy 
under  Lanfranc,  Trincavella  and  Fallopio.  To  the  latter's  influence  we 
may  trace  Botallo's  interest  in  anatomy.  He  is  usually  accredited  with 
the  discovery  of  the  ductus  arteriosus  and  the  foramen  ovale,  accounts 
of  which  are  to  be  found  in  his  work : 

Opera  omnia  medica  et  chirurgica,  Ley  den,  1660,  m-8°.  This 
was  edited  by  Joh.  van  Hoorne. 

Ductus  arteriosus  (Ligamentum  arteriosum) .    Foramen  ovale. 

Bourgery,  Marc-Jean.  A  French  systematic  anatomist  and  sur- 
geon, 1797-1849.  His  "  Traite "  was  illustrated  by  numerous  large  and 
beautifully  colored  plates  of  the  organs  in  health  and  disease. 

Traite  complet  de  I'Anatomie  de  I'Homme,  Paris,  1832-1844, 
8  vols,  folio. 

Ligamentum  post,  superficiale  genu.  Ligamentum  pubis  ante- 
rius  cruciatum. 

Boveri,  Theodor.  A  German  cytologist,  1862-1915.  Professor  of 
zoology  at  Wiirzburg.  Boveri  was  a  pioneer  worker  in  cytology  and  ex- 
perimental zoology.  He  was  a  native  of  Bavaria,  and  first  studied  philos- 
ophy and  later  zoology  at  Munich.  He  wrote  his  doctor's  thesis  under 
the  direction  of  Richard  Hertwig,  on  the  structure  of  the  nerve  fibres 
in  vertebrates.  At  the  age  of  thirty  he  was  called  to  Wuerzburg  to 
succeed  Semper  in  the  chair  of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy.  Here 
he  remained  for  the  rest  of  his  life,  with  the  exception  of  frequent  trips 
to  the  zoological  stations  of  southern  Europe,  especially  Naples.  He 
also  made  a  short  visit  to  the  United  States.  When  Weismann  resigned 
his  professorship  at  Freiburg,  Boveri  was  called  to  succeed  him  but 
declined.  Later  the  directorship  of  the  new  research  laboratory  of  the 
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft  in  Berlin  was  offered  to  him.  He  first  ac- 
cepted, worked  out  the  whole  organization  and  brought  together  a  staff, 
then  declined.  In  1909  he  was  rector  magnificus  at  the  University  of 
Wuerzburg,  and  among  other  numerous  honors  conferred  upon  him  was 
a  membership  in  the  American  National  Academy  of  Sciences.  Boveri's 
contributions  to  cytology  were  very  important  and  his  studies  in  this 
field  were  epoch  making.  His  cytological  work  was  always  intermingled 
with  studies  in  experimental  embryology,  his  favorite  objects  being  sea- 
urchin  eggs  and  Ascaris  embryos.  Boveri  published  relatively  few  papers, 
about  forty,  but  of  these  there  are  very  few  which  could  be  called  unim- 
portant, and  a  surprisingly  large  number  of  them  constitute  landmarks  in 
the  progress  of  cytology.     His  most  noted  publications  are  his  "  Zell- 


studien,"  which  he  published  in  several  parts.    His  "Die  Organismen  als 
historische  Wesen"  also  deserves  mention. 

Science,  N.  S.  vol.  xliii,  no.  1104,  pp.  26^-2'jo,  1^16. 

Bowman,  Sir  William.  English  anatomist  and  surgeon  of 
Cheshire,  1816-1892.  Studied  in  Birmingham  and  London.  Prosector, 
then  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  King's  College,  London. 

Physiological  anatomy  and  physiology  of  man,  1845-1856. 
Lectures  on  the  parts  of  the  eye,  London,  1849.  On  the  minute 
structure  and  movements  of  voluntary  muscle,  Phil.  Trans.  Roy. 
Soc.  London,  1840,  pp.  457-501,  4  plates.  On  the  structure  and 
use  of  the  Malpighian  bodies  of  the  kidney,  with  observations  on 
the  circulation  through  that  gland.    Phil.  Trans.  1842. 

Beyer,  Alexis.  Parisian  surgeon,  1757-1833.  He  studied  surgery 
with  Louis  and  Desault;  became  surgeon  to  the  Hotel  Dieu;  professor 
of  operative  surgery  at  the  ificole  de  Sante;  professor  of  clinical  surgery; 
imperial  family  surgeon  to  Napoleon;  Baron  of  the  Empire.  After  the 
fall  of  Napoleon  he  was  surgeon  to  Louis  XVHI,  Charles  X,  and  Louis 
Philippe;  in  1835  he  succeeded  Deschamps  as  surgeon-in-chief  to  the 
Hopital  de  la  Charite,  where  he  taught  anatomy,  physiology  and  surgery. 
Traite  complet  d'anatomie,  ou  Description  de  toutes  les  partes 
du  corps  humain,  Paris,  j/pd-J/pp,  4  vols.  in-8°. 

Bursa  of  =^  anterior  to  the  thyrohyoid  membrane. 

Brandt,  Johann  Friedrich.  A  zoologist  in  St.  Petersburg,  1802- 
1879.  Author,  with  C.  Ratzeburg,  of  "  Medizinischen  Zoologie,  Berlin, 

Braun,   Carl,  Ritter  von  Fernwald.    An  Austrian  gynecologist, 
1822-1-891.     Professor  of  gynecology  in  Vienna,  1856. 
Canalis  cervicalis.     Canalis  neurentericus. 

Braune,  Christian  Wilhelm.  German  anatomist  and  surgeon, 
1831-1892.  Student  of  E.  H.  Weber,  C.  Ludwig  and'Virchow.  Pro- 
fessor of  surgery  in  Leipzig,  1866-1892. 

Topographisch-Anatomisches  Atlas  nach  Durchschnitten  an 
gefror.     Cadavern,  1872;  1875;  1888.     Die  Lage  des  Uterus  und 
Fetus,   1872.      Chirurgisches-anatomische  Tafeln,  Leipzig,   1875. 
Venensystem  des  menschlichen  Korpers,  1884. 
Musculus  puborectalis. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  7,  p.  440,  1892; 
Archivf.  Anat.  u.  Physiol.  Anat.  Abth.,  Jahrg.  1892,  p.  231. 

Breschet,  Gilbert.  French  anatomist,  1784-1845.  Born  in  Cler- 
mont.   He  succeeded  Cruveilhier  as  professor  of  anatomy  in  Paris,  and 


later  became  director  of  the  anatomical  laboratories,  in  the  University 
of  Paris.  He  was  especially  interested  in  pathological  anatomy,  and  is 
considered  by  Chiari  (N.  &  P.  Bd.  II,  p.  517),  as  a  pathologist. 

Essai  sur  les  veines  de  rachis;  recherches  sur  la  formation  du 
cal;  considerations  et  observations  anatomiques  et  pathologiques, 
Paris,  i8ip. 

Arcus  ext.  ant.  transversalis  (venosus  jugali).  Canales  diploid. 
Hiatus  cochleae  (Helicotrema).  Sinus  medianus.  Venae  mesolo- 

Broca,  Paul.  A  celebrated  anatomist,  anthropologist,  and  surgeon 
in  Paris,  1824-1880.  Discoverer  of  the  speech  centers  and  founder  of 
the  "  Societe  d' Anthropologic,"  i860. 

Atlas  d'anatomie  descriptive  du  corps  humain,  1841-1866.  Sur 
le  plan  horizontal  de  la  tete,  Paris,  18^3. 

Area  parolfactoria.  Bregma.  Dacryon.  Gyrus  diagonalis. 
Inion.  Lambda.  Musculus  amygdaloglossus,  —  lumbostyloideus. 
Metopion.    Obelion.    Ophryon.    Opisthion. 

Angle-area-cap-center-convolution-fissure-pouch-space  -  visual 

Brodie,  J.  Gordon.    Edinburgh  anatomist,  1786-1818. 
Ligament  of  =  transverse  humeral  ligament. 

Broesike,    Gustav.     German    anatomist    in    Berlin,    1853- 

Prosector  and  professor  of  anatomy  in  Berlin. 

Lehrbuch  der  normalen  anatomie,  Berlin,  pth  ed.,  1910.  Der 
menschlichen  Korper,  Berlin,  4th  ed.,  ipio.  Ueber  die  feinere 
Structur  des  normalen  Knochengewebes. 

Fascia  clavipectoralis.  Musculus  arytaenoideus  obliquus. 
Planum  infratemporale.  Plica  venosa.  Processus  falci.  axillaris. 
Recessus  ileoccecalis  ant.;  —  parajejunales;  —  venosus.  Trigonum 
colli  medianum  ;  —  omoclaviculaire ;  —  omotrapezoideum.  Tuber~ 
culum  anonymum  majus  et  minus  calcanei. 

Bronn,  Heinrich  Georg.  One  of  the  first  and  one  of  the  greatest 
zoopaleontologists  of  Germany,  was  born  in  Heidelberg,  (1800-1862). 
He  studied  in  Heidelberg.  In  1828  he  became  a.  o.  professor  in  Heidel- 
berg; 1833  ord.  professor  and  in  1832  he  succeeded  Leuckart  as  professor 
of  zoology  and  director  of  the  zoological  collections.  A  co-founder  with 
Leonhard  of  the  "  Neues  Jahrbuch  f  iir  Geologic,  Mineralogie  und  Paleon- 
tologie,"  1830-1862. 

Klassen  und  Ordnungen  des  Tierreiches,  1853-1862.  Unter^ 
suchungen  ueber  die  Entivicklungsgeschichte  der  organischen  Welt 
wdhrend  der  Bildungszeit  unserer  Erdoberfldche,  Stuttgart,  1858. 


Brooks,  William  Keith.  An  American  zoologist,  1848-1908.  He 
was  born  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  March  25th,  (1848)  into  a  family  whose 
members  had  been  residents  of  New  England  since  1634.  He  early 
showed  an  interest  in  natural  history.  During  his  course  at  Hobart 
College  he  became  much  interested  in  the  writings  of  George  Berkeley, 
whose  influence  is  distinctly  seen  in  many  of  Brooks'  essays,  especially 
those  in  the  "  Foundations  of  Zoology."  In  1873  Brooks  was  a  student  of 
Louis  Agassiz  at  the  laboratory  in  the  Island  of  Penikese,  in  Buzzards 
Bay,  and  from  that  time  to  the  end  of  his  life  he  remained  a  student  of 
marine  Hfe.  In  1875  he  received  his  Ph.D.  from  Harvard  University. 
The  following  year  he  was  an  assistant  with  Alphseus  Hyatt  in  the  museum 
of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  and  the  same  year  obtained 
a  fellowship  at  Johns  Hopkins  University.  In  1883  he  became  associate 
professor  of  morphology  in  that  institution,  and  in  1889  professor.  In 
1894,  on  the  retirement  of  Professor  H.  Newell  Martin,  Brooks  became 
head  of  the  department  of  biology,  which  position  he  retained  until  his 

Brooks  was  the  teacher  of  many  men  who  later  became  eminent  in 
zoology.  In  1878  he  established  the  Chesapeake  Zoological  Laboratory, 
founded,  not  on  buildings  and  land  but  on  men  and  ideas,  the  work  being 
carried  on  at  Chesapeake  Bay,  at  Beaufort,  N.  C,  where  subsequently 
the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Fisheries  established  alaboratory,  in  the  Bahama 
Islands  and  in  Jamaica.  Brooks  was  one  of  the  early  editors  of  the  Journal 
of  Experimental  Zoology,  and  established,  also,  a  serial  from  his  own 
laboratory.  His  researches  were  mainly  along  the  lines  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  invertebrates  and  some  of  his  iniportant  studies  are ;  Mono- 
graph on  the  Genus  Salpa,  Early  Stages  in  the  Development  of  Fresh 
Water  Pulmonates,  The  Development  of  Lingula  and  the  systematic  Posi- 
tion of  the  Brachiopoda,  The  Life  History  of  the  Hydromedusae,  The 
Embryology  and  Metamorphosis  of  the  Macroura,  Monograph  of  the 
Genus  Doliolum,  The  Oyster,  Handbook  of  Invertebrate  Zoology,  The 
Laws  of  Heredity,  and  The  Foundations  of  Zoology.  On  this  last  work, 
which  is  a  series  of  essays  on  various  topics,  rests  in  large  part  Brooks' 
general  recognition  as  a  philosophical  zoologist. 

Brooks  was  a  member  of  many  learned  societies  at  home  and  abroad, 
and  received  the  honorary  degree  of  LL.  D.  from  three  universities. 

Anatomical' Record,  vol.  3,  pp.  1-^3,  1909,  with  portrait.  In 
Volume  9, 1910,  vf  the  Journal  of  Experimental  Zoology,  there  is  a 
Sketch  of  his  Life,  with  portraits  and  bibliography.  This  volume 
of  28  studies  by  his  former  students  and  associates  is  dedicated  to 
the  memory  of  Professor  Brooks. 

Brown,  John.  An  English  surgeon  in  London  during  the  17th 
century.     He  was  physician  to  King  Charles  II.     He  is  the  author  of: 


A  complete  Treatise  of  the  Muscles  as  they  appear  in  the  Human  Body, 
London,  1681,  in  folio. 

Brown,  Robert.  An  English  botanist,  1773-1858.  He  saw,  in 
1831,  the  cell  nucleus  in  one  of  the  orchids. 

Bruch,  G.     German  anatomist,  1819-94. 

Untersuchungen  zur  Kenntniss  des  kornigen  Pigments,  ZUrich, 

Folliculus,  Lamina,  Membrana. 

Bruch,  Karl  Wilhelm  Ludwig.  Histologist  and  anatomist  in 
Basel  and  Giessen,  1819-1884.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  Basel  1851-55, 
later  in  Giessen. 

Glands  of  =  lymphoid  glands  in  the  palpebral  conjunctiva. 
Membrane  of  =  lamina  basalis  of  Henle's  membrane. 

Bruecke,  Ernst  Wilhelm,  Ritter  von.  German  anatomist  and 
physiologist  in  Berlin;  1819-1892.  Professor  of  physiology  and  micro- 
scopic anatomy  in  Vienna,  1849;  physiology  at  Konigsburg. 

Anatomische  Beschreibung  des  Augapfels,  Berlin,  184^. 
Grundzilge  der  Physiologie  und  Systematik  der  Sprachlaute, 

Musculus    Brueckei    (Fibrce    meridionalis    musculi    ciliaris). 
Tunic  of  =  the  retina  exclusive  of  the  rods  and  cones. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  7,  p.  60,  18^2. 

Brunn,  Albert  von.  German  anatomist,  1849-1895.  Student  of 
Waldeyer.    Professor  of  anatomy  at  Goettingen,  1872. 

Das  Verhdltniss  der  Gelenkkapseln  zu  den  Epiphysen  der  Ex- 
tremitatenknochen,  Leipzig,  1881. 

Membrana  olfactoria.    Nests  of  =  groups  of  epithelial  cells  in 
male  urethra. 

Brunner,  Johann  Konrad.  Swiss  anatomist,  1653-1727.  Profes- 
sor of  anatomy  in  the  University  of  Heidelberg.  In  Paris  he  was  a  stu- 
dent of  Duverney.  He  then  visited  the  universities  in  Germany  and  in 
Holland  at  the  time  of  Swammerdam  and  Ruysch. 

Dissertatio  de  panaceis,  Heidelberg,  1686,  in-4°. 
Physiologica  de  glandulis  duodeni  cogitata,  Heidelberg,  t6S/, 

Dissertatio  de  glandula  pituitaria,  Heidelberg,  16B1,  in-4°. 
Glandule  duodenales. 

Buck,  Gurdon.     New  York  surgeon,  1807-1877. 
Fascia  of  =  a  fascial  sheath  of  the  penis. 


Buckland,  William.  An  English  geologist  and  paleontologist, 
dean  of  Westminster,  1784-1856.  He  was  born  at  Axminster  in 
Devonshire,  and  was  educated  at  the  ancient  Grammar  School  of  Tiver- 
ton. In  rSoi  he  was  elected  by  examination  as  scholar  of  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Oxford,  where,  in  1808,  he  became  a  fellow.  From  early  boy- 
hood he  had  exhibited  a  taste  for  natural  science,  and  his  attention  was 
early  attracted  to  geology  through  the  lectures  of  Doctor  Kidd,  whom 
he  succeeded  in  1813  as  reader  of  mineralogy  in  Oxford.  In  1818  he 
was  elected  to  a  readership  in  geology  in  Oxford.  In  1824  he  became 
president  of  the  Geological  .Society  of  London  and  was  shortly  after- 
ward presented  to  the  living  of  Stoke  Charity,  near  Whitechurch,  Hants, 
which  enabled  him  to  devote  the  succeeding  twenty  years  to  study  and 
the  collecting  of  minerals  and  fossil  remains,  on  which  he  published 
several  memoirs.  In  1845  he  was  appointed  to  the  deanery  of  West- 
minster. His  collections  are  at  Oxford,  now  known  as  the  "  Buckland 
Museum."  He  is  the  author  of  a  number  of  memoirs  on  vertebrate 
paleontology,  especially  of  the  Pleistocene. 

Reliquiw  Diluviana ;  or,  Observation  on  the  Organic  Remains 
contained  in  Caves,  Fissures,  and  Diluvial  Gravel,  and  on  other 
geological  phenomena,  attesting  the  action  of  an  Universal  Deluge, 
2nd  edition,  1824,  in-/j° ,  London.  The  Bridgewater  Treatises  on 
the  Power,  Wisdom  and  Goodness  of  God  as  manifested  in  the 
Creation.  Treatise  VI.  Geology  and  Mineralogy  considered  with 
reference  to  natural  Theology.    2  vols.,  Philadelphia,  183^,  in-8° . 

Bucretius.  A  German  monk  who  in  1627  edited  the  works  of 
Spighelius  and  Casserius. 

Budgett,  John  Samuel.    An  English  zoologist,  1872-1903.   Studied 
at  Trinity  College  and  at  Cambridge.    Known  for  his  studies  on  the  life 
history  and  development  of  Lepidosiren  and  Polypterus,  which  he  in- 
vestigated by  a  series  of  field  expeditions  to  South  America,  and  Africa. 
The  Work  of  John  Samuel  Budgett,  Balfour  student  at  the 
University   of   Cambridge,    edited   by    Graham   Kerr,   Cambridge, 
igio'/.    Biographical  sketch,  pp.  1-55,  by  A.  E.  Shipley. 

Buettner,  Christophe  Theophile.    An  anatomist  of  the  i8th  cen- 
tury, born  near  Koenigsburg,  1 708-1 776.    Studied  medicine  at  Halle.    In 
1734  he  was  elected  professor  ex.  ord.  of  medicine  in  Koenigsburg;  and 
in  1737  anatomy,  where  he  had  the  use  of  an  anatomical  theater. 
Dissertatio  de  peritonao,  Koenigsburg,  1738,  in-4°. 
Gesammte  anafomische  Wahrnehmungen,  Koenigsberg,  176c), 

Buffon,  Georges-Louis-Leclerc  de,  Comte  de.  French  naturalist, 
1707-1788.  Bufifon  is  not  regarded  as  a  serious  investigator,  although 
his  writings  in  natural  history  are  of  importance.  There  is  an  extensive 
account  of  Buffon  and  a  list  of  his  publications  in  the  Biographic  Medicale. 


Burdach,  Charles  Frederic.  Anatomist  in  Koenigsberg,  1776- 
1847.  Ill  181 1  professor  of  anatomy,  physiology  and  medicine  in  Dorpat; 
1814  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Konigsberg. 

Berichte  von  d&r  anatomischen  Anstalt  zu  Koenigsberg. 
Leipzick,  1817-1824,  in-8° ,  j  pi. 

Vom  Baue  und  Leben  des  Gehirns.  Leipzick,  1819-182^,  5 
vols.  in-4° ,  10  pi.    Bau  des  Gehirns  et  RUckenmarks,  1819-182^. 

Die  Physiologie  als  Erf ahrungswiss ens c haft.  Leipzick,  1826- 
1832,  5  vols,  in-4",  10  pi. 

Fibres  of  ^Fasciculus  cuneatus.  Funiculus  olivce.  Nucleus 
of  =  Operculum.    Pedunculus  septi  pellucidi.    Stratum  nigrum. 

Burdach,  Ernst.  German  anatomist,  1801-1876.  Son  of  the  pre- 
ceding.    Professor  of  anatomy  in  Konigsberg,  1844. 

Beitrag  zur  mikroskopischen  Anatomic  der  Nerven,  1827. 
Anthropologic  fUr  das  gebildete  Publikum,  1841-47. 

Burns,  Allan.    Scotch  anatomist,  1781-1813. 

Falciform,  process  or  ligament  of.    Space. 

Burow,  Karl  August  von.    German  surgeon  in  Konigsberg;  1809- 
1874.     General  physician  to  the  army  of  Prince  Charles  Frederich. 
De  vasibus  sanguiferis  ranarum. 
Vena  Burowi. 

Cabrol,  Barthelemy.  A  French  surgeon  of  the  i6th  century  who 
wrote  an: 

Alphabet  anatomique,  Tournon,  1594. 

Caldani,  Leopoldo-Marc'  Antonio.  Italian  anatomist,  1725-1813. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Padua  as  successor  to  Morgagni,  1771-1805. 

Icones  anat ex  optimis  neotericor.  operib.     Venet.,  1801- 

18 1 3,  fol.  Max.  4  'bde,  mit  264  tafeln;  Explicatio,  Venet.  1802-1814, 
fol.  5  bde. 

Institutiones  Anat.     Tom.  I,  II,  Venet.,  1787. 
Ligament  of  =  arising  from  the  internal  border  of  the  coracoid 

Camper,  Peter  (Pieter,  Petrus).  Dutch  physician,  anatomist, 
paleontologist,  anthropologist  and  artist,  1722-1789.  He  was  born  in 
Leyden  and  became  a  versatile  genius,  having  a  taste  for  drawing,  paint- 
ing, sculpture,  as  well  as  for  scientific  studies.  Studied  under  Boerhaave. 
Professor  of  philosophy,  medicine  and  surgery  in  Franeker,  1749;  of 
medicine  in  Amsterdam,  1755-61 ;  of  theoretical  medicine,  anatomy,  sur- 
gery, and  botany  in  Gronigen,  1763-73.  He  was  very  wealthy  and 
traveled  extensively  and  gathered  a  large  collection  of  skeletons.    Among 


his  discoveries  may  be  mentioned  the  semicircular  canal  in  the  ear  of 
fishes,  the  nature  of  bird  bones  and  important  observations  upon 
mosasaurs.  His  facial  angle  was  the  first  attempt  at  skull  measurement 
from  the  anthropological  standpoint.  He  brought  about  a  closer  relation 
of  anatomy  to  the  fine  arts. 

The  collected  works  of  Camper  were  gathered  under  the  following 
title:     Oeuvres  qui  ont  pour  objet  I'histoire  naturelle,  la  physiologie  et 
I'anatomie  comparee,  Paris,  1803,  3  vols.,  in-8°,  atlas  in  folio. 
Angle.     Chiasm.     Fascia.    Ligament.    Line. 

Cannani  (Cannanus)  (Canano),  Giovan  Baptista  (Jean  Baptiste). 
An  Italian  anatomist  born  in  Ferrare,  1515-1579.  He  became  an  adept 
at  the  art  of  dissecting  and  made  several  important  discoveries.  He  is 
said  to  be  the  first  to  have  discovered  valves  in  the  veins  (1547).  The 
first  indication  of  this  was  the  valve  in  the  azygos  vein.  He  taught 
anatomy  in  the  University  of  Ferrare;  was  first  physician  to  Duke 
Alphonso  II,  and  to  Pope  Julius  III. 

Musculorum  humani  corporis  picturam  dissectio,  per  J'os.- 
Bapt.  Cannanum,  Ferrariensium  medicum,  in  Barthol.  Nigrisoli, 
Ferrar,  patricii  gratiam,  nunc  primum  in  lucem  edita,  in-4°. 

Carcassone,  Bernard-Gauderic.    A  French  surgeon,  1728. 
Ligament  of  =  the  deep  perineal  fascia. 

Carpi,  Jacobus  Berengar.    See  Berengario  da  Carpi. 

Cartesius.    See  Descartes,  Rene. 

Carus,  Carl  Gustav.  German  comparative  anatomist  and  zoolo- 
gist, 1789-1869.    Professor  of  comparative  anatomy  at  Dresden,  1814. 

Grundzuge  der  vergleichenden  Anatomie  und  Physiologie, 
Dresden,  1828.  The  work  contained  also  as  an  introduction  an 

Geschichte  der  Zoologie. 

Atlas  der  Kranioskopie,  Leipzig,  1864. 

Vergleichende  Psychologie,  Vienna,  1866. 

Carus,  Julius  Viktor.  A  German  zoologist  and  bibliographer, 
1823-1903.  Studied  medicine  in  Leipzig;  1849  keeper  of  the  collections 
in  comparative  anatomy  at  Oxford.  He  returned  to  Leipzig  in  1851  and 
in  1853  was  appointed  professor  of  comparative  anatomy  and  director  of 
the  zoological  collection.    Editor  of  the  "  Zoologischer  Anzeiger,"  1878- 


BiUiotheca  Zoologica,  1861,  m  2  vols. 
Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  Miinchen,  1872,  in-8°. 


Casserio  (Casserius),  Giulio.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1545-1616. 
He  entered  the  service  of  Fabricio  ab  Aquapendente  as  a  domestic 
servant,  and  later  (1604)  succeeded  his  master  as  professor  of  anatomy 
at  Padua.  He  studied  especially  the  organs  of  voice  and  hearing. 
He  discovered  the  stapedius  muscle  and  described  the  ductus  parotideus 
as  a  ligament. 

De  vocis  aditusque  organis  historia  anatomica,  Ferrare,  1600, 
in  fol.  J7  pis.  Tabuice  anatomica  LXXVIII  cum  supplemento  XX 
tabularum  Dan.  Bucretii,  qui  et  omnium  explicationes  addidit 
Venice,  i62'j,  in  fol.  TabulcB  de  formato  foetu,  Amsterdam,  1645, 
in  fol. 

He  also  left  a  large  work  on  anatomy  unfinished. 

Fontanelle.   Ganglion.  Perforated  muscle.   Perforating  nerve. 

Celsus,  Aurelius  Cornelius.  He  lived  in  the  first  half  of  the 
1st  century  B.  C.  (30  B.  C.-25  A.  D.)  Known  as  the  Cicero  medicorum 
on  account  of  the  purity  of  his  Latin.  He  was  the  author  of  no  separate 
anatomical  treatise,  but  his  work  "  De  Medicina  Libri  VIII,"  contains  a 
great  many  anatomical  descriptions,  from  which  we  may  infer  that  he 
was  acquainted  with  the  main  facts  of  visceral  anatomy.  This  work  under 
the  title  " De  Re  Medicina"  was  one  of  the  first  medical  books  to  be 
printed  (1478).  There  are  105  editions  of  the  works  of  Celsus  still  in 

Septum  transversum  (Diaphragma).  Linea  alba  (Galaxia). 
Scatula  (Scapula). 

Cesalpino  (Cesalpinus,  Caesalpinus,  Cesalpin),  Andre.  An  Italian 
naturalist  and  philosopher  of  the  Renaissance,  15 19-1603.  He  was  pro- 
fessor of  botany  at  the  University  of  Pisa.  Physician  to  Pope  Clement 
VIII.  He  is  said  to  have  made  important  observations  upon  the  circula- 
tion of  the  blood. 

Charriere,  Joseph  de  la.  A  French  physician  and  surgeon  in  Paris 
in  the  early  half  of  the  i8th  century.    He  wrote  an : 

Anatomic  nouvelle  de  I'homme  et  de  ses  dependancei,  Paris, 

Chassaignac,  Charles-Marie-lfidouard.  A  Parisian  surgeon,  1805- 

Tubercle  of  =  tuberculum  caroticum. 

Chaussier,  Francois.  French  surgeon,  1746-1828.  Professor  in 
the  faculty  of  Medicine  at  Paris.    Professor  of  anatomy  Academy  of  Arts, 


at  Dijon,  and  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  the  polytechnic  school  in 

Memoire  sur  les  vaisseaux  omphalo-mesenteriques,  in  "Mem. 
de  I' Acad,  de  Dijon,  ijSs.  Memoir es  sur  la  structures  et  les  usages 
des  epiploons,  in  "  Mem.  de  I' Acad,  de  Dijon,  1784.  Tables 
synoptiques:  1°  de  la  zoonomie,  ou  plan  general  des  cours  d'anato- 
mie  et  de  zoologie;  2°  du  squelette;  j°  des  muscles;  4°  des  arteries; 
5°  des  veines;  6°  des  lymphatiques;  7°  des  nerfs;  8°  du  nerf  tris- 
planchnique;  p°  des  humeurs  ou  fluides  animaux;  10°  des  solides 
organiques;  11"  de  la  force  vitale;  12°  de  la  semeiotique  de  la 
sante  et  de  la  maladie ;  15°  des  fonctions;  14°  de  la  digestion;  i^° 
des  mesures  relatives  a  I' accouchement;  16°  de  I' accouchement; 
77°  des  methodes  nosologiques ;  18°  de  la  neuralgic;  ip°  des 
hernies,  1789-1811. 

Line  of  =  the  median  antero-posterior  line  of  the  corpus  cal- 

Cheselden,  William.  An  English  physician,  who,  in  the  i8th 
century,  published: 

The  Anatomy  of  the  Human  Body,  London,  17 13,  in-8° .  This 
work  went  through  six  editions.  Osteographia  or  anatomy  of  the 
bones,  London,  1733,  folio. 

Chopart,  Frangois.    A  surgeon  in  Paris,  1743-1795. 

Joint  of  =  articulus  tarsi  transversus  (Choparti). 

Ciaccio,   Giuseppe   Vincenzo.     An   Italian   anatomist,   1824-1901. 
Professor  of  comparative  anatomy  and  histology  in  Bologna. 
On  the  nerves  of  the  cornea,  London,  1863. 
Glandula  Ciaccio. 

Civinini,  Filippo.     Italian  anatomist  of  the  19th  century, 

1844.     Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery;  and  of  pathology  in  Pistoja. 
Ligamentum  pterygopetrosum;  —  pterygospinosum.  Processus 

Claparede,  Jean-Louis-Rene-Antoine-ildouard.  A  French  proto- 
zoologist,  1 832-1870.  Studied  medicine  and  natural  history  with  Johannes 
Mueller  and  C.  G.  Ehrenberg.  He  accompanied  Joh.  Miiller  on  an  exten- 
sive expedition  along  the  coasts  of  Sweden  in  1855.  Professor  of  com- 
parative anatomy  in  1862  at  Genf. 

Etudes  sur  les  infusoires  et  les  rhisopodes,  Genf.  2  vols.,  18^8- 

Clarke,  Jacob  Augustus  Lockhart.  An  anatomist  in  England, 
and  physician  in  Pimlico  and  London,  1817-80.  He  became  well  known 
for  his  researches  on  the  structure  of  the  brain  and  spinal  cord.     He 


published  the  results  of  his  studies  in  Philosophical  Transactions  of  the 
Royal  Society  of  London  for  185 1  and  1863. 

Oolumna  Clarkii;  — gracilis:   Corpus  restiforme.     Funiculus 

cuneatus.     Nucleus  dorsalis  columncz  can(B  posterioris  (Stillingi, 


Claudius,  Friedrich  Matthias.  German  anatomist,  1822-69.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  in  Kiel  and  in  Marburg. 

Cells  of  =  columnar  cells  on  the  floor  of  the  ductus  cochlearis. 
Fossa  of  ^a  slight  depression  on  either  side  of  the  ovary.  Canalis 

Claus,  Carl  Friedrich  Wilhelm.  A  German  zoologist,  1835-1899. 
Studied  medicine  and  natural  history  in  Giessen  and  Marburg.  In  1858 
he  was  privatdocent  for  zoology  in  Marburg.  In  1873  he  was  called  to 
the  professorship  of  zoology  at  Vienna,  where  he  remained  for  23  years. 
Known  for  his  studies  on  medusae. 

Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Organization  und  Entwickelung  der 
Medusen,  Prag.,  1883. 

Biography:  Verh.  d.  K.  K.  Sool.  Gesellsch.,  Vienna,  i8pp. 
Hofrat  Carl  Claus.  Autobiographie  bis  1873.  Vollendet  von  Pro- 
fessor Alth.  Marburg,  jpp,  with  3  portraits. 

Clerc,  Daniel  le.  A  Swiss  ph_ysician,  1652-1728.  Born  at  Geneva. 
A  practicing  physician  at  Geneva. 

Bibliotheca  anatomica,  1688,  in  2  vol.  folio. 

Cloquet,  Hippolyte.  A  French  anatomist,  1 787-1840.  Brother 
to  the  following.    Professor  of  anatomy  in  Paris. 

Traite    d'anatomie    descriptive,     Paris,    i8i6-i835>    ^'^    •^-*' 


Cloquet,  Jules-Germain.  A  P"  .1  -iiigeon,  1790-1883.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  Paris. 

Memoires  sur  la  membrane  papillaire,  Paris,  1818. 
Canalis     hyaloideus.       Ganglion.       Glamdula     Cloqueti.       Liga- 
mentum  teres.    Capituli  costce.    Musculus  tenuis,  (sacrococcygeus 
anterior).    Septum  Cloqueti  (femorale).    Spina  pubis. 

Cobbold,  Thomas  Spencer.  An  English  zoologist  in  London, 
1828-1886.  Known  for  important  writings  on  internal  parasites  of  man, 
published,  1872-3. 

Cohnheim,  Julius  Friedrich.  German  pathologist,  1839-1884. 
Professor  of  pathological  anatomy  in  Kiel,  Breslau  and  Leipzig.    Well 


known  for  the  Cohnheim's  areas  which  are  polygonal  mosaic-like  figures 
seen  in  the  cross  section  of  a  muscle. 

Colter  (Coyter,  Koyter),  Volcherus.  Dutch  anatomist,  1 534-1600. 
Born  in  Groningen.  He  early  became  interested  in.  the  study  of  anatomy 
and  pursued  medical  subjects  in  the  best  universities  of  France  and  Italy. 
He  came  under  the  influence  of  the  work  of  Fallopio,  Eustachio  and 
Aranzio.  He  made  especially  careful  observations  on  the  osteology  of 
the  foetus. 

De  ossibus  et  cartilaginihus  corporis  humani  tdbulce,  Bologna, 

CoUes,  Abraham.  Irisih  surgeon,  1773-1843.  Professor  of  anatomy 
and  surgery  at  Dublin. 

Fascia  Coilesi.  Ligamentum  inguinale  reflexum.  Ligamentum 
triangulare  wrethrce.    Fascia  diaphragmatis  urogenitalis  superior. 

Colombo  (Columbus),  Matteo-Realdo  (Mathieu-Reald)  of  Cre- 
mona, Pisa  and  Rome;  1494-1559  (1.577)  Prosector  to  Vesalius.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Padua.  His  observations  are  said  to 
have  been  copied  from  the  works  of  Servetiis. 

De  re  anatomica  libri  XV,  Venice,  1559,  in  folio. 

Compciretti,  Andrea.  Born  in  Frioul,  1764-1801.  He  was  a  stu- 
dent of  Morgagni  in  Padua.  He  discovered  the  ganglion  on  the  vagus 
nerve ;  and  worked  on  the  comparative  anatomy  of  the  ear. 

Ohservationes  ancttomicce  de  aure  interna  comparata,  Padua, 
1789,  in- 4°. 

Cooper,  Sir  Astley  Paston.  An  English  surgeon,  1768-1841. 
Physician  to  King  George  IV,  at  London ;  and  to  Queen  Victoria. 

The  Anatomy  and  Diseases  of  the  Breast,  with  numerous 
plates,  Philadelphia,  1845.  The  Structure  and  Diseases  of  the 
Testis  and  Thymus  Gland,  1832. 

Fascia  cremasterica.    Ligamentum  puhicum. 

Cope,  Edward  Drinker.  A  noted  American  anatomist  and  paleon- 
tologist, 1840-1897.  Professor  of  paleontology  in  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania.  An  indefatigable  writer  and  explorer;  he  collected  or 
had  collected  great  numbers  of  fossil  vertebrates  which  he  described  in 
various  periodicals  and  through  the  United  States  Geological  Survey  of 
which  he  was  Vertebrate  Paleontologist.  Locy  says  of  Cope  that :  "  He 
was  a  comparative  anatomist  equal  to  Cuvier  in  the  extent  of  his  knowl- 
edge, and  of  large  philosophical  views."    His  publications,  relating  to  the 


anatomy,  taxonomy  and  paleontology  of  vertebrates,  are  very  extensive, 
numbering  nearly  700  titles,  varying  in  importance  from  notes  of  a  few 
lines  to  the  large  quarto  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  over  locx)  pages 
and  100  lithographic  plates.  His  ideas  of  taxonomy  and  philosophy  may 
be  gleaned  from  his  volume  of  essays  and  his  other  general  works. 

The  Vertebrata  of  the  Cretaceous  Formations  of  the  West, 
Rept.  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  vol.  II,  Wushington, 
i8^§,in-4°.  The  Origin  of  the  Fittest.  Essays  vn  Evolution.  New 
York,  188/,  in-8°,  a  series  of  21  essays.  The  Mechanical  Causes  of 
the  Development  of  the  hard  Parts  of  the  Mammalia.  Journ.  Mor- 
phology, vol.  Ill,  pp.  137-277,  i88p.  Syllabus  of  Lectures  vn  Geol- 
ogy and  Paleontology,  Philadelphia,  i8pj. 

Biography:  Edward  Drinker  Cope,  Naturalist,  a  Chapter  in 
the  History  of  Science,  American  Naturalist,  1897.  Also  Science, 
May  7th,  i8g>7.  For  list  of  titles,  see:  Hay,  0.  P.,  ip02. 
Bibliography  and  Catalogue  of  fossil  Vertebrates.  Bull.  i7p,  U.  S. 
Geol.  Surv.,  pp.  3P-70. 

Copho  II  (ca  1085-1100).  An  Italian  anatomist  of  the  Salernitan 
school,  who  was  the  author  of  the  well-known  medieval  handbook 
entitled :  Anatome  Porci,  in  which  the  viscera  of  the  hog  are  compared 
to  those  of  man.  This  work  was  edited  in  1537  by  Joh.  Eichmann  under 
the  title: 

"Anatome  porci  ex  traditione  Cophonis." 

Cornil,  Andre-Victor.     A  French  anatomist  in  Paris,  1837-1908. 

Corti,  'Marchese  Alfonso.  An  Italian  histalogist,  was  born  in 
Gambarana  in  Sardinia  on  the  15th  of  June,  1822;  and  died  in  Rome  on 
the  19th  of  February,  1888.  Corti  is  to  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
brilliant  exponents  of  the  physiological  and  anatomical  knowledge  of  the 
nineteenth  century.  His  name  is  associated  with  the  organ  of  Corti  in 
the  ear  which  he  described  in  185 1  in  the  "  Zeitschrift  filr.  wissenschaft- 
liche  Zoologie,"  with  the  title:  " Recherches  sur  Torgane  de  I'ouie  des 
mammiferes."  He  studied  unde-r  the  direction  o.f  Hyrtl  at  Vienna,  and 
later  became  his  prosector,  1848-1849.  It  is  thought  that  about  1850  he 
came  under  the  influence  of  Johannes  Mueller  in  Berlin.  Later  he  went 
to  Utrecht  where  he  worked  with  Schroder  van  der  Kolk,  Harting  and 
Verloren.  He  later  was  associated  with  Koelliker  and  Gegenbaur  in 
histological  investigations.  In  1852  Corti  returnefd  to  Turin,  but  he  held 
no  teaching  position  of  which  we  know  anything. 

Organon  spirale  (Cortii). 

Biography:  Marchese  Alfonso  Corti,  Ein  biographischer 
Versuch  von  Josef  Schaffer,  Wien,  mit  dem  Bilde  Cortis.  An- 
atomischer  Anzeiger,  Ed.  46,  no.  13/14,  pp.  368-382,  IP14;  Bei- 


traege  zu  einer  Biographie  des  Marchese  Alfonso  Corti.  by  Gott- 
fried Bruckner  —  Archiv  f.  d.  Gesch.  d.  Naturw.  u.  d.  Technik, 
Bd.  3,  pp.  69-71,  ipij. 

Coste,  Jean-Jacques-Marie-Cyprien- Victor.  A  French  embryolo- 
gist,  1807-1873.  Studied  in  Paris  where  he  devoted  himself  especially 
to  embryology.  Professor  of  embryology  in  the  College  de  France.  In 
185 1  he  succeeded  De  Blainville  in  the  Academy  of  Science. 

Recherches  sur  la  generation  des  mammifcres,  suives  de 
recherches  sur  la  formation  des  embryons.  Paris,  1825.  This 
essay  was  given  a  gold  medal  by  the  Academy  of  Science.  Embry- 
ologie  comparee.  Cours  sur  la  developpement  de  I'homme  et  des 
animaux.  Paris,  1837.  Histoire  generale  du  developpement  des 
corps  organises  Paris,  1847-183J,  2  Thle.  with  atlas  in  folio. 

Cotunnius  (Cotugno,  Cotugnio),  Domenico.  An  Italian  anat- 
omist, 1736-1822.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  Naples.  Known  for  his 
work  on  the  internal  ear. 

De  aquceductibus  auris  humani,  Naples,  1761. 
Aquula  labyrinthi  externi.    Nervus  Cotunnius.    Saccus  endo- 

Cowper,  William.  London  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1666-1709. 
To  him  has  been  attributed  the  discovery  of  the  glands  which  bear  his 
name,  but  which  were  probably  originally  discovered  by  Jean  Mery.  He 
is  known  for  the  magnificence  of  the  works  which  he  published.  It 
is  stated  by  Turner  that  he  was  not  always  careful  to  give  credit  for 
work  which  he  borrowed.  It  seems  certain  that  some  of  the  plates  pub- 
lished by  him  were  the  work  of  Bidloo. 

Myotonia  reformata,  or  a  new  administration  of  all  the 
muscles  of  the  human  body,  London,  1694,  in-8°.  The  anatomy 
of  the  human  body  with  figures  drawn  after  the  life  by  some  of 
best  masters  in  Europe.  Oxford,  1697,  in  fol.  It  is  said  that  the 
plates  in  this  ivork  are  beautiful,  but  that  they  are  riot  all  the  work 
of  Cowper,  and  that  the  majority  of  them  belong  to  Bidloo. 
Glandularum  quarumdam  nuper  detectarum  ductuumque  earum 
excretoriorum  descriptio  cum  figuris,  London,  1702,  in-4°. 

He  is  the  author  also  of  various  smaller  treatises. 
Glandula  bulbourethralis. 

Crampton,  Sir  Phillip.     Irish  surgeon,  1777-1858. 

Line  of  =  line  from  the  apex  of  the  cartilage  of  the  last  rib. 
Muscle  of  =  radiating  fibres  of  the  ciliary  muscle. 

Crooks,  Elias.  Pubhshed  in  1815  the  first  anatomical  treatise 
printed  in  England  in  the  English  language. 


Cruikshank,  William.  Anatomist  and  physician  of  Edinburgh 
and  London,  1745-1800. 

Anatomy  of  the  absorbing  vessels  of  the  human  body,  London, 
1786,  in-4°. 

Cruveilhier,  Jean  (1791-1874).  Anatomist,  pathologist  and  physi- 
cian in  Paris,  Professor  in  Paris. 

Cours  d'etudes  anatomiques,  i8jo.  Traite  d'anatomie  de- 
scriptive, Paris,  1863-1871.    Anatomie  du  systeme  nerveux,  1845. 

Amphiarthrosis.  Arteria  calcanea  ext.  —  radio  palmaris.  —  re- 
currens  interna.  — scapularis  propria.  Glandula  foraminis  obtura- 
torii;  —  lacrimalis  palpebralis.  Ligamentum  adiposum  genu;  — 
interosseum  costo-vertebrale,  cruris  et  genu;  —  occipito-epistro- 
phicum;  — patellae  anterius;  — posterius  medianum;  — pubis  in- 
ferius;  — vertebrate  post,  (sacroiliacum).  Linea  alba  anococcygea. 
Musculus  abductor  hallucis;  —  abductor  obliquus;  —  auricularis 
anterior  et  anticus  profundus;  — cleidohyoideus;  — extensor  triceps 
femoris;  —  pterygopharyngeus  ext. ;  —  scalenus  post.;  —  thyreo- 
cricoarytcen. ;  —  transversoanalis ;  —  vastus  ext.  brachii.  Pars  orbi- 
topalpebralis.  Plexus  jugularis  post,  (vertebralis  ext.).  Plica  adi- 
posa  genu  (synovialis  pat.)  Portio  funicularis.  Ramus  a.  brachi- 
alis;  — nervi  facialis;  — palpebralis  et  trochlearis;  — superior 
profunda  brachii.  ,  Rhape  mediana.  Sinus  v.  jugularis  int.;  — 
venosus.  Truncus  venosus  alveolaris.  Tunica  vaginalis  propria 
testis.  Vena:  mediance  inf.  (cerebri  inferiores);  — jugular es 
post.;  —  temporomaxillaris  ;  — thyreolaryngece ;  — ventriculares ;  — 
vertebrocostales.    Zona  atrioventricular  is. 

Cunningham,  Daniel  John.  A  Scottish  anatomist,  1850-1909. 
Born  at  Crieff.  Demonstrator  of  anatomy,  University  of  Edinburgh, 
1874-82;  professor  of  anatomy.  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  Dublin, 
1882-83 ;  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  1883-1903 ;  University  of  Edinburgh, 
1903-1909,  as  successor  to  Sir  William  Turner.  Editor  of  the  Journal 
of  Anatomy  and  Physiology. 

Manual  of  practical  Anatomy,  6th  edition,  1914.    Textbook  of 
Anatomy,  1902,-05,-09^-14. 
Operculum  fronto-orbitale. 

Biography:  Brit.  Med.  Journ.,  ipop,  vol.  2,  pp.  53-57,  with 
portrait.    Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  35,  p.  lop,  ipio. ' 

Cuvier,  Georges-Leopold-Chretien-Frederic-Dagobert,  Baron  de 
la.  A  noted  French  zoologist,  paleontologist  and  comparative  anat- 
omist, 1769-1832.  He  was  born  at  Montbeliard,  in  the  department  of 
Doubs.  Through  the  interests  of  Geoflfroy  Saint-Hillaire  he  was  ap- 
pointed assistant  to  Mertrud,  at  that  time  the  aged  professor  of  com- 
parative anatomy  in  the  Museum  d'Histoire  Naturelle.  He  was  asso- 
ciated with  Lacepede  and  Daubenton  in  the  founding  of  the  National 


Institute  (1795).  In  1799  he  succeeded  Daubenton  in  the  chair  of 
Natural  History  in  the  College  of  France.  In  1802  he  became  professor 
at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes.  In  1808  he  was  placed  by  Napoleon  upon  the 
council  of  the  Imperial  University.  During  the  later  years  of  his  life, 
"  By  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  learned  world,  he  was  regarded  as 
the  most  eminent  of  living  naturalists."  He  filled  many  important  public 
positions  in  connection  with  the  educational  affairs  of  France.  In  183 1 
he  was  raised  by  Louis  Philippe  to  the  rank  of  a  peer  of  France,  and 
was  subsequently  appointed  president  of  the  council  of  state. 

Lecons  d'anatomie  comparee.     Paris,  i^pp-180^,  5  vol.,  in-8°. 

pi.      Recherches   anatomiques  sur  les  Reptiles  regardes   encore 

comme  oiseaux.    Paris,  180/,  in-4",  pi.    Memoires  pour  servir  a 

Thistoire  et  a  I'anatomie  des  mollusques.    Paris,  J8i/,  in-4°,  jo  pi. 

Recherches  sur  les  ossemens  fossiles.     Paris,  1812,  in-4°,  4  vol., 

pi.;  1821-182S,  5  vol.  in- 4°,  316  pi. 

Canal  of  ^^^  sinus  venosus  in  the  embryo.    Ducts  of  ^  cardinal 

■veins.    Sinus  of  ^=  canal.    Veins  c/  =  ducts. 

Biography:  Moge  historique  de  G.  Cuvier,  by  M.  Flour  ens, 

1858.    Memoirs  of  Cuvier,  by  Sarah  Lee,  London,  1833. 

Czermak,  Johann  Nepomuk.  Austrian  physician  and  physiologist, 
1828-1873.     Professor  of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy  in   Graz; 
physiology  in  Krakau,  Jena  and  Leipzig.    Minute  anatomy  of  the  teeth. 
Spaces  of  =  gaps  in  the  dentine. 

d'Abano,  Petrus.    See  Abano,  Pietro  di. 

Dalenpatius:  a  pseudonym  under  which  Plantade  of  Montpellier 
pubHshed,  in  1699,  the  discovery  he  had  made  under  the  microscope,  of  a 
small  man,  perfectly  formed,  in  the  head  of  a  human  spermatozoan. 

Darwin,  Charles  Robert.  England's  greatest  naturalist,  was  born 
at  Shrewsbury,  February  12,  1809.  He  spent  five  years  on  a  voyage  of 
exploration  on  board  H.  M.  S.  Beagle  and  it  was  during  this  long  trip 
that  he  laid  the  foundation  for  his  later  enormous  success.  Some  years 
after  he  returned  to  England  he  settled  at  Downs  where  he  passed  the 
remainder  of  his  life;  private  means  enabling  him  to  devote  his  whole 
time  to  his  favorite  studies.  Darwin  will  be  remembered  as  the  great 
leader  in  evolutional  thought.  His  influence  upon  modern  intellectual 
work  is  extremely  great,  and  his  influence  was  felt  in  other  lines  of 
thought  than  in  biology.  He  died  April  19,  1882,  and  was  buried  with 
unusual  honors  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

Journal  of  Researches  into  the  Geology  and  Natural  History 
of  the  various  Countries  visited  by  H.  M.  S.  Beagle,  1839.  The 
Origin  of  Species  by  means  of  Natural  Selection,  1850.    This  work 


has  gone  through  a  large  number  of  editions  and  is  today  regarded 
as  'one  of  the  great  English  biological  classics.  It  has  been  trans- 
lated into  many  modern  languages.    Descent  of  Man,  i8yi. 

Biography:  Life  and  letters  of  Charles  Robert  Darwin,  by  his 
son,  2  'Vols.,  1887.    More  Letters  of  Charles  Darwin,  2  vols.,  ipoj. 

Darwin,  Erasmus.    A  man  of  science  and  a  poet,  1 731-1802.    He 

was  born  at  Elton  in  Nottinghamshire  on  the  12th  of  December.     His 

most  important  work:  Zoonomia,  or  the  Laws  of  organic  Life,  London, 

1794,  in-4",  contains  a  system  on  pathology  and  a  treatise  on  generation. 

Biography:  Richardson:  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  2,  pp. 

^74-'^93>  1901- 

Daubenton,  Louis-Jean-Marie.  A  noted  French  naturalist,  1716- 
1800.  He  was  associated  with  Buffon  in  the  preparation  of  the  "  Histoire 
naturelle  generate  et  particuliere,"  which  first  appeared  in  1749-1767,  in 
36  volumes.  Daubenton's  share  of  the  work  was  the  anatomical  descrip- 
tions of  various  animals.  He  dissected  representatives  of  182  species  of 
quadrupeds.  He  became  lecturer  on  natural  history  in  the  College  of 
Medicine  in  1775,  and  besides  being  actively  engaged  in  his  own  researches 
he  was  keeper  of  the  cabinet  of  natural  history  in  Paris.  The  results  of 
his  researches  into  comparative  anatomy  of  fossil  and  recent  animals  he 
published  in  the  "  Memoires  de  L'Academie  des  Sciences "  between 

Angle  of  =  and  Line  of  =  anthropological  points  on  the  skull. 

Davaine,  Casimir-Joseph.  A  French  zoologist,  1811-1882.  Known 
for  an  important  work  on  intestinal  parasites  published  in  i860. 

Davis,  Joseph  Bernard.  An  English  anthropologist,  1801-1881, 
in  London. 

Deiters,  Otto  Friedrich  Karl.  German  anatomist,  1834-1863. 
Decent  in  Bonn. 

Untersuchungen  Uber  Gehirn  und  RUckenmark,  Braunschweig, 

Cells  of=cells  in  the  organ  of  Corti.  Nucleus  of=the  lateral 
vestibular  nucleus.  Phalanges  of  =  cells.  Process  of  =  neuraxon. 
Terminal  frames  of  ^^=  plate-like  structures  in  the  organ  of  Corti 
uniting  Deiters'  cells  with  Hensen's  cells. 

de  Ketham,  Johannis.    See  Ketham,  Johannis  de. 

Democritus,  a  Greek  philosopher,  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
Atomic  philosophy,  was  born  at  Abdera,  494  (460)  B.  C.     He  was  a 


contemporary  of  Socrates.  His  love  of  study  was  so  great  that  he  once 
said  that  the  discovery  of  a  true  cause  was  greater  than  the  possession 
of  the  kingdom  of  Persia.  Cuvier  speaks  of  him  as  the  first  comparative 
anatomist.    Toply  says  he  wrote  an  anatomy  of  the  chameleon. 

Demours,  Pierre.  A  French  oculist  in  Paris  (1702-1795),  who  is 
noted  for  his  work  on  the  anatomy  and  pathology  of  the  eye.  He 
demonstrated  that  the  cornea  is  not  a  prolongation  of  the  sclerotic,  and 
observed  that  the  posterior  layer  of  the  cornea  is  separable. 

Nouvelles  reflexions  sur  la  lame  cartilagineuse  de  la  cornee, 
Paris,  1770,  in-8°. 

Membrane  of  =  lamina  basalis  posterior.  (Descemeti.)  Endo- 
thelium camerae  anterior. 

Denonvillier,  Charles-Pierre.    A  surgeon  in  Paris,  1 808-1 872. 
Aponeurosis  of  =  retrovesical  fascia. 

Desault,  Pierre-Joseph.  An  eminent  French  surgeon,  1744-1795. 
He  was  the  teacher  and  associate  of  Bichat.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
creator  of  surgical  anatomy  in  France.  Bichat,  after  the  death  of  Desault, 
published  the  complete  works  of  the  latter : 

Les  Oeuvres  chirurgicales  de  Desault,  in  3  vols.,  in-8°. 

There  is  an  extensive  account  of  the  life  of  Desault  in  the  Biographic 

Descartes,  Rene.  An  eminent  philosopher,  who  was  born  in  La 
Haye,  in  Touraine,  on  the  31st  of  March,  1596,  and  died  in  Stockholm 
on  the  nth  of  February,  1650.  Descartes  touched  on  nearly  every  phase 
of  philosophical  and  scientific  thought  of  his  day  and  it  is  not  surprising 
to  find  him  interested  in  anatomy  and  physiology.  His  physiological  and 
anatomical  treatises  entitled :  "  U Homme,"  "  La  Formation  du  Foetus," 
"Tractatus  de  Homine,"  were  first  published  in  1664  by  Clerselier. 
Perhaps  his  most  important  production  for  the  use  of  scientific  workers 
is  his  "  Discours  de  la  methode  pour  hien  conduire  sa  raison  et  chercher 
la  verite  dans  les  sciences^'  which  appeared  in  1637.  In  his  "  Tractatus 
de  Homine,"  there  are  several  very  good  figures  of  the  brain  used  to 
elucidate  his  fanciful  ideas  of  the  nature  of  nerve  impulses.  Huxley  has 
discussed  the  general  bearing  of  Descartes'  ideas  in  his  essay  on  the 
"  Discourse  "  in :    Methods  and  Results,  p.  166,  i8po. 

Descemet,  Jean.  Physician  in  Paris,  1732-1810.  Professor  in 
Paris.    He  discovered,  or  at  least  described  the  membrane  of  Descemet, 


although  this  was  probably   first   discovered   by   Benedict   Duddell,   a 
London  oculist.    The  membrane  was  also  early  noted  by  Demours. 
Lamina  elastica. 

Detharding,  Georges.  Born  at  Stralsund,  Prussia,  1671-1747. 
Professor  of  medicine  at  Rostock,  1697-1732;  at  Copenhagen  he  became 
first,  professor,  then  dean  of  the  faculty  of  medicine. 

Oratio  de  idea  veri  anatomici,  Rostock,  i6tj,  in-^" .  Disserta- 
tio  de  fontanella  infantum,  Altdorf,  i6§^,  in-4° .  Pfogramma  ad 
anatomiam  in  corpore  masculino  instituendam  invitans,  Rostock, 
1 701,  in-4°. 

Detharding,  Georges  Christophe.  Son  of  the  preceding,  born  in 
Rostock,  1699-1784.  When  his  father  was  called  to  Copenhagen  he 
succeeded  him  at  Rostock  as  professor  of  medicine. 

Dissertatio  de  glandula  inguinali,  Rostock,  1746,  in-4°.  Dis- 
sertatio  de  corpore  humano  semper  mutabili,  Rostock,  1732. 

Deusing,  Antoine.  A  Dutch  physician,  1612-1666.  Born  at 
Meurs.  He  studied  at  the  University  of  Leyden,  and  became  professor 
of  mathematics  in  Harderwick,  then  physics  and  mathematics,  and  then 
medicine.  His  works  do  not  attest  deep  inquiry  into  the  subjects  pursued. 
He  was  the  author  of  numerous  treatises  and  dissertations,  some  of  which 
treat  of  anatomical  subjects.    The  following  may  be  mentioned: 

Examen  anatomes  anatomies  BilsiancB,  seu  epistola  de  chyli 
motu,  Gronigen,  1665,  in- 12°. 

Diemerbroeck,  Isbrand  de.  A  Dutch  physician,  1609-1674.  He 
was  born  in  Montford  in  Holland.  He  was  professor  of  medicine  and 
anatomy  in  the  university  at  Utrecht  for  twenty-four  years.  He  did 
something  to  advance  pathological  anatomy. 

Anatome  corporis  humani,  Utrecht,  1672,  in-4°.  Opera  omnia 
anatomica  et  medica,  Utrecht,  1685,  in  folio. 

Diodes  (Diokles),  of  Carystus  and  of  Euboea  (ca  360  B.  C.)  is 
the  author  of  a  work:  Iltjot  YiivaKeiuv,  which  treats  of  the  development 
of  the  embryo,  and  female  diseases.  He  discusses  menstruation,  abortions, 
the  cause  of  severe  labor  and  other  points  well  known  in  modern 

Diogenes,  of  Apollonia  in  Crete,  a  celebrated  natural  philosopher 
who  lived  at  Athens  about  460  B.  C.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Anaximenes 
and  a  contemporary  of  Anaxagoras.  He  is  said  to  have  proposed  the 
terms  amnion  and  chorion  for  the  foetal  membranes. 


Dionis,  Pierre.    A  Parisian  surgeon, 1718.    He  was  professor 

of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the  "  Jardin  du  Roi,"  in  1673. 

Histoire  anatomique  d'une  matrice  extraordinaire,  Paris,  168 j, 
in-i2° .  L'anatomie  de  I'homme,  Paris,  1690,  in-8°.  This  was 
translated  into  many  languages. 

Disse,  Josef.  A  German  anatomist,  1852-1912.  Born  at  Brakel; 
studied  medicine  in  Gottingen,  Wiirzburg,  Miinchen  and  Erlangen ;  later 
assistant  to  Gerlach,  1875.  Assistant  to  Waldeyer  in  Strassburg ;  and  in 
1880  professor  ord.  of  anatomy  in  Tokio.  Returned  to  Europe  in  1888 
a?  a  worker  in  the  anato.nical  institute  in  Gouingeu  with  Merkel,  later 
a.  o.  professor,  1894-         ;  professor  extraord.  at  Marburg. 

Beitrdge  zur  Anatomie  des  Menschlichen  Kehlkopfes,  1875. 
Zur  Anatomie  des  Menschlichen  Harnleiters,  ipoi.  Ueber  die 
Bildung  der  Grundsubstanz  des  Knochengewebes,  ipii. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  42,  pp.  26-28,  ipii. 
With  bibliography. 

Doellinger,  Johann  Ignaz  Josef.  A  German  physician  and  anat- 
omist, 1770-1841.  A  student  of  Barth  and  Prochaska  in  Vienna;  Scarpa 
in  Pavia.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Wiirzburg,  1803-23 ; 
then  in  Munich.    A  teacher  of  Karl  Ernst  von  Baer  in  Wiirzburg. 

Ueber  den  Werth  und  die  Bedeutung  der  vergleichenden  An- 
atomie. WUrzbourg,  1804,  in-8° .  Beitrdge  zur  Entzvickelungsge- 
schichte  des  menschlichen  Gehirns.  Francfort,  1814,  in-fol.,  2  pi. 
De  vasis  sanguiferis.    Munich,  1828,  in-4°,  2  pi. 

Tendinous  ring  of  =  a  thickening  of  Descemefs  membrane. 

Dogiel,  Jan  von.  A  Russian  anatomist,  zoologist  and  physiologist, 
1830-  .  Worked  in  Heidelberg  with  Helmholtz,  Kirchhoff  and 
Bunsen;  in  1868  privat-docent  in  St.  Petersburg;  professor  of  phar- 
macology at  Kasan.  Author  of  numerous  papers  on  anatomical  and 
physiological  subjects. 

Anatomie  und  Physiologie  d.  Herzens  der  Larve  von  Corethra 
plumicornis,  1877,  St.  Petersburg. 

Dohm,  Anton.  A  German  zoologist,  1840-1909.  The  founder 
and  first  director  of  the  Zoological  Station  of  Naples,  the  foremost 
biological  station  in  the  world.  As  a  boy  Dohrn  was  interested  in  ento- 
mology, and  later  studied  zoology  at  Konigsberg,  Bonn  and  Berlin,  where 
he  was  especially  influenced  by  the  work  of  Haeckel,  Gegenbaur,  and 
Charles  Darwin.  Later  he  became  a  pupil  and  colleague  of  Haeckel  at 
Jena,  where  he  held  the  position  of  docent  in  the  university.  In  1870  he 
began  maturing  his  plans  for  the  establishment  of  a  zoological  station  in 
Naples.  In  1868  he  had  already  established  a  station  on  the'  island  of 
Sicily  at  his  own  cost.     The  station  at  Naples  was  formally  opened  in 


February,  1874.  From  this  station  there  are  issued  three  serials,  founded 
under  the  impetus  of  Dohrn's  influence :  "  Zoologischer  Jahresbericht, 
i8y^-  ;  Fauna  und  Flora  des  Golfes  von  Neapel  und  der  angrenzenden 
Meeresabschnitte ;  Mittheilungen  aus  der  Zoologischen  Station  zu  Neapel, 
Zugleich  ein  Repertorium  fur  Mittelmeerkunde,  i^'jg-  .  The  best 
account  of  the  zoological  station  at  Naples  and  of  the  work  done  there 
has  been  given  by  Charles  Atwood  Kofoid  in :  "  The  Biological  Stations 
of  Europe,  Bulletin,  no.  4,  ipio,  whole  number  440,  U.  S.  Bureau  of 
Education,  pp.  ^-32,  with  photographs,  plans  and  bibliography. 

Dohrn  is  himself  the  author  of  many  zoological  studies,  and  his  earlier 
years  were  spent  in  the  study  of  embryology  of  the  arthropods.  In  1875 
there  appeared  his  paper,  "  On  the  Origin  of  the  V ertebrata  and  on  the 
Principle  of  the  Change  in  Function,"  which  has  been  regarded  as  one  of 
his  most  important  studies.  He  spent  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century 
working  at  the  problem  of  the  origin  of  the  vertebrates.  To  Dohrn 
vertebrates  were  the  descendants  of  chaetopod  worms.  His  studies  on 
this  subject  resulted  in  a  series  of  25  publications,  Studien  zur 
Urgeschichte  des  Wirbelthierkorpers,  iSjg-K^o'j. 

Biography:  Anton  Dohrn,  by  Th.  Boveri,  in  Gedachtnisrede, 
gehalten  auf  dem  Internationalen  Zoologen-Kongress  in  Graz  am 
18,  August,  1910;  Anatomischer  Anze,iger.  Bd.  55,  pp.  596-603, 
with  titles  of  80  contributions ;  Popular  Science  Monthly,  1910, 
pp.  pp-ioi,  with  portrait.    Science,  November  loth,  igii. 

Domenico  de  Marchetti.    See  Marchetti,  Domenico  de. 

Donn6,  Alfred.  A  French  anatomist,  1801-1878.  Known  for  his 
microscopical  studies. 

Recherches  microscopiques  sur  la  nature  des  mucus,   1837. 
Cours  de  microscopic  complementaire,  1844,  with  atlas  (1846). 

Douglas,  James.  An  English  physician  and  anatomist,  1675-1742, 
of  London,  where  he  practiced  obstetrics  and  taught  anatomy.  He  is  the 
author  of  several  interesting  anatomical  works,  "among  which  may  be 
mentioned : 

Myographies  comparatcc  specimen,  or  a  comparative  description 
of  all  the  muscles  in  a  man  and  a  quadruped.  London,  17 oj,  in- 12°. 
Bibliographies  anatomicce  specimen,  seu  catalogus  omnium  pene 
autorum,  qui  rem  anatomicam  ex  professo  vel  obiter  scriptis  illus- 
trarunt,  London,  1/15,  in-4°.  A  description  of  the  peritoneum, 
London,  1730,  in-4°. 

Pouch  (cul-de-sac)  of  =  Excavatio  terminali  uterina.  Semi- 
lunar fold  of  ==  Plica  terminali  uterina.  Line  of  =  Linea  semicir- 
cularis.    Septum. 


Doyere,  Louis.    A  French  physiologist,  1811-1863. 

Eminence  or  hillock  of  =  a  slight  elevation  zvhere  a  nerve 
enters  a  muscle. 

Drake,  James.  A  noted  English  physician,  in  London,  1667-1707. 
Member  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  of  the  College  of  Medicine  in  London. 
He  wrote  a : 

New  System  of  anatomy,  London,  1707,  in  2  vol.  This  work 
went  through  three  editions  and  was  augmented  to  4  volumes. 

Drelincourt,  Charles.  Was  born  at  Charenton,  near  Paris,  1633- 
1697.  Professor  of  medicine  in  the  university  at  Leyden,  1668 ;  of  anat- 
omy in  1669.  He  is  noted  for  his  researches  on  generation  and  is  re- 
puted to  have  been  the  first  to  describe  the  valve  of  Vieussen. 

Anatomicuni  prceludium,  quod  Lugdunensium  in  amphitheatro 
suam  ad  primam  anatomes  .  .  .  adhibuit,  Leyden,  16/0,  in-i2°. 
De  humani  foetus  membranis  hypomnemata,  Leyden,  1685. 

Dryander,  Johann  (Eichmann,  Johann).  An  anatomist  of  the 
i6th  century,  died  1560.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Marburg.  He  was 
one  of  the  first  to  use  figures  to  show  the  anatomy  of  the  human  body. 
He  based  his  work  on  the  dissection  of  two  cadavers,  done  in  1535-6. 
His  figures  of  the  colon,  caecum  and  apendix  are  fairly  accurate. 

Anatomice  pars  prior,  in  qua  membra  ad  caput  spectantia  re- 
censentur  et  delineatur,  Marbourg,  1537.  Illustrated  ivith  20 

Diiber,  Gustav  Wilhelm  Johann  von.  A  Swedish  anatomist  1822- 
1892.  Professor  in  Stockholm.  Author  of  a  large  work  on  Lapland  and 
the  Laplanders. 

Dubois  (duBois,  also  called  Sylvius),  Jacques,  1478-1555.  [Often 
confused  with  Francois  de  la  Boe  (1614-1672)].  Dubois  was  born  at 
Louville.  He  was  the  teacher  of  Vesalius.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  the 
Royal  College.  Haller  says,  "  He  had  nothing  but  contempt  for  all  new 
discoveries  and  became  a  bitter  adversary  of  VesaHus."  He  distinguished 
voluntary  from  involuntary  muscle,  and  did  much  to  perfect  anatomical 

Duddell,  Benedict.    An  English  oculist,  of  the  i8th  century. 
Membrane  of  ^Lamina  elastica  posterior  (Descemeti). 


Dug€s,  Antoine-Louis.  A  French  physician  and  zoologist,  I797"" 
1838.  Professor  of  obstetrics,  then  of  pathology.  Dean  of  the  faculty 
at  Montpellier. 

Traite  de  Physiologie  comparee  de  I'homme  et  des  animaux, 
i8j8.  Recherches  sur  I'osteologie  et  la  myologie  des  Batraciens 
d  leurs  differents  ages,  Paris,  18^4,  in-4°,  with  20  plates. 

Duhamel  du  Monceau,  Henri-Louis.  A  French  physician  and 
physiologist,  born  in  Paris,  1700-1781.  He  is  particularly  interesting  as 
being  one  of  the  first  to  experiment  on  the  growth  of  bone,  with  the  use 
of  madder.  He  wrote  a  treatise  on  the  growth  of  the  madder  plant,  and 
also  concerning  the  nature  of  the  periosteum. 

Traite  de  la  garance  et  de  sa  culture,  avec  la  description  des 
etuves  pour  la  dessecher  et  des  moulins  pour  la  pulveriser,  Paris, 


Dujardin,  Felix.  French  naturalist,  born  at  Tours  in  1801,  died 
at  Rennes  in  i860.  Professor  of  mineralogy  at  Toulouse  in  1839.  Pro- 
fessor of  zoology  at  the  faculty  of  science  at  Rennes ;  corresponding  mem- 
ber of  the  institute,  1859.  He  is  known  especially  for  his  microsopic 
observations,  particularly  on  Infusoria.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  recog- 
nize the  nature  of  protoplasm. 

Dulaurens,  Andre.     A  French  physician   ( 1609).     Born  at 

Aries.    Chancellor  of  the  faculty  of  medicine  at  Montpellier. 

Histoira  anatomica  humani  corporis  et  singularum  ejus  par- 
tium,  Erfort,  159S,  in-8° .  Opera  omnia  anatomica  et  medica, 
Francfort,  162^. 

Dum§ril,  Andre-Marie-Constant.  An  eminent  French  zoologist 
and  comparative  anatomist,  1774-1844.  Born,  at  Amiens.  Teacher  of 
anatomy  at  Rouen,  1793;  1794  prosector  in  the  school  of  medicine  in 
Paris ;  1800  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology,  which  chair  he  occupied 
for  sixteen  years.  He  succeeded  Cuvier  as  professor  of  natural  history 
in  the  ificole  centrale  du  Pantheon  and  later  Lacepede  as  professor  of 
herpetology  and  ichthyology  at  the  Jardin  du  Roi. 

Essai  sur  les  moyens  de  perfectioner  et  d'etendre  I'art  de 
I'anatomiste.  Paris,  1802,  in-4° .  Zoologie  analytique,  ou  Methode 
naturelle  de  classification  des  animaux.  Paris,  1806,  in-8°.  Pro  jet 
d'une  nomenclature  anatomique,  public  en  1793,  'dans  le  Magasin 

Dumortier,  B.  C,  was  one  of  the  first  to  observe  (1832)  cell 
division,  which  he  saw  in  the  thread  alga  (Conferva  aurea). 

Memoir e  sur  la  structure  comparee  des  animaux  et  des 
vegetaux.     Bruxelles,  1833,  in-4°,  with  2  plates. 


Duncan,  James  Matthews.    An  English  gynecologist,  1826-1890. 
Folds  .  of  =  folds   on   the  peritoneal  surface  of  the   uterus. 
Ventricle  of  =  cavum  septi  pellucidi. 

Dupuytren,  Guillaume.  A  French  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1777- 
1835.  He  repeated  and  confirmed  much  of  Bichat's  work.  Surgeon  in 
chief  to  the  Hotel  Dieu  in  Paris. 

Propositions  sur  quelques  points  d'anatomie,  de  physiologie 
et  d' anatomic  pathologique,  Paris,  i8oj. 

Durer,  Albrecht.  One  of  the  great  European  artists,  1471-1528. 
After  four  centuries  Diirer  remains  the  master  in  painting,  and  in  en- 
graving on  copper  and  on  wood.  He  was  born  in  Nuremberg,  was  a 
contemporary  of  Titian  and  Raphael,  with  both  of  whom  he  ranks  as  an 
equal.  His  work  on  human  proportions  is  of  interest  to  all  anatomists. 
The  results  of  his  studies  are  contained  in : 

De  Symetria  partium  in  rectis  formis  humanorum  corporum 
libri  in  latinum  conversi,  de  varietate  fignrarum,  etc.,  Nuremberg, 

Biography:  Diirer' s  anatomische  Zeichnungen  in  Dresden  und 
Leonardo  da  Vinci,  von  Karl  Sudhoff,  in  "Archiv  fiir  die  Ge- 
schichte  der  Medicin,  Bd.  i,  p.  317,  1907."  His  influence  in 
Anthropology  is  discussed  by  Haddon  in  "  History  of  Anthropol- 

Dursy,  Emil  D.  A  German  anatomist,  1828-1878.  Student  of 
Henle  in  Heidelberg,  1852.  Prosector  to  Luschka  in  Tiibingen,  1854; 
professor  1861. 

Die  Muskellehre  in  Abbildungen,  sum  Gebrauche  bei  Prd- 
parirUbungen,  Tiibingen,  i860,  in-4°,  mit  60  taf.  Zur  Entwick- 
lungsgeschichte  des  Kopfes  des  Menschen  und  der  hoheren  Wir- 
belthiere,  Tiibingen,  1869,  mit  Atlas. 

Dutrochet,  Rene- Joachim-Henri.  A  French  physiologist  and 
natural  philosopher,  1776-1847.  He  advanced  the  idea  in  1814  that  ani- 
mals and  plants  are  composed  of  cells. 

Recherches  anatomiques  et  physiologiques  sur  la  structure 
intime  des  animaux  et  des  vegetaux  et  sur  leur  motilite,  Paris, 
1824,  in-8°,  2  pi. 

Duval,  Mathias-'Marie.  A  French  physician  and  anatomist,  born 
at  Grasse,  1844-1915.  Prosector  in  Strassburg.  Member  of  the  Academy 
of  Medicine,  1882.  Professor  at  L'ficole  Nationale  des  Beaux- Arts. 
Duval  is  widely  known  for  his  studies  in  embryology  and  in  artistic 

Gundriss  der  Anatomie  fiir  KUnstler,  3rd  edition,  1908. 
Stuttgart  (Translation  by  E.  Gaupp).  Histoire  de  I' Anatomie 
plastiques,  Paris,  1898.  Atlas  d'Embryologie,  avec  40  planches  en 
noir  et  en  couleur,  1889,  Paris. 


Duverney,  Joseph-Guichard.  A  French  anatomist,  1648-1730. 
One  of  the  greatest  anatomists  of  France,  he  verified  nearly  all  the  dis- 
coveries made  by  his  contemporaries.  Professor  of  anatomy,  Jardin  du 
Roi.  Discovered  the  vulvo-vaginal  glands  in  the  cow,  to  which  the  term 
Bartholin's  glands  has  been  applied  in  the  human  female.  He  also  de- 
scribed the  decussation  of  the  pryamids. 

Traite  de  I'organe  de  I'ouie,  contenant  la  structure,  les  usages 
at  les  maladies  de  toutes  les  partes  de  I'oreille,  Paris,  1683,  in- 12°. 
Oeuvres  anatomiques,  Paris,  lydi,  2  vol.,  in-^° ,  with  50  pis. 

Glandula  vestibularis  major  (Bartholini).  Foramen  epiplo- 

Dwight,  Thomas.  An  American  anatomist,  1843-1911.  Born  in 
Boston,  studied  at  Harvard,  where  he  received  the  degree  of  M.  D.  in 
1867.  Instructor  of  comparative  anatomy.  Harvard,  1872;  lecturer  and 
later  professor  of  anatomy  in  Medical  School  of  Maine,  Bowdoin,  1872- 
76;  instructor  in  histology.  Harvard  Medical  School,  1874-80;  topo- 
graphic anatomy,  1880-83;  Parkman  professor  of  anatomy,  1883-1911. 
Noted  for  his  studies  in  variations  of  human  skeletal  elements,  author  of 
numerous  contributions  to  human  anatomy.  Pioneer  worker  in  topo- 
graphical anatomy  in  America. 

Frozen  Sections  of  a  Child,  Nezu  York,  188 1,  in-8°. 
Biography:  Thomas  Dwight,  M.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Parkman  Pro- 
fessor of  Anatomy,  Harvard  Medical  School,  Anatomical  Record, 
vol.  5,  no.  II,  1911,  p.  531,  with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Dzondi,  Charles  Henri  (Karl  Heinrich).  A  surgeon  in  Saxony, 
1770-1835.  He  was  interested  in  comparative  anatomy.  Professor  of 
surgery,  Halle,  181 1. 

Supplementa  ad  anatomiam  potissimum  comparatum,  Leipzig, 

Eble,  Burkhard.  A  German  anatomist,  1799-1839.  Student  of 
Romer,  for  10  years  prosector  in  anatomy;  1837  librarian  in  Josephs 

Die  Lehre  von  den  Haaren,  Vienna,  1831,  2  vol.  in-8°,  14 

Ebner,   Victor    (Ritter  von   Rofenstein).     Viennese   histologist, 

1842- Student  of  Briicke  and  Rollett.    Professor  of  histology  and 

embryology  in  Innsbruck,  1873-1888;  professor  of  histology  in  Vienna, 

Glands  of  =  mucous  glands  in  the  tongue.  Fibrils  of  ^^  fine 
thread-like  lines  in  the  dentine.  Reticulum  of^a  network  in  the 
seminiferous  tubules. 


Ecker,  Alexander.     A  German  anatomist,  1816-1887.     Professor 
of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Basel,  1845-49;  in  Freiburg,  1850-87. 
Die  Anatomie  des  Frosches,  Braunschweig,  1864-1882. 
Convolution  of  =  posterior  occipital.      Fissure  of  =  occipital 
fissure.    Plug  of  =■  an  ingrowth  of  yolk  cells. 

Ehrenberg,  Christian  Gottfried.  A  German  zoologist,  1795-1876. 
Professor  in  Berlin.  On  an  exploring  trip  to  Egypt  he  began  his  epoch- 
making  work :  "  Die  Infusionstierchen  als  vollkommene  Organismen 
{1838)  "  which  is  of  fundamental  significance  in  biology. 

Ehrmann,  Karl  Heinrich.  Anatomist  in  Strassburg,  1 792-1878. 
He  was  instrumental  in  the  erection  of  the  anatomical  institute. 

Eichmann,  Johann.    See  Dryander,  Johann. 

Eisenmann,  Georges  Henri.  A  German  physician  and  teacher  of 
anatomy  in  Strassburg,  1693-1738.  During  his  medical  course  he  visited 
the  universities  in  Holland,  France  and  Germany.  In  1733  he  was  made 
professor  of  physics  in  the  University  of  Strasbourg;  from  1734-56  he 
was  professor  of  surgery  and  anatomy;  and  from  1756-68  he  was  pro- 
fessor of  pathology. 

TabulcB  anatomicw  quatuor  uteri  duplici  observationem  rari- 
orum  sistentes,  Strasbourg,  1J52,  in  folio.  De  glandula  thyroidea, 
Strasbourg,  1742,  in-4°. 

Ellis,  George  Viner.  An  English  physician;  wrote  " Demonsra- 
tions  of  Anatomy"  (8th  edition,  i8;p)  and  with  G.  H.  Ford,  "Illustra- 
tions of  dissections,"  2  vols.,  London,  1867. 

Elsholz,  Jean  Sigismund.    A  German  physician,  1623-1688.    Born 

at   Frankfort-an-der-Oder,   he  became   a   physician,   a  botanist   and   a 

chemist  of  note.    He  wrote  a  work  of  anthropological  interest,  entitled : 

Anthropometria,    sive,    de    mutua    membranorum    corporis 

humani  proportione  de  nervorum  harmonia,  libellus.     Padua,  1654, 

in- 4°. 

Empedocles  of  Agrigentum  (490-430  B.  C).  A  Greek  philos- 
opher, of  whose  life  and  writings  little  is  known,  but  it  is  reported 
that  he  made  observations  on  the  physiology  and  anatomy  of  the  human 
body.  He  is  said  to  have  discovered  the  membranous  labyrinth  of  the 
ear,  and  the  ear  bones ;  but  so  much  of  what  is  said  of  Empedocles  is 
traditional  that  these  observations  are  uncertain. 


Erasistratus.  A  Greek  physician  in  Alexandria,  330-250  B.  C. 
He  is  reputed  to  have  been  the  first  to  make  a  complete  dissection  of 
the  human  body.  He  made  many  important  discoveries,  especially  in  the 
brain;  saw  the  lacteals;  distinguished  between  connective  tissue  and 
nerve ;  recognized  the  valves  of  the  heart,  and  distinguished  them  by  the 
names  tricuspid  and  sigmoid;  studied  particularly  the  shape  and  structure 
of  the  brain,  and  its  divisions,  cavities  and  membranes.  He  likened  the 
gyri  to  the  folds  of  the  jejunum;  discovered  the  lymphatic  vessels  in  the 
mesentery.  It  is  said  that  he  likewise  distinguished  nerves  into  those  of 
sensation  and  motion.  None  of  his  works  are  extant.  By  repute  he 
shares  with  Herophilus  the  beginning  of  research  into  systematic  anatomy. 

Estienne  (Etienne),  Charles.  A  French  physician,  1503-1564. 
Born  in  Paris.  He  discovered  the  capsule  of  Glisson;  was  the  first  to 
detect  the  valves  in  the  hepatic  veins ;  recognized  that  the  oesophagus  and 
trachea  were  different  structures ;  and  was  one  of  the  first  to  demonstrate 
the  canal  through  the  entire  length  of  the  spinal  cord.  Turner  regards 
him  as  in  the  first  rank  of  anatomists.    He  is  also  known  as  Stephanus. 

De  dissectione  partium  corp'oris  humani  libri  tres,  una  cum 
figuris  et  incisionum  declarationibus  a  Stephana  Riveria,  Paris, 
1546,  in  folio. 

Etienne,  Geoffroy  St.  Hilaire.    See  Geoffroy  St.  Hilaire. 

Ettmiiller,  Michel  Ernst.  A  German  physician,  1673-1732.  Pro- 
fessor of  medicine  in  Leipzig,  1702.  In  1706  professor  of  anatomy  and 
surgery;  in  1719  professor  of  physiology;  in  1724  professor  of  pathology, 
and  in  1730  director  of  the  academy. 

Dissertatio  de  circulatione  sanguinis  in  foetu,  Leipzig,  1715, 
in-4°.    Dissertatio  de  cerebri  membranis,  Leipzig,  172 1,  in-4° . 

Eustachio  (Eustachi,  Eustachius,  ^ustacchi,  Eustach),  Bartolom- 
meo.  A  celebrated  Italian  anatomist,  1520-1574.  Professor  of  anatomy 
at  Rome;  physician  to  the  Pope.  Turner  says  he  divides  with  Vesalius 
the  honor  of  creating  the  science  of  human  anatomy.  He  is  the  first 
to  have  studied  accurately  the  anatomy  of  the  teeth,  and  the  phenomena 
of  the  first  and  second  dentition;  was  the  first  to  discover  the  mem- 
branous cochlea,  tensor  tympani  muscle,  suprarenal  capsule,  ventricles 
of  the  larynx  and  he  made  other  observations  in  human  and  comparative 
anatomy  which  were  of  primary  importance.  It  has  been  said  that  if 
Eustachius  had  been  permitted  to  pubhsh  his  results  during  his  lifetime 
anatomy  would  have  developed  to  its  present  state  two  centuries  earlier. 


His  work  "  Anatomical  Engravings  "  was  not  published  for  over  two 
hundred  years  after  his  death. 

Opuscula  anatomica,  Venice,  1563,  in-4".  Tahulce  anatomicw, 
Rome,  1714,  in  folio. 

Cushion.  Muscle.  Cartilago  tubw  auditivce.  Tube  of^= 
twba  auditiva  (Eustachii),  Tuber.     Valve  of  =^  valvula  v.  caves. 

Fabricius,  Hieronymus  (1537-1619),  (Fabrizio,  Geronimo), 
Fabrice  d'  Aquapendente,  also  known  as  Aquapendente  or  more  usually 
Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente,  was  a  celebrated  Italian  anatomist,  born  at 
the  episcopal  city  Aquapendente  from  which  he  derived  his  surname. 
He  studied  anatomy  under  Fallopio  at  Padua  and  was  his  successor, 
1562.  He  was  the  teacher  of  Harvey  and  it  was  through  his  influence 
that  Harvey  became  interested  in  the  vascular  system.  Fabricius  himself 
had  been  working  on  the  valves  of  the  veins  when  Harvey  came  to  him 
at  Padua  (for  portrait  of  Fabricius  see:  Locy,  Biology  and  its  Makers, 
p.  43).  The  collected  works  of  Fabricius  were  printed  by  Bohn  under 
the  title  of  "Opera  omnia  anatomica  et  physiologica"  in  Liepzig,  1687. 
Another  edition  by  Albinus  was  issued  at  Leyden,  1738,  in  folio. 

De  forviato  fcetu,  Padua,  1600,  in  folio.  Tractatus  de  oculo, 
visus  organo,  Padua,  1601,  in  folio.  De  venarum  ostiolis,  Padua, 
1603-1605,  in  folio.  De  formatione  ovi  et  pulli,  Padua,  1621,  in 
folio.  Opera  anatomica,  Padua,  1625,  in  folio.  Opera  omnia 
anatomica  et  physiologica,  cum  prcefatione  Bern.-Sieg.  Albini, 
Leyden,  1723,  in  folio. 

Biography:  In  the  Albinus  edition  of  his  zOorks  is  a  biographi- 
cal sketch  of  the  life  of  Fabricius. 

Fallopio  (Fallopia,  Falloppio,  Fallopius),  Garbriello,  born  in 
Modena,  was  one  of  the  greatest  anatomists  of  his  time,  1523-1562.  He 
was  professor  of  anatomy  at  Ferrara,  1548,  at  Pisa,  and  in  1551,  of  ana- 
tomy and  botany  at  Padua.  He  studied  the  general  anatomy  of  the  skele- 
ton, and  the  inner  ear ;  described  especially  the  tympanum,  the  two  f  enestrse 
and  their  communication  with  the  vestibule  and  cochlea;  gave  the  first 
good  account  of  the  stylomastoid  hole  and  canal,  of  the  ethmoid  bone  and 
its  air  cells,  and  the  lachrymal  passages ;  corrected  several  mistakes  made 
by  Vesalius  in  myology ;  and  was  especially  interested  in  the  anatomy  of 
the  sexual  organs,  and  discussed  the  hymen,  clitoris,  seminal  vesicles, 
uriniferous  tubules,  Poupart's  ligament  and  the  uterine  tubes  which  are 
still  known  as  the  Fallopian  tubes.  , 

Observationes  anatomiccs,  Venice,  1561,  in-8°.     This  was  the 

only  anatomical  work  published  during  the  lifetime  of  Fallopius. 

Opera  genuina  omnia,  tarn  practica  quam  theorica,  in  tres  tomos 

distributa,  Venice,  1584,  in  folio. 

Aqueduct.  Arch.  Canal.  Hiatus.  Ligament.  Tube. 


Fantoni,  Jean.    A  celebrated  anatomist  and  physician  of  Turin, 

1675-1758.     Studied  with  Duverney  and  Mery  in  Paris.     Professor  in 


Anatomia  corporis  humani  ad  usum  theatri  medici  accomodata. 
Turin,  1711,  in-4°. 

Feller,  Chretien-Gotthold.    A  physician  at  Budissin,  1755-1788. 

Dissertatio  de  utero  canino,  Leipzig,  ijSo,  in-° 4.  Vasorum 
lacteorum  atque  lymphatic  arum  anatomico-physiologica  descriptio, 
Leipzig,  1784,  in-4° . 

Ferrari  da  Grade,  Giammateo.  1432-1472.  Professor  of  medicine 
at  the  University  in  Pavia.  He  was  the  first  to  describe  the  female 
gonads  as  ovaries.  He  is  the  author  of  no  especial  work  in  anatomy  but 
anatomical  observations  are  found  in  his  "  Practica,"  Pavia,  1471 ;  and  in 
his  "  Expositiones  super  vigesimam  secundam  fen  Canonis  Avicennce," 
Milan,  1494,  in  folio. 

Ferraro,  Jean-Baptiste.  A  physician  in  the  time  of  Phillippe  II 
of  Spain,  is  the  author  of  a  work  on  the  anatomy  of  the  horse : 

Due  anatomic,  una  delli  memhri  e  viscere,  I'altra  dell'  ossa 
de^  cavalli.    Bologna,  1673,  in-i2°. 

Ferrein,  Antoine.  A  French  anatomist  and  physician,  1693-1769. 
Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the  Jardin  des  plantes,  in  Paris, 
as  successor  to  Winslow. 

Sur  la  structure  du  foie  et  de  ses  vaisseaux,  1733.  Observa- 
tions sur  le  nouvclles  arteries  et  veines  lymphatiques,  1741.  De  la 
formation  de  la  voix  de  I'homme,  1741.  Sur  les  mouvements  de 
la  machoire  inferieure,  1744.  Sur  la  structure  des  visceres  nommes 
glanduleux,  et  particulicrement  sur  celle  des  reins  ct  du  foie,  1746. 
Canal.  Chorda  vocalis.  Foramen.  Ligament.  Pyramid 
(Processus-  pars  raidata  lobulorum  renalium).     Tubes. 

Fielding,  George  Hunsley.    An  English  anatomist,  1801-1871. 
Membrane  of  ^  mem.  versicolor,  tapetum. 

Fleischmann,  Gottfried,  was  born  in  Erlangen,  Bavaria,  February 
23rd  (1777-1853).  He  was  granted  his  doctorate  in  the  city  of  his  birth 
in  1800.  In  1804  he  became  vice-professor  in  the  anatomical  theater  in 
Erlangen.    He  was  interested  in  muscle  variations  and  is  the  author  of : 

Leichenoeffniingen,  Erlangen,  18 ij,  in-8° .  De  chondrongenesi 
asperce  arteries  et  de  situ  oesophagi  abnormi  nonnulla.  Erlangen, 
1820,  in- 4°. 

Bursa  of  =  an  inconstant  serous  bursa  at  the  level  of  the 
frenum  Ungues. 


Flemming,  Walther.  A  German  anatomist  and  microscopist, 
1843-1906.  Studied  in  Berlin  and  Rostock.  Private  assistant  in  zoology 
to  Professor  Semper  at  Wiirzberg,  1869;  assistant  in  the  physiological 
laboratory  at  Amsterdam,  1869-70.  Prosector  in  anatomy  at  Prague, 
1873.  Ausserordl.  professor  of  histology  and  embryology  at  Miinden; 
in  1875  succeeded  Henke  in  Prague;  1876  ord.  professor  of  anatomy 
and  director  of  the  anatomical  institute  at  Kiel  as  successor  to  von  Kup- 
pfer.  Flemming  attained  eminence  in  the  study  of  the  cell,  histological 
investigations  and  in  technique.  He  is  the  author  of  some  90  contributions 
to  histology  and  technique. 

Studien  ueber  Regeneration  der  Gewebe,  1885.  Ueber  die 
Chromosomenzahl  beim  Menschen,  i8p^. 

Flemming' s  Fluid. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  28,  pp.  41-59,  with 
bibliography  and  portrait,  by  Dr.  F.  Graf  V.  Spee. 

Flint,  Austin.    American  physician  and  physiologist,  1836- 

Arcade  of  =  vascular  aches  at  bases  of  pyramis  of  kidney. 

Flood,  Valentine.    Irish  surgeon,  1800-1847. 

Ligament  of^=a  portion  of  the  coracohumerale. 

Flourens,  Marie-Jean-Pierre.  A  French  physiologist  in  Paris, 
1794-1867.  Was  a  student  of  Cuvier,  by  whom  he  was  chosen  in  1828 
to  deliver  a  course  of  lectures  on  natural  history  in  the  College  de  France. 
In  1830  he  succeeded  Cuvier  as  lecturer  on  human  anatomy  at  the  Jardin 
du  Roi,  and  on  Cuvier's  death  became  professor  of  comparative  anatomy, 
1832.  He  was  created  a  peer  of  France  in  1846;  1855,  professor  of 
natural  history  at  the  College  de  France.  Was  an  active  member  of  the 
Academy  of  Science  during  his  lifetime.  He  was  a  very  successful 

Recherches  sur  le  developpement  des  os  et  des  dents,  1845. 
Anatomie  generale  de  la  peau  et  des  membranes  muqueuses,  1843. 
Memoirs  de'  anatomie  et  de  physiologie  comparees,  1844. 
Nodus  vitalis. 

Flower,  Sir  William  Henry.  English  zoologist  and  anthro- 
pologist, 1831-1899.  Born  in  Stratford,  studied  medicine  in  Dublin  and 
London.  In  1859  assistant  and  teacher  of-  anatomy  at  the  Middlesex 
Hospital  in  London ;  i860  curator  of  the  Hunterian  Museum  in  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons;  in  1870  professor  of  comparative  anatomy  and 
physiology  as  successor  to  Richard  Owen;  in  1884  he  succeeded  Owen  as 
Director  of  the  Natural  History  Museum  at  South  Kensington.  For 
many  years  president  of  the  London  Zoological  Society. 

Introduction  to  the  Osteology  of  Mammalia,  18^0.  Diagrams 
vf  the  nerves  of  the  human  body,  1861. 


Fludd,  Robert,  called  also  de  Fluctibus,  was  born  at  Milgate, 
Kent,  England,  1574-1637.    Known  as  a  theosophist. 

Anatomia  amphitheatrum  effigie  triplici,  more  et  conditione 
varia,  designatum,  Frankfort,  1633. 

Foesius  (Foes),  Anatius  (Anuce),  born  at  Metz,  Lorraine;  1528- 
1595.  In-  a  time  of  political  revolutions  and  in  spite  of  pecuniary  diflS- 
culties  he  found  time  to  pursue  his  medical  practice  and  revise  and  edit 
the  works  of  Hippocrates,  Galen,  Oribasius,  and  other  early  writers.  He 
had  access  to  manuscripts  in  the  Vatican  and  in  the  library  at  Fontaine- 
bleau.  The  Frankfurt  edition  of  Hippocrates  (1595)  is  the  most  learned 
and  valuable  translation  and  commentary  prior  to  that  of  Emile  Littre 

Fohmann,  Vincenz.  A  German  anatomist,  1794-1837.  Prosector 
to  Tiedemann  in  Heidelberg;  1827-37  professor  of  anatomy  in  Liittich. 

Das  Saugadersystem  der  Wirbelthiere,  Heidelberg,  182"^,  in 
folio,  18  pi.  Anatomische  Untersuchungen  ueier  die  Verbindung 
der  Saugadern  mit  den  Venen,  Heidelberg,  1821,  in-i2°. 

Fol,  Hermann.  A  French  zoologist,  1845-1895.  Studied  in  Genf 
with  Claparede,  and  on  his  advice  went  to  Jena  to  study  with  Gegenbaur 
and  Haeckel.  He  accompanied  the  latter  on  an  excursion  to  the  Canary 
Islands.  He  took  his  degree  in  Berlin  in  1869.  In  1876  he  was  called  to 
Genf  as  professor  of  comparative  embryology.  He  founded,  in  1884,  the 
"  Recueil  Zoologique  Suisse  "  and  in  the  same  year  began  the  publication 
of  his  "  Lehrbtich  der  vergelichende  mikroskopische  Anatomie,  mit  Ein- 
schltisse  der  vergleichenden  Histologie  und  Histogenie."  In  1.886  Fol  went 
to  Villaf  ranca  as  associate  director  of  the  zoological  station. 

Biography;  Anatomischer  Anseiger,  Bd.  10,  pp.  143—144, 

FoUi  (Folius),  Cecile  (Cecilio).  A  Venetian  anatomist,  1615- 
1650.  He  was  educated  at  Padua  and  shortly  after  his  return  to  Venice 
was  made  chevalier,  and  given  a  chair  of  anatomy  which  he  held  until 
his  death. 

Nova  auris  internes  delineatio,  Venice,  1645.  Sanguinis  d 
dextro  in  sinistrum  cordis  ventriculum  defluentis  facilis  reperta 
via;  cui  non  vulgaris  in  lacteas  nuper  patefactas  venas  animad- 
versio  praeponitur,  Venice,  1639,  in-4°.  Discorso  anatomieo  net 
quale  si  contiene  una  nuova  opinione  sopra  la  generazione  e  I'uso 
della  pinguedine,  Venice,  1644,  in-4°. 

Musculus  auris  externus.    Processus  ant.  mallei. 

Fontana,  Felice  (Felix).  An  Italian  anatomist,  born  near  Tyrol, 
1730-1805.    Professor  of  philosophy.  University  of  Pisa ;  director  natural 


history  museum,  Florence,  where  he  gathered  his  great  anatomical 
museum,  which  became  the  most  famous  collection  of  its  time  (in  the 
i8th  century),  consisting  of  over  1500  preparations  in  wax.  This  collec- 
tion still  exists.  A  good  account  of  this  museum  and  the  manner  in  which 
it  was  prepared  is  in  the  Biographe  Medicale. 

He  has  left  little  or  no  systematic  anatomical  writings,  his  bent  of 
mind  being  essentially  physiological. 

De  motu  del  iride,  1767.    Richer che  filosofiche  sopra  il  veleno 

della  vipera,  1767.     This  work  was  expanded  and  reproduced  in 

1781,  in  2  volumes,  quarto. 

Fonteyn,  Nicolas  (also  known  as  Fontanus).  An  anatomist  in 
Amsterdam  during  the  middle  of  the  17th  century. 

Annotationes  ad  epitomen  anatomice  Andrew  Vesalii,  Amster- 
dam, 1642,  in  folio. 

Ford,  Corydon  L.  American  anatomist,  1812-1894.  Prosector  in 
the  medicial  department  of  the  University  of  Buffalo.  Professor  of  anat- 
omy in  the  University  of  Michigan  for  40  years. 

Forli,  Jacopo  da.    An  anatomist  of  the  isth  century,  1413- 

He  is  known  chiefly  for  his  commentaries  on  the  chapter  of  Avicenna's 
work  which  deals  with  embryology. 

Foville,  Achille-Louis.     French  psychiatrist,  1799-1878. 
Fasciculus  Fovillei. 

Fracassati,  Carlo.  An  Italian  anatomist,  an  associate  of  Malpighi. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Bologna  and  Pisa.  He  is  noted  for  his  researches 
on  the  structure  of  the  brain  and  the  tongue. 

Frey,  Heinrich.  A  Swiss  anatomist,  1822-1890.  Professor  of 
anatomy  in  Zurich. 

Handbuch   der  Histologie  und  Histochemie  des  Menschen, 
i85p.    Das  Mikroskop  und  die  Mikroskopische  Technik,  1863. 

Frommann,  Carl  Friedrich  Wilhelm.  A  German  anatomist,  1831- 
1892.  Practicing  physician  in  Weimar,  1861-1869.  Decent  in  Heidel- 
berg, 1869-1873,  then  in  Jena,  where  in  1875  he  was  made  a.  0.  professor, 
later  professor  of  histology.  Editor  of  "  Jenaische  Zeitschrif t  f .  Natur- 
wissenschaften,"  author  of  some  40  contributions  to  the  biology  of  the 


Untersuchungen   ueher  Struktur,   Lebenserscheinungen    und 
Reaktionen  tierscher  und  pflanslicher  Zellen,  1884. 
Striae  transversae  (of  medullated  nerve  fibres.). 
Biography:  Aanatomischer  Anseiger,  Bd.  7,  pp.  437-439,  J*P^- 


Gaertner.    See  Gartner,  Hermann  Treschow. 

Gafiki,  Muhammed  el.    An  Arabian  anatomist  of  the  12th  century 
who  pubHshed  a  work  on  the  anatomy  of  the  head  and  eye. 

Gagliardi,  Dominique.  A  professor  of  medicine  in  the  College  de 
la  Sapience,  at  Rome  in  the  17th  century. 

Anatome  ossium,  novis  inventis  illustrata,  Rome,  1689,  in-8° . 

Galen  (Galenus),  Claudius.  A  Graeco-Roman  anatomist,  130-200 
A.  D.  The  most  celebrated  of  all  the  ancient  anatomists.  He  was  born  at 
Pergamus,  in  Mysia,  an  ancient  province  of  Asia  Minor.  About  his  twen- 
tieth year  he  went  to  Smyrna  to  study  under  the  anatomist  and  physician 
Pelops,  and  the  philosopher  Albinus.  He  went  to  Rome  in  164,  where 
he  began  his  career  as  a  physician ;  leaving  this  city  after  four  years  to 
become  physician  to  Marcus  Aurelius  in  Venice.  He  returned  to  Rome 
in  170  A.  D.,  where  many  of  his  important  treatises  were  written.  He  is 
the  reputed  author  of  more  than  500  separate  works,  but  it  seems  that 
some  of  these  are  spurious.  It  is  said  that  Galen  never  dissected  a  human 
body  but  that  most  of  his  observations  were  made  on  lower  mammals.  It 
is,  however,  conceded  that  his  opportunities  for  observations  of  living 
organs  from  his  attendance  on  gladiators  were  not  neglected.  His  dis- 
cussions of  many  systems  of  the  body  are  marvelous  considering  the  time 
at  which  he  wrote.  His  work  is  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  repository  of 
all  anatomical  knowledge  of  his  day,  and  while  it  is  difficult,  if  not  im- 
possible, to  select  those  parts  which  are  distinctly  Galen's  own,  his  works 
show  a  careful  editing  and  digesting  of  all  he  found,  either  in  the  litera- 
ture or  in  dissecting.  The  work  of  Galen  has  been  widely  and  volumi- 
nously discussed  for  the  past  1800  years  and  the  Hterature  on  his  life  and 
writings  is  enormous.  His  writings  are  discussed  in  N.  &  P.  by  Robert 
Fuchs,  Bd.  I,  p.  379  ff ;  his  stictly  anatomical  contributions  are  briefly  dis- 
cussed by  Turner,  Ency.  Brit.,  I,  p.  803 ;  an  account  of  his  life  and  works 
is  given  in  Bio.  Med.  The  works  of  Galen  were  the  ultimate  source  of 
authority  in  anatomy,  as  well  as  other  medical  subjects,  throughout  the 
whole  of  the  Middle  Ages.  His  writings,  originally  in  Greek,  have  been 
edited,  revised  and  printed  many  times  in  many  languages.  The  com- 
plete literature  on  Galen  will  form  a  library  in  itself. 

Corpus  psalloides.  Glandula  innominata.  Parencephalon 
(Cerebrum).  Processus  belortoideus  (sagittalis).  Omoplata  (Scap- 
ula).   Ramus  anastomoticus.    Vena  magna.    Ventriculus  laryngis. 

Gall,  Franz  Joseph.  A  German  anatomist,  physiologist  and  the 
founder  of  phrenology,  1 758-1 828.     He  was  bom  at  Tiefenbrunn  near 


Pforzheim,  Baden;  received  his  degree  at  Vienna  where  he  started  his 
practice  and  began  his  lectures  on  phrenology.  In  1807  he  went  to  Paris 
where  he  spent  the  next  twenty  years,  save  for  excursions  to  London  and 
elsewhere  on  lecture  tours. 

Sur  les  functions  du  cerveau  et  sur  celles  de  chacune  de  ses 
parties  avec  des  observations  sur  le  possibilite  de  reconnaitre  les 
instincts,  les  penchans,  les  talens,  ou  les  dispositions  morales  et 
intellectuelles  des  homines  et  des  animaux  par  la  configuration  de 
leur  cerveau  et  de  leur  tete,  Paris,  1822,  in-S°. 

Gallon,  Francis.  A  distinguished  English  statistician,  1822-1911. 
Grandson  of  Erasmus  Darwin  and  the  cousin  of  Charles.  Well  known 
for  his  researches  in  heredity  by  the  statistical  method.  Galton's  law  of 
ancestral  inheritance  is  one  of  the  well  known  ideas  of  modern  science. 
His  work  is  being  carried  on  by  Karl  Pearson. 
Natural  Inheritance,  1889. 

Delta  of  =  a  well-marked  triangle  in  a  finger  print. 
Biography:  Memories  of  my  Life,  by  Francis  Gallon.     New 
York,  ipop,  in  8° ,  with  list  of  i8j  titles  and  portraits. 

Galvani,  Luigi.  An  eminent  Italian  physiologist,  1737-1798.  In 
1762  he  was  appointed  public  lecturer  on  anatomy  in  Bologna.  He  in- 
vestigated the  organs  of  hearing  and  the  genito-urinary  tract  of  birds.  He 
is  well  known  for  his  celebrated  theory  of  animal  electricity.  A  complete 
quarto  edition  of  his  works  was  pubhshed  in  1841-2  by  the  Academy  of 
Science  of  the  Institute  of  Bologna. 

Garengeot,  Rene-Jacques-Croissant  de,  was  born  at  Vitre 
Bretagne,  France,  1688-1759.  He  studied  medicine  with  Winslow,  Mery 
and  Thibaut.    He  became  a  noted  surgeon  of  his  day  and  has  written  a : 

Splanchnologie,  ou  Traite  d'anatomie  concernant  les  visceres, 
Paris,  1728,  in- 1 2°. 

Gartner,  Benjamin.  Physician  at  St.  Thomas  and  at  Copenhagen, 
1 790-1834. 

Ductus  epoophorii  longitudinalis. 

Gartner  (Gaertner),  Hermann  Treschow.  A  Danish  anatomist, 
1 785-1 827. 


Gaskell,  Walter  Holbrook.  An  English  physiologist,  known 
for  his  researches  in  the  field  of  vertebrate  phylogenesis,  was  born  at 
Naples,  November  ist,  1847.  Died  September  7th,  1914.  Studied  with 
Ludwig  in  Liepzig,  1874.    Professor  of  physiology  at  the  University  o£ 


Cambridge,  1888-1914.  His  morphological  studies  on  the  homologies  of 
the  cranial  and  spinal  nerves  had  led  him  to  consider  the  problem  of  the 
origin  of  the  nervous  system  in  vertebrates,  and  this  again  led  him  to  the 
theory  of  the  origin  of  vertebrates,  based  on  the  close  similarity  in  struct- 
ure and  function  of  the  different  parts  of  the  vertebrate  brain  with  those 
of  Arthropods. 

The  Origin  of  Vertebrates,    London,  1908,  in-8°. 
Biography:   Walter  Holbrook  Gaskell,  in  "  Proc.  Roy.  Soc. 

London,  s.  B,  vol.  88,  no.  B606,  pp.  xxvii-xxxvi,  1915;  see  also- 

Heart,  London,  jpi4~ipi§,  vi,  i  port. 

Gasser,  Johann  Laurentius  (Achille  Pirminius).  A  German 
physician  who  attained  much  fame, as  a  medical  consultant,  1505-1577. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Vienna.  The  Gasserian  ganglion  was  described 
by  a  student  of  his. 

Ganglion  semilunare. 

Gaudry,  Albert.  A  French  vertebrate  paleontologist,  1827-1908. 
In  1849,  when  engaged  in  the  Museum  of  Natural  History;  he  became 
a  member  of  the  "  Societe  Geologique  de  France "  to  the  "  Bulletin  " 
of  which  he  contributed  many  of  his  paleontological  papers.  Gaudry's 
interests  in  human  paleontology  began  in  1859  and  up  to  1907  he  pub- 
lished 15  essays  dealing  with  various  aspects  of  the  ancient  human  races. 
He  was  a  man  with  a  philosophic  trend  of  mind  and  his  contributions 
early  attracted  the  attention  of  Darwin.  In  1872  Gaudry  became  prcH 
lessor  in  the  museum,  and  in  1878  appeared  what  is  perhaps  his  most 
widely  read  work :  "  Enchainement  du  Monde  animal  dans  les  temps 
geologiques."  Some  years  later  appeared  his  "  Essai  de  Paleontologie 
philosophique,"  which  is  one  of  the  most  useful  presentations  of  paleon- 
tological facts  of  evolutionary  importance.  Gaudry  was  an  earnest 
worker  and  produced  some  218  contributions  to  paleontological  and  geo- 
logical literature,  of  which  more  than  half  dealt  with  vertebrate  paleon- 

Biography:  Albert  Gaudry,  Notice  necrologique,  in  Bull,  de  la 
Societe  Geologique  de  France,  4  serie,  t.  X,  page  351,  annee  1910, 
with  portrait  and  list  of  essays. 

Gautier  D'Agoty,  Jacques.  An  artist  who  lived  in  Paris  toward 
the  end  of  the  i8th  century.  He  is  chiefly  known  for  his  anatomical 
plates.    He  died  in  Paris,  at  an  advanced  age,  in  1785. 

Essai  d'anatomie,  en  tableaux  imprimis,  Paris,  1745,  in  fol. 
Myologie  complete,  ou  Description  de  tous  les  muscles  du  corps 
humain,  Paris,  1746,  in  folio.  Text  by  Duverney.  Anatomie  com- 
plete de  la  tete  et  de  toutes  les  partes  du  cerveau,  Paris,  1748,  in  folio. 


Anatomie  generales  des  visceres,  angeiologie,  angeiologie  et  neurolo- 
gie,  avec  la  figure  d'un  hermaphrodite  decrit  par  Mertraud,  Paris, 
1752,  in  folio. 

Gavard,  Hyacinthe.  A  French  anatomist,  1753-1802.  He  studied 
anatomy  and  surgery  with  Desault  in  Paris,  and  became  known  as  one 
of  the  great  anatomists  of  his  age.  His  anatomical  writings  are  said 
to  be  marked  by  orderly  arrangement,  clarity  and  precision. 

Traite  de  osteologie,  suivant  la  methode  de  Desault,  Paris, 
i'j<)i,.2  vol.,  in-8°.  Traite  de  myologie,  Paris,  i^pi.  Traite  de 
splanchnologie,  Paris,  1800. 

Gegenbaur,  Karl.  A  German  comparative  anatomist,  1826-1903. 
A  student  of  KoUiker.  In  1854  privat  docent  in  anatomy  and  physiology 
at  the  University  of  Wiirzburg.  In  the  next  year  he  received  a  call  to 
Jena  as  ausser-ord.  professor  of  anatomy,  where  he,  in  1858,  became 
ord.  professor  of  anatomy  and  director  of  the  anatomical  institute.  In 
1873  he  went  to  Heidelberg,  where  for  the  next  thirty  years  he  worked 
on  human  and  comparative  anatomy.  He  is  to  be  regarded  as  the  direct 
successor,  in  comparative  anatomy,  of  Johannes  Mueller  and  H.  Rathke. 
From  1875-1903  editor  of  "  Morphologisches  Jahrbuch." 

Grundzuge  der  vergleichende  Anatomie,  Leipzig,  1870,  2  auff. 
1878;  English,  London,  1878.  Lehrbuch  der  Anatomie  des  Men- 
schen,  Leipzig,  188^,  7th  aufl.  i8pp,  2  bde. 

Cells  of  =  osteoblasts.  Arteria  iicipitalis;  —  myomastoidea; 
omphalo-mesentericcB ;  —  tubo-ovarica.  Fascia  lumbalis.  Linea 
innominata  (pectinea).  Lyra.  Musculus  transversus  urethralis 
(spincter  urethrae);  spinotransversalis.  Septum  nasi  mem>bran. 
Sinus  quartus  aortae.     Sulcus  ethmoidalis.     Tuber  calcanei. 

Biography:  Morphologisches  Jahrbuch,  Bd.  55,  H.  4,  pp. 
I-XXXIX,  1906. 

Gehuchten,  Arthur  van.  A  Belgian  neurologist,  1861-1914.  Stu- 
dent of  Jean  Baptiste  Carnoy,  later  studied  in  Berlin  and  Frankfort. 
Returned  to  Louvain  in  1887  at  the  age  of  26  as  instructor  in  anatomy. 
Professor  of  systematic  anatomy,  pathology  and  therapy  of  nervous  dis- 
eases. University  of  Louvain,  Belgium,  1887-1914.  Editor  of  U  Nevraxe, 
which  up  to  1914  had  reached  its  15th  volume.  After  the  destruction  of 
the  University  of  Louvain  by  the  Germans  he  spent  several  months,  until 
his  death,  in  Cambridge  University,  England. 

Anatomie  du  Systeme  nerveux  de  I'homme,  4th  edition,  Lou- 
vain, 1906.  L'Nevraxe,  Vols.  XIV-XV,  ipij.  Livre  jubilaire 
dedie  d.  M.  A.  van  Gehuchten,  Professeur  a  I'Universite  de  Louvain 
a  ['occasion  du  25"*^  anniversaire  de  son  Professarat. 

Biography:  En  Commemoration  de  A.  van  Gehuchten.  Folia 
Neuro-biologi'ca,  Bd.  IX,  nr.  4,  pp.  337-34^,  iP^S;  also  Deutsche 
Med.  Wochenschrift,  no.  6,  1915;  Boston  Med.  and  Surg.  Journal, 
vol.  172,  pp.  115-116,  1915. 


Genga,  Bernardino.  An  Italian  anatomist  and  surgeon  in  Rome 
toward  the  end  of  the  17th  century.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  arrive 
at  some  idea  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  and  attributed  the  discovery 
to  Paul  Sarpi. 

Anatomia  chirurgica,  sive,  istoria  anatomica  dell'  ossi  e  moscoli 
del  corp'o  umano,  colla  descrizione  de'  vasi,  Rome,  16/2,  in-8°, 
Anatomia  per  uso  ed  intelligenza  del  disigno,  recercata  non  solo 
sugli  ossi  e  moscoli  del  corpo  umano,  me  dismostrata  ancora  sulle 
statue  antiche  piu  insigni,  Rome,  J6pi,  in-fol. 

Gennari,  Francesco.    An  Italian  aantomist  of  the  i8th  century. 

De  peculiari  structura  cerebri  nonnullisque  ejus  morbis,  Parma, 

Band  of  router  portion  of  Baillarger's  band=  Vicq-d'Azyr's 
band.     Stria  Gennari. 

Geoffrey,  fitienne-Louis.  1725-1810.  Son  of  fitienne  Frangois 
Geoffroy,  (1672-1731).  Born  in  Paris.  A  student  of  zoology,  anatomy, 
and  medicine,  in  all  of  which  he  attained  some  success. 

Dissertation  sur  I'organe  de  I'ouie  de  I'homme,  des  reptiles  et 
des  poissons,  Amsterdam  et  Paris,  1778,  in-8°. 

Geoffrey,  Saint-Hilaire,  fitienne,  was  one  of  the  most  celebrated 
of  French  naturalists,  1772-1844.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Legion-d' 
Honneur,  professor  of  zoology  at  the  Jardin  du  Roi,  where  he  became 
familiar  with  the  mammals  and  birds.  He  became  a  great  friend  of 
Cuvier  and  together  they  wrote  important  memoirs  in  natural  history. 
He  and  Cuvier  subsequently  became  opponents  in  a  discussion  of  the 
synthetic  as  opposed  to  the  anatlytic  method  of  arriving  at  a  conception 
of  evolutionary  facts. 

Philosophie  anatomique,  Paris,  18 18,  in-8°. 

Geoffroy  Saint-Hilaire,  Isidore.  A  French  zoologist,  son  of  the 
preceding,  1805-61.  He  taught  zoology  and  teratology  at  Paris;  suc- 
ceeded his  father  as  professor  of  natural  history  in  the  Jardin  des  Plantes ; 
inspector  general  of  the  university ;  in  1850  successor  to  Blainville  as  pro- 
fessor of  zoology  at  the  faculty  of  sciences. 

Histoire  generale  et  particuliere  des  anomalies  de  I'organiza- 
tion  chez  I'homme  et  les  dnimaux,  3  vols.,  1832-37,  8vo. 

Gerbi,  Gabriele  (Zerbi,  Zerbus).  An  anatomist  of  the  15th  cen- 
tury, contemporary  of  Achillini  and  Berengario  da  Carpi.  Professor  of 
medicine  in  Padua,  1473-77;  of  logic  and  philosophy  to  1483.    He  dis- 


covered  the  puncta  lacrimalis ;  described  in  detail  the  muscle  fibres  of  the 
stomach,  and  wrote  excellent  descriptions  of  the  blood  vessels  and  muscles. 
He  died  in  1505. 

Anatomies  corporis  humani  et  singul'orum  illius  membranorum 
liber,  Venice,  1502,  in  fol.  Anatomia  infantis  et  porci  ex  traditione 
Cophonis,  Marbourg,  i5S7,  in-4° . 

Gerdy,  Pierre-Nicolas.    Parisian  surgeon,  1797-1856. 

Anatomie  des  formes  exterieures,  Paris,  1829. 
Fibres.    Fontanelle.    Hyoid  fossa.    Interauricular  loop.    Lig~ 
amentum  suspens.     axillcs.     Tuberculum.     Trigonum  caroticum. 

Gerlach,  Andreas  Christian.  Veterinary  surgeon  in  Halberstadt, 
1811-1877.  Professor  and  director  of  the  veterinary  school  in  Hanover 
and  Berlin. 

Beitrage  zur  anatomie  des  Auges,  1880. 
Valvula.    Ligamentum  annulare  bulbi. 

Gerlach,  Joseph  von.  A  German  anatomist,  1820-1896.  Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Erlangen,  1850-91.  He  also  taught  pathological  anatomy 
in  1865,  and  physiology  until  1872.  He  discovered  the  method  of  inject- 
ing the  blood  vessels  with  ammonium  carmine  and  gelatin.  In  this  pro- 
cess he  accidentally  discovered  the  value  of  carmine  as  a  dye  for  staining 
tissues,  which  was  one  of  the  earliest  advances  in  histological  technique. 
Gerlach  was  also  one  of  the  first  to  use  photomicrographs  in  the  illustra- 
tion of  his  subject. 

Handbuch  der  Allgemeine  und  spezielle  Gewehelehre,  1848. 
Network.    Tonsil  =  Eustachian  tonsil.    Valve  of  =  sometimes 
found  in  the  appendix. 

Gesner,  Conrad.  A  celebrated  naturalist,  known  as  the  German 
Pliny,  was  born  at  Zurich,  1516-1565.  A  contemporary  of  Vesalius. 
Gesner's  contribution  to  the  advancement  of  anatomical  subjects  was  the 
introduction  of  good  illustrations.  His  " Historia  Animalium"  1551- 
1587,  consisted  of  4500  pages,  folio  and  953  figures.  Locy  says  of  him : 
"  He  was  the  best  zoologist  between  Aristotle  and  John  Ray,  the  im- 
mediate predecessor  of  Linnaeus." 

Giacomini,  Carlo.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1840-1898.  In  1867  he 
was  assistant  to  Restellini  in  the  anatomical  institute  at  Turin;  in  1871 
he  was  in  charge  of  topographic  anatomy;  succeeded  Delorenzi  as  pro- 
fessor extraord.  and  later  ord.  professor  of  descriptive  human  anatomy. 


1880-1898.     He  is  the  author  of  numerous  anatomical  contributions, 
chiefly  neurological. 

Guida  alia  studio  delle  circonvoluzioni  cerebrali,   1878,  2nd 
edition,  1884.    Sul  cervello  di  un  Cimpanze,  i88p. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anz&iger,  Bd.  15,  pp.  15^-164,  i8g8, 
with  bibliography. 

Giannuzzi.    An  Italian  anatomist,  19th  century. 
Cells.     Crescents.    Demilunes. 

Gierke,  Hans  Paul  Bernhard.     German  anatomist,  1847-1886. 

Corpuscles  of  =  H assail' s  concentric  corpuscles.    Respiratory 
bundle  of  =  Tracttis  solitarius. 

Gimbernat,  Antonio  de.  Spanish  surgeon  in  Madrid,  1742-1790. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Barcelona,  Spain.  Surgeon  to  the  King  of 

Ligamentum  lacunare.     Ligamentum  triangulare. 

Gimeno,  Pedro.  A  Spanish  anatomist  of  the  i6th  century.  He 
studied  in  Paris,  Louvain  and  Pavia  under  Dubois,  Brachelius,  Vesalius, 
and  was  for  20  years  professor  of  anatomy  in  Valencia.  In  1549  he 
described  the  stapes. 

Dialogus  de  re  med universam  anatomen  humani  corp. 

perstringens,  summe  necessarius  omnib.  med.  candidatis.     Valen- 
cia, 1549. 

Girald6s,  Jaochim-Albin-Cardozo-Cazado.  A  Parisian  surgeon  of 
Portuguese  birth,  1808-1875.  "  Recherches  anatomiques  sur  le  corps  in- 
nommine,"  1861. 

Organ  of  =  paradidymis. 

Girardi,  Michele.  An  Italian  anatomist,  173 1-1797.  Professor  of 
anatomy  in  Padua  after  Morgagni,  then  in  Parma. 

Prolusio  de  origine  nervi  inter costales,  Florence,  1791. 

Glaser,  Johann  Heinrich.  A  Swiss  anatomist,  1629-1675.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  botany  at  Basel. 

Artery  of  ==  tympanic  artery.    Fissure  of  =  fissura  petrotym- 

Glisson,  Francis.  An  English  anatomist,  1597-1677.  Professor  of 
anatomy  in  Cambridge,  later  physician  in  London.  The  name  of  GHsson 
is  associated  with  the  "  Capsule  of  Glisson  "  in  the  liver. 

Anatomia  hepatis,  cid  prcemittuntur  qutrdam  ad  rem  anatomi- 
cam  universe  spectantia,  et  ad  calcem  operis  subjiciuntur  nonnulla 
de  lymphae  ductibus  nuper  repertis.    London,  1654,  in-8°. 
Capsula  fibrosa  hepatis. 


Godman,  John  D.  An  American  surgeon,  1794-1830,  of  Annapolis, 
Maryland.    Professor  of  surgery. 

Treatise  on  the  fascia,  1824. 

Goethe,  Johann  Wolfgang  von.  A  celebrated  German  poet,  1749- 
1832.  His  name  is  associated  with  that  of  Oken  in  the  origin  of  the 
vertebral  theory  of  the  skull.  He  did  some  very  important  work  in 
osteology  and  called  attention  to  the  correlations  of  the  premaxillse  in 
man  and  mammals. 

Ueber  den  Zwischenkiefer  des  Menschen  und  der  Thiere, 
Nova  Acta  Acad.  Leopold.     Carol.,  Halle,  1831,  XV. 

Biography :  A  good  account  of  Goethe's  scientific  work  by  S. 
Kalischer  is  to  he  found  in  Albert  Bielschowsky's  Life  of  Goethe, 
in  J  volumes.  See  also:  Goethe  as  a  man  of  Science.  Westminst. 
Review,  vol.  2,  N.  S.,  1852,  479-506. 

Os  incisivum. 

GoU,  Friedrich.  A  Swiss  anatomist,  1829-1903.  A  student  of 
Ludwi^,  Kolliker,  Virchow,  Claude  Bernard;  docent  in  Zurich,  1862; 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Zurich. 

Column  of  =  Fasciculus  gracilis.    Fibres.    Nucleus. 

Goodsir,  John.  A  Scotch  anatomist,  1814-1867.  He  wrote  in 
Edinburgh  an  important  article  "  On  the  development  of  the  Teeth." 

Gottstein,  Jacob.    German  physician,  1852-1895. 
Process  of  =  organ  of  Corti. 

Gowers,  ^^V  William  Richard.     An  English  clinical  neurologist, 
1845-1915.    In  1879  fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians.    Gower's 
great  work  in  medicine  was  in  systematizing  the  important  nervous  dis- 
eases, and  in  bringing  into  relation  clinical  facts  with  pathological  changes. 
A  Manual  of  the  Diseases  of  the  Nervous  System,  2nd  edition, 
Philadelphia,  1892,  2  vols.,  in-8°. 

Fasciculus  antero-lateralis  superficialis   (Gozvcrsi). 
Biography:   Brit.  M.  J.,  London,  19 15,  I,  pp.  828-830;  also 
Nature,  vol.  95,  No.  2376,  p.  298,  1915. 

Graaf,  Regnier  de.  A  celebrated  Dutch  anatomist,  1641-73. 
Bom  at  Schoonhaven;  was  a  student  of  Diemerbroeck,  De  la  Boe 
(Sylvius),  Van  Hoorne,  and  became  a  physician  in  Delft.  A  con- 
temporary of  Swammerdam. 

De  mulierum  organis  generathne  inservientibus,  tractatus 
novus,  demonstrans  turn  homines  et  animalia,  coetera  omnia,  qua 


vivipara  dicuntur,  haud  minus,  quam  ovipara,  ah  ovo  originem 
ducere,  Leyden,  16^2,  in-8°. 

Opera  omnia,  Leyden,  i6'jj,  in-8°. 

Follicle  =  Folliculus  oophorus  vesciculosus.  Vessels  of  = 
Ductuli  efferentes  testis. 

Gracht,  Jacob  van  der.  A  Dutch  painter  of  the  17th  century  who 
published : 

Anatomie  der  uiterlijke  deelen  van  het  menschelijke  Ligchaam. 
Gravenhaag,  1634,  folio. 

Grainger,  Richard  Dugard.  An  English  anatomist,  1801-1865. 
Teacher  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  St.  Thomas  Hospital,  London, 

Elements  of  general  anatomy,  London,  1829. 
Observations  on  the  structure  and  function  of  the  spinal  cord, 
London,  183J. 

Gratiolet,  Louis-Pierre.    Parisian  anatomist,  1815-1865.    Taught 
anatomy,  physiology  and  zoology  at  Paris. 
Radiate  thalamooccipitalis. 

Grattan,  John.  An  Irish  apothecary  and  anthropologist,  in  Bel- 
fast, 1 800-1 87 1. 

Gray,  Henry.  An  English  anatomist,  1825-61.  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons ;  lecturer  on  anatomy  at  St.  George's  Hospital 
Medical  School,  London. 

Anatomy,  Descriptive  and  Applied,  ipth  edition,  ipi^. 

Grew,  Nehemiah.  An  English  botanist,  1628-1711.  The  founders 
of  microscopic  anatomy  were  Grew,  Hooke,  Malpighi  and  Swammerdam. 

Gruber,  Wenceslaus  Leopold.  An  anatomist  in  Prague,  1814- 
1890.  Prosector  to  Hyrtl,  at  Prague,  1844-47.  Professor  in  St.  Peters- 
burg, 1855,  as  successor  to  Pirogoff  as  director  of  the  Institute  for 
practical  anatomy;  1858  professor  .of  practical  anatomy. 

Beitrcege  zur  anatomie  des  Keilbeins  und  Schldfenbeins,  St. 
Petersburg,  18  Sp. 

Beobachtungen  aus  der  menschlichen  und  vergleichenden 
Anatomie,  1879-188^. 

Arteria  profunda  antebrachii  (mediana) .  Fovea  fasciae  iliacae. 
Ligamentum  mesenterico-mesocolicum ;  — sphenopetrosum  poste^ 
rius.  Membrana  obturatoria  for.  laceri.  Musculus  anconaeus 
minimus  (epitrochlearis)  ;  — cervico-costohumeralis ;  — infrascap- 
ularis    minor;    — mastoidea-maxillaris ;    — mento-hyoideus.      Os 


carpi  intermedium.  Ossiculum  supernumerarium  carpi.  Saccus 
caeci  retrostern.  Sutura  petro-sphenvoccipit.  (petrobasilaris). 
Vena  marginalis  ventriculi  sinistri.     Venter  bifissus. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  §,  p.  58^/8,  i8po. 

Gudden,  Bernhard  Aloys  von.  German  alienist,  1824-86.  Pro- 
fessor of  Psychiatry  in  Zurich  and  Munich. 

Experimentaluntersuchungen  ueber  das  Schaedelmachstum. 

Ganglion  interpedunculare.  Commissura  inferior;  posterior 
chiasmatis;  posterior  medullae  spinalis. 

Guenther  von  Andemach,  Johann.  A  French  anatomist,  1487- 
1574.  In  Paris,  1527,  teacher  of  Vesalius  and  Rondelet.  Translator  of 
the  "  Anatomicae  administrationes  "  of  Galen. 

Guerin,  Alphonse.  A  French  surgeon,  1816-95.  Professor  of 
surgery  in  Paris. 

Fold  of=Vcdvula  fossce  navicularis.  Glands  of  =  Skene's 
glands.     Sinus  of  =  Diverticulum  behind  Guerin' s  fold.     Valve. 

Guide  Guidi  (also  known  as  Vidus  Vidius),  was  born  in  the 
beginning  of  the  i6th  century  and  died  in  1569.  Professor  in  the  College 
de  France;  in  Pisa,  1547.  He  possessed  a  great  reputation  among  his 
contemporaries;  and  Duval  remarks  of  him,  on  his  arrival  in  France; 
"  Vidus  venit,  Vidius  vidit,  Vidus  vicit." 

De  Anatome  corporis  humani,  libri  septem,  Venice,  1611. 
Arteria.     Canalis.    F'oramen.    Nerves. 

Guldberg,  Gustav  Adolph.  A  Swedish  anatomist  and  zoologist, 
1854-1908.  He  studied  medicine  in  Christiana,  and  in  1879  was  elected 
conservator  of  the  zoological  museum  in  Christiana.  In  1883  he  studied 
comparative  anatomy  and  embryology  with  Eduard  van  Beneden  at 
Ltittich;  in  1885  he  studied  with  Hertwig  and  Haeckel;  in  1887  assistant 
to  Albert  v.  Kolliker  in  Wxirzburg;  in  1888  professor  of  anatomy  in  the 
University  of  Christiana.  The  author  of  numerous  contributions  to 
anatomy  and  zoology  written  in  German,  Swedish  and  French. 

Ueber  das  Centralnervensystem  der  Bartenwale,  Christiana, 
1885.  Grundtraek  af  menneskets  anatomi,  Christiana,  i8p3. 
Etudes  sur  la  Dyssemetrie  morphologie  et  fonctionelle  ches  I'homme 
et  les  vertebres  superieures,  i8p7. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  32,  pp.  506-512,  with 

Gulliver,  George.  An  English  anatomist  in  Canterbury,  1804- 
1882.  A  noted  anatomist  and  physiologist.  Hunterian  professor  of  com- 
parative anatomy  and  physiology. 


Giinz,  Justus-Gottfried.  A  German  anatomist,  1714-54.  Pro- 
fessor of  physiology,  anatomy  and  surgery  in  Leipzig.  He  discovered  the 
anastomosis  of  the  epigastric  and  mammary  arteries.  His  writings  deal 
with  systematic  anatomy  and  pathological  anatomy. 

Dissertatio  de  mammarum  fabrica  et  secretione  lactis,  Leipzig, 
1734,  in-4\ 

Ligament  of  =  part  of  the  obturator  membrane. 

Guthrie,  George  James.     London  surgeon,  1785-1856.     "  On  the 
anatomy  and  diseases  of  the  neck  of  the  bladder,"  1834. 
Musculus  sphincter  urethra  membranacece. 

Guyon,  Felix-Jean-Casimir.     Parisian  surgeon,  1831- 

Isthmus  uteri.     Portia  ceratina  uteri. 

Haase,  Johann  Gottlieb,  was  born  at  Leipzig,  1739-1801.  In  1774 
he  was  made  professor  extraor.  and  in  1780  professor  of  anatomy  and 
surgery  at  Leipzig. 

Zootomies  specimen,  sistens  comparationem  clavicularum  ani- 
mantium  brutorum  cum  hominis,  Leipzig,  1766,  in-4° .  Cerebri 
nervorumque  corporis  humani  anatome  repetita,  cum  duabus  tabulis, 
Leipzig,  1781,  in-8°.  De  vasis  cutis  et  irCtestinorum  absor'bentibus 
plexibusque  lymphaticis  pelvis  humance,  annotationes  anatomicce, 
Leipzig,  1786,  in  folio. 

Habicot,  Nicolas.  A  credulous  physician  in  Paris  in  the  i6th-i7th 
century,  who  became  famous  for  his  supposed  discovery  of  the  bones  of 
giant  men,  in  161 3.  The  bones  were  those  of  a  Pleistocene  elephant  and 
there  appeared  from  the  press  between  1613-1618  a  large  number  of 
books  and  pamphlets  descriptive  of  the  osteology  of  the  "  Theuto- 
Bacchus  Rex."  His  works  are  of  interest  only  from  the  standpoint  of 

Giganiosteologie,  ou  Discours  sur  les  os  d'un  geant,  Paris, 
1613,  in-8°. 

His  letter  to  Louis  XHI  describing  the  discovery  is  given  in  the 
Bio.  Med. 

Halle,  John.  An  Englisih  anatomist  and  surgeon,  1530-1600.  He 
wrote  the  first  work  upon  anatomy  (in  1565)  published  in  England  in 
the  English  tongue,  as  an  appendix  of  96  pages  to  his  translation  of  Lan- 
franc's  "  Chirurgia  Parva.'' 

Biography:  John  Halle,  Anatomiste,  Chirurgien,  Modernist. 
Boston  Med.  and  Surg.  Journ.,  vol.  172,  pp.  575-579,  with  figs., 


Haller,  Albrecht  von.  Swiss  anatomist,  botanist  and  poet,  1708- 
1777.  Haller  is  to  be  regarded  as  the  most  precocious,  most  indefatigable 
and  exhaustive  worker  in  anatomy  and  physiology  since  the  time  of  Galen. 
At  the  early  age  of  eight  he  is  said  to  have  compiled  a  biographical  index 
of  over  2,000  eminent  men  and  women.  This  prodigous  activity  he  con- 
tinued for  the  next  sixty  years  and  it  is  stated  that  he  conducted  a 
monthly  scientific  journal  to  which  he  himself  contributed  more  than 
12,000  articles  on  nearly  every  phase  of  human  knowledge.  He  studied 
medicine  with  Boerhaave,  Albinus  and  Duverney.  He  became  professor 
of  anatomy,  physiology,  surgery  and  botany  at  the  founding  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Gottingen  and  he  held  this  chair  from  1736-53,  when  he  re- 
turned to  his  native  town,  Berne,  Switzerland,  to  engage  in  municipal  ad- 
ministration. During  the  term  of  his  service  at  Gottingen  he  dissected 
400  bodies  and  examined  their  organs  with  the  greatest  care.  He  pub- 
lished the  results  of  these  observations  under  the  title :  "  Disputationes 
Anatomicae  Selectiones,  1746-51,"  illustrated  with  the  most  accurate  and 
beautiful  engravings,  representing  the  important  parts  of  the  human  body. 
His  "  Elements  of  Physiology  "  written  after  his  return  to  Berne  con- 
tains much  that  is  valuable  anatomically.  Turner  says  that  his  anatomical 
descriptions  were  the  most  valuable  that  had  appeared  up  to  that  time,  or 
did  appear  for  some  time  to  come.  His  strictly  physiological  works  are 
discussed  in  N.  &  P.,  Bd.  II,  pp.  349-51. 

His  writings  are  so  numerous  that  it  is  useless  to  cite  others  here. 
There  is  a  list  of  eleven  pages  in  the  Bio.  Med.,  with  annotations  by 
A.  J.  L.  Jourdain  and  F.  G.  Boisseau.  Other  material  is  to  be  found  in 
Encyj.  Brit.  There  is  an  excellent  account  of  Haller  in :  Bulletin  Johns 
Hopkins  Hospital,  vol.  19,  no.  204,  p.  65,  entitled  "Albrecht  von  Haller: 
scientific,  literary  and  poetical  activity,"  by  J.  C.  Hemmeter.  Numerous 
structures  in  the  human  body  are  associated  with  the  name  of  Haller,  of 
which  the  following  are  given  by  DeTerra  (Vademecum  Anatomicum, 


Ansa.  Arcus  lumhocostalis  medialis.  Arteria  abdominalis 
subcutanea ;  —  alaris.  Circulus  callosus;  —  vasculosus ;  —  venosus 
mamillae.  Coni  vasculosi.  Fretum.  Glandulae  duodenales.  Hahe~ 
nula.  Ligamentum  arcuatum  ext.  diaphragmatis ;  —  colicum. 
Membrana.  Pons  hepaticus..  Rete  vasculosum.  Taenia  semicir^ 
cularis.  Tripus  coeliacus.  Tunica.  Vas  aberrans.  Velum  plexus 

Ham,  Johann-of  Arnheim.  A  student  of  Leeuwenhoek;  while 
working  under  his  direction  in  1677,  discovered  the  spermatozoa,  which 
he  called  "Animalculae  seminis." 

Hamusco,  Jean  Valv'erde  de.    See  Amusco,  Jean  Valverde  de. 


Hannover,  Adolph.  A  Danish  anatomist  in  Copenhagen,  1814- 
1894.  Student  of  Johannes  Mueller,  in  Berlin.  Worked  in  Copenhagen 
as  privat  docent  in  microscopical  anatomy,  1840-53.  In  1856  he  received 
the  Monthyon  Prize  for  his  investigations  into  the  anatomy  and  physi- 
ology of  the  eye.  Known  also  for  his  studies  in  pathology  and  helminth- 

De  cartilaginibus,  musculis,  nervis  auris  externm  atque  de  nexu 
nervi  vagi  et  nervi  facialis,  Copenhagen,  i8jp. 

Harder,  Johann  Jacob.  A  Swiss  anatomist,  born  at  Basel,  1656- 
171 1.  He  studied  medicine  in  Basel,  Lyon,  Geneva  and  Paris.  In  1678 
professor  of  rhetoric,  1686  professor  physics,  1687  professor  of  anatomy 
and  botany,  and  in  1703  professor  of  the  theory  of  medicine  in  Basel. 
Known  for  his  work  on  the  gland  which  sometimes  occurs  in  man  and 
more  often  in  birds  and  mammals  in  the  inner  canthus  of  the  eye.  He 
also  described  the  objects  in  the  dura  mater  which  are  commonly  known 
as  the  Pacchionan  bodies. 

De  cerebri  humani  structura  naturali,  Basel,  17 10,  in-4". 

Apiarium  observationibus  medicis  centum  ac  physicis  expert- 
mentis  refertum,  Basel,  168'j. 

Glandula  Harderi. 

Hartenkeil,  Jean-Jacques.  Born  at  Mayence,  1761-1808.  He 
studied  with  Siebold  and  Desault.  In  1790  he  established  the  Gazette 
Medico-chirurgicale,  which  enjoyed  considerable  celebrity. 

Bernhard  Sigfrid  Albini  historia  musculorum  hominis;  edidit, 
notisque,  illustravit,  Bamberg  and  Wiirzburg,  1784. 

Hartmann,  Robert.    German  anatomist,  1831-1893. 

Handbuch  der  Anatomie  des  Menschen,  Strassburg,  1881. 
Anatomie  des  menschlichen  Kopjes,  Strassburg,  1888. 
Pouch  of  =  pelvis  of  gall  bladder. 
Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  8,  p.  543,  1893. 

Hartsoeker,  Nicolas.  A  celebrated  physician,  physicist,  and 
micrographer  of,  Gouda,  Holland,  was  born  March  26th,  (1656-1725). 
He  was  professor  of  mathematics  and  philosophy  in  Amsterdam  at  the 
same  time  that  Huyghens  was  in  Leyden.  Hartsoeker  is  the  author  of 
several  important  papers  on  dioptrics  and  did  some  microscopical  work. 
He  improved  the  microscope  in  some  particulars ;  discovered  the  sperma- 
tozoa and  criticized  Leeuwenhoek's  man-like  figures  of  the  sperms. 

Harvey,  William.  The  discoverer  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood ; 
English  embryologist,  born  at  Folkestone,  on  the  south  coast  of  Eng- 
land, 1 578-1667.    Studied  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Padua  with  Fabri- 


cius  ab  Aquapendente,  who  at  that  time  was  perfecting  his  knowledge 
of  the  valves  of  the  veins.  He  was  granted  an  M.  D.  by  Cambridge 
University,  in  1602.  He  became  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology 
at  the  Royal  College  in  1615,  where  he  continued  his  studies  on  the  action 
of  the  heart  and  blood  vessels;  was  physician  to  James  1  and  Charles 
I.  King  Charles  placed  the  deer  in  the  royal  parks  at  Harvey's  dis- 
posal. When  he  was  68  he  resigned  all  his  appointments  and  practice 
and  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  generation.  He  demonstrated  his 
ideas  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood  in  many  forms  of  invertebrates  and 
vertebrates,  as  well  as  in  the  chick  embryo.  Besides  his  work  on  the 
circulation  he  did  much  in  comparative  anatomy,  having  investigated  the 
structure  of  some  sixty  species  of  animals.  He  studied  the  embryology 
of  insects  as  well  as  vertebrates,  the  chick,  and  the  deer.  He  described 
the  blastodisc.  His  embryological  observations  are  contained  in  his 
"  Generatione  Animalium,"  London,  165 1. 

Exercitatio  anatomica  de  motu  cordis  et  sanguinis  in  animali- 
bus,  Francfort,  1628,  in-4°.  Reprinted  with  commentations  in 
1639,  1643,  1645,  1647,  1661,  1671. 

Exercitationes  de  generatione  animalium,  quibus  accedunt 
qumdam  de  partu,  de  membranis  ac  humoribus,  de  conceptione, 
London,  16 51,  in-4°.    Several  times  reprinted. 

Biography:  Haller-Bibliotheca  anatomica.  Tome  2,  p.  363; 
Huxley-Scientific  Memoirs,  Vol.  4;  Locy-Biology  and  its  Makers; 
Carus-Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  p.  381;  Bio.  Med.;  Ency.  Brit.; 
Gar.;  Hae.;  N.  &  P.;  Brooks,  Bull.  Johns  Hopkins  Hosp.,  vol.  8, 
'  i8p7;  Life  of  Harvey  by  D'Arcy  Power;  Willis-Harvey's  works 
in  Sydenham  Society;  Aubrey,  Letters  of  eminent  Persons,  London, 
1813;  Munk,  in  "  Roll  of  the  College  of  Physicians,"  1879;  Rich- 
ardson, Disciples  of  Msculapius,  vol.  i,  pp.  13-19,  1901. 

Harwood,  Busick.  An  English  physician  and  teacher  of  anatomy, 
born  at  Newmarket.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Cam- 
bridge, 1785 ;  chancellor  of  the  College  of  Downing  in  1806. 

A  System  of  com.parative  anatomy  and  physiology,  Cambridge, 
1796,  in- 4°. 

Hasner,  Joseph  (Ritter  von  Artha),  Bohemian  oculist,  1819-92. 
Professor  of  ophthalmology  in  Prague. 

Fold  or  Valve  of  =  plica  lacrimalis. 

Hassall,  Arthur  Hill.    An  English  physician,  born  in  Teddington, 


The  microscopic  anatomy  of  the  human  body  in  health  and 
disease,  London,  1846,  2  vols.  This  was  the  first  English  book  on 
microscopic  anatomy. 

Concentric  corpuscles  of  =  in  the  medulla  of  the  follicles  of 
the  thymus. 


Havers,  Clopton.  An  English  physician  known  for  his  researches 
on  bone,  1650-1702.  He  described  the  so-called  synovial  glands  and  pro- 
posed a  theory  of  digestion. 

Osteologia  nova,  or  some  new  observations  10/  the  bones,  and 
the  parts  belonging  to  them.    London,  i6<)i,  in-4°. 
Canals.     Glands.    Lamellae.    Spaces.     System. 

Haworth,  Samuel.'  An  English  physician  of  the  17th  century  is 
the  author  of: 

Anthropologia;  or  a  philosophical  discourse  concerning  man, 

Hebenstreit,  Jean  Ernst.  A  German  physician,  anatomist,  natu- 
ralist and  traveller,  born  at  Neustadt,  1703-1757.  Professor  of  ana- 
tomy and  surgery,  1737;  of  pathology,  1746;  of  medicine,  1748  in 
the  University  of  Leipzig.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  dissertations 
among  which  may  be  mentioned : 

Dissertatio  de  arteriorum  corporis  humani  confiniis,  Leipzig, 
173P,  in-4.°.  Programma  de  vaginis  vasorum,  Leipzig,  1740,  in-4°. 
Pro  gramma  de  vasis  sanguiniferis  oculi,  Leipzig,  1742,  in-4° .  Pro- 
gramma de  mediatino  postico,  Leipzig,  1743,  in-4°.  Anthropologia 
forensis,  sistens  medici,  circa  rempublicam  causasque  dicendas  of- 
ficium,  cum  rerum  anatomicarum  ac  physicarum,  quae  iliud  attinent, 
expositionibus,  Leipzig,  17 51,  in-4°. 

Heidenhain,  Rudolf.  German  physiologist,  was  born  in  Marien- 
werder,  1834-1897.  Studied  in  Konigsberg,  Halle,  Berlin,  as  student  of 
Volkmann,  DuBois-Reymond.  Professor  of  physiology  and  histology  in 
Breslau,  1859-1897.    His  studies  are  contained  in  the : 

"  Studien  des  physiologischen  Institute,  in  Breslau,"  4  volumes, 
Leipzig,  1861-68. 

Cells  of  =  in  gastric  glands;  Crescents  or  demilunes  =  Gia- 
nuzzi's  cells;  Rods  of  =  in  the  uriniferous  tubules. 

Biography:  Anat.  Anz.,  Bd.  14,  pp.  182-4,  i8p8. 

Heister,  Lorenz.  A  German  physician  who  became  proficient  in 
botany,  anatomy  and  surgery,  1683-1758.  He  was  born  in  Frankfort- 
am-Main.  Studied  at  Leyden  with  Boerhaave  and  Albinus;  at  Amster- 
dam with  Ruysch,  Commelin  and  Rau.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery 
at  the  University  of  Altdorf ;  then  of  surgery  in  Helmstadt. 

Dissertatio  de  tunica  choroidea,  Harderwyk,  1780,  in-4''. 
Compendium  anato'micum,  veterum  recentiorumque  observationes 
brevissime  complectens,  Altdorf,^  i7^7>  in-4°- 

Diverticulum  of  ^=  Sinus  jugularis  externa.  Valves  of  = 
folds  in  cystic  duct. 


Helain,  Richard  (Ricardus  Hela).  A  physician  of  Paris  who  pub- 
lished at  Nuremberg  in  1493  a  plate  53  cm.  high  representing  the  human 
skeleton.  It  seems  to  have  been  drawn  from  a  partly  dried  specimen,  and 
the  drawing  is  in  many  particulars  fantastic.  This  picture  formed  the 
basis  for  a  modification  by  the  publisher  Griininger  in  1496-97  which 
was  printed  in  Brunschwig's  Chirurgie,  in  1497.  The  original  figure 
refers  to  an  "  os  laude  "  or,"  os  capitale  relaude,"  which  is  an  apochryphal 

Wieger;  Locy,  Journ.  of  Morphology,  vol.  22,  p.  g$'j,  figs.  3-4, 

Helmholtz,  Hermann  Ludwig  Ferdinand  von.  An  eminent  Ger- 
man physicist  and  physiologist,  1821-1894.  Assistant  in  Berlin  to 
Johannes  Miiller  in  anatomy,  1848;  1849  professor  of  physiology  and 
general  pathology  at  Bonn;  1858  professor  of  physiology  at  Heidelberg; 
1871  in  Berlin  as  Ordinarius  of  physics;  1888-1894  president  of  the 

"  physikal technischen  Reichanstalt "  in  Charlottenberg.     Known 

for  his  contributions  to  acoustics. 

Axis  ligament  of  =  a  ligament  of  the  malleus. 

Biography:  Hermann  Ludwig  Ferdinand  von  Helmholtz,  iby 
John  Gray  M'Kendrick,  New  York,  i8pp,  in-8° . 

Henke,  Wilhelm.  A  German  anatomist  and  art  critic,  1834-1896. 
Professor  of  anatomy  at  Rostock,  1865;  1872  in  Prague;  1875-96,  in 

Handbuch  der  Anatomie  und  Mechanik  der  Gelenke,  Leipzig, 
1863.  Topographische  Anatomie  des  Menschen.  Atlas  und  Lehr- 
buch,  187P-83,  Berlin.  Die  Menschen  des  Michelangelo  im  Verg- 
leich  mit  der  Antike,  Rostock,  1871.  One  of  the  best  treatises  on 
the  work  of  Michelangelo.  Henke  also  wrote  of  the  Venus  of 

Space  of  =  between  the  vertebral  column  and  the  pharynx. 
Biography:  Anat.  Anz.,  Bd.  12,  p.  475,  1896. 

Henle,  Friedrich  Gustav  Jakob.  One  of  the  most  celebrated  of 
the  19th  century  German  anatomists,  was  bom  of  Jewish  parents  at 
Furth  near  Nuremberg,  1809-1885.  A  student  of  Miiller,  and  his  pro- 
sector at  Berlin.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Zurich,  1840;  Heidelberg, 
1844;  at  Gottingen,  1852-85,  as  director  of  the  anatomical  institute. 
Henle's  contributions  to  histology  were  many  and  important.  He  is 
known  for  his  descriptions  of  one  of  the  sheaths  of  the  hair;  discovery 
of  the  cyHndrical  epitheHum  of  the  alimentary  canal ;  the  discovery  of 
the  endothelium  of  the  blood  vessels.  Pagel  speaks  of  Henle  as  the 
reformer  of  anatomy. 

SymbolcB  ad  anatom.  villor.  intestinal,  imprim.  eorum  epithelii 
et  vasor,  Lacteor,   1837.      Allgemeine  Anatomie,  Leipzig,   1841. 


Systematische  Anatomie,  j  vols.  Braunschweig ,  1855.  Reprinted 
in  '67,  '71,  '79. 

A  great  many  structures  are  associated  with  the  name  of  Henle. 

Among    which    DeTerra     (Vademecum    Anatomicum)     mentions    the 

following : 

Angulus  ethmomaxillaris ;  —  vestibularis.  Ansa.  Arteria 
collat.  superior;  ■ —  saphena  magna.  Bacilli  acustici.  Canalis  cru- 
ralis;  — vomerobasilaris  (pharyngeus).  Cavum  oris.  Cervix 
pedunculorum  (Corp.  restif.).  Corpus  restiforme ;  — subthalami- 
cum.  Crista  incisiva.  Fibrae  ansdtae.  Fissuraoccipitalis  perpend, 
(parieto-occipitalis) .  Fossa  subinguinalis.  Glandulae.  Hiatus 
maxillaris.  Incisura  falciforniis;  —iliaca;  — palatina  (spheno- 
palatinum) .  Lamina  orbitalis.  Ligamentum  accessorium;  access, 
mediate;  —  ace.  lat.  radiate  et  ulnare;  —  arcuatum  carpi;  —  capi~ 
tuli  radiatum  (capit.  castas  rad.)  ;  — capitulorum  volaria;  — carpi 
dors,  prof.;  — colli  costcs;  — coraco-claviculare  ant.;  — costover- 
tebrale  rad.;  — inguinale  internum;  — intermetacarpea;  — inter- 
metatarsea  ossea;  —  patellae;  —  plicce  synovialis  pat.;  —  pubofemo- 
rale  (pubocapulare)  ;  — radiatum  costce;  — reflexum  (inguinale)  ; 

—  spirale  cochleae;  — suspensorium  lat.  penis;  —  tarseum  transv.; 

—  temporo-mandibulare ;  —  tibiofibulare  anterius;  —  transversum 
pelvis.  Linea  alba  m.  ischiococcygei;  —  obliqua  femoris.  Lunula 
lacrimalis.  Membrana.  Musculus  anconaeus  brevis;  —  auricidaris 
sup.;  — interosseus  volaris  primus;  — lacrimalis  anterior;  — lin- 
gualis;    — longus    atlantis;    — orbicularis    malaris;    — vrbitalis; 

—  praerectalis;     — sacrospinalis ;     — transversi     thoracis     post.; 

—  transversus    perinaei.     Navicula.     Nervus    dorsalis    scapidae; 

—  mandibulares ;  —  orbitalis;  —  pudendus  longus  inferior.  Norma 
frontalis.     Orificium    hymenis    (vaginae).     Os   puboischiadicum; 

—  trapezium.  Planum  infraorbitale.  Plica  synovialis  patellaris. 
Processus  occultus  oss.  maxillaris;  — restif ormis;  — synovialis; 
— vaginalis  oss.  sphenoidalis.  Ramus  inferior  oss.  ischii  et  oss. 
pubis;  —  medius  n.  vestibuli;  —  pharyngei  linguales.  Sinus  rhom- 
boidalis;  tarsi;  —  transversus  pericardii.  Spira  inferior.  Stratum. 
Sulcus  interarticularis ;  peronaei.  Tubercidiim;  obturatorium  in- 
ferius.  Tuberositas  costalis;  —  scapularis ;  —  vertebralis ;  —  zygo- 
matica.  Vena  anonyma  iliaca;  —  cerebri  anteriores ;  —  hypogas- 

Biography:  Archiv  f.  Anat.  u.  Physiol.,  Anat.  Abth.,  Leipzig, 
i8p2,  pp.  1-32,  by  Wilhelm  Henke.  Gurlt-Hirsch's  Biographisches 
Lexikon,  III,  p.  153,  by  Waldeyer. 

Hensen,  Viktor.  German  physiologist,  1835-  .  Professor  of 
physiology  at  Kiel,  186&-  .  He  investigated  the  physiology  of  hear- 
ing, the  histology  of  the  sense  organs,  and  embryological  development. 

Canal  of^^a  vertical  canal  joining  the  first  part  of  the  Coch- 
lear canal  with  the  saccule.  Cell  of  =  in  the  organ  of  Corti.  Disc. 
Duct  of  ^ductus  consocians  (Henseni).  (Ductus  reuniens). 
Knot  of  =  in  the  primitime  streak.  Line  of  =  in  the  sarcomere. 
Stripe  of  =  in  membrana  tectoria. 


Hensing,    Friedrich    Wilhelm.      German  anatomist.       1719-1745. 
Born  at  Giessen  where  he  became  a  professor  in  1743-1745. 

Dissertatio  de  peritonmo,  Giessen,  1742,  in-4".  Dissertatio  de 
apophysibus  corporis  humani,  Giessen,  I/42.  Dissertatio  de  omenta 
et  colo,  Giessen,  1745,  in-4°. 

Ligament  of  =  left  superior  colic  ligament. 

Heraclitus  of  Ephesus,  (ca  556-460  B.  C).  Known  for  his  theory 
of  sensations.     See  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  I,  p.  14. 

Herbst,  Ernst  Friedrich  Gustav.  A  German  physician  in  Goet- 
tingen,  1803-1893. 

Ueber  die  Pacini'schen  Korperchen  und  ihre  Bedeutung,  1848. 
Corpuscles  of  =  tactile  corpuscles  in  birds. 

Herophilus,  a  Greek  physician  who  taught  in  the  famous  Alex- 
andrian school,  and  who  initiated  systematic  research  in  anatomy.  He 
lived  335-280  B.  C.,  although  Toply  regards  his  time  as  uncertain.  His 
name  is  usually  associated  with  Erasistratos.  He  distinguished  the 
major  parts  of  the  brain,  the  meninges,  venous  sinus  (torcular  Herophili), 
plexus,  ventricles  of  the  brain,  calamus  scriptorius,  cerebral  nerves, 
sensory  nerves,  cardiac  nerves ;  distinguished  the  thickness  of  the  arteries, 
structure  of  the  heart,  vascular  supply  of  the  testis  (see  Toply,  p.  182). 
His  works  have  all  been  lost,  but  the  knowledge  that  he  attained  has  been 
preserved  in  the  writings  of  Galen  (see  Haller,  Bibliotheca  Anatomica, 
Tome  I,  p.  59,  1774,  and  Pagel  and  Sudhoff,  p.  83). 
Torcular  Herophili  (Confluens  sinuum). 

Herrick,  Clarence  Luther.  An  American  comparative  anatomist 
and  neurologist,  1858-1904.  Professor  of  geology  and  natural  history 
at  Denison  University,  1884-1889  and  1892-1896;  University  of  Cin- 
cinnati, 1889-1891 ;  University  of  Chicago,  professor  of  biology,  1891-92. 
He  was  granted  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  at  the  University  of  Minnesota, 
1898.  President  of  the  territorial  university  at  Albuquerque,  New 
Mexico,  1897-1901.  Founder  of  the  "Journal  of  Comparative  Neur- 
ology," 1891 ;  "  Bulletin  of  the  Scientific  Laboratories  of  Denison  Uni- 
versity," 1885.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  contributions  to  natural 
history  and  to  comparative  neurology;  many  of  the  latter  being  pub- 
lished in  the  "  Journal  of  Comparative  Neurology." 

Contributions  to  the  Comparative  Morphology  of  the  central 
Neri/ous  System.  I.  Illustrations  of  the  Architectonic  of  the  Cere- 
bellum. Journ.  Comp.  Neurol,  I,  5-14,  4  plates.  II.  Topography 
and  Histology  of  the  Brain  of  certain  Reptiles.  Ibid,  I,  14-37,  ^ 
plates,  i8pi.    HI.  Topography  and  Histology  of  the  Brain  of  cer- 


tain  Ganoid  Fishes.    Ibid,  I,  pp.  14^-182,  4  plates,  iSgi.    The  Meta- 
physics of  a  Naturalist,  Granville,  Ohio,  ipio,  in-8°. 

Biography:  Clarence  Luther  Herrick,  in  "Bulletin  of  the 
Scientific  Laboratories  of  Denison  University,"  vol.  xiii,  art.  I, 
pp.  1-33,  with  portrait  and  bibliography,  1905. 

Hesselbach,  Adam  Kaspar.  German  surgeon,  1788-1856.  Pro- 
fessor of  surgery  and  chief  physician  in  Bamberg,  son  of  Franz  Kaspar 

Ligamentum  interfoveale;  —  inguinale  internum.    Fovea. 

Hesselbach,  Franz  Kaspar.  A  German  surgeon  and  physician, 
1754-1816.  Prosector  to  Siebold  in  Heidelberg,  1788.  Professor  of 
surgery  at  Wiirzburg.  His  son,  Adam  Kaspar,  attained  distinction  as  a 

Vollst.    Anleitung  zur  Z ergliederungskunde ,  1806-8. 
Ana.     — Chir.     Abh.     — ueber  d.      Ursprung  der  Leisten- 
brucke,  ipo6. 

Ligamentum  interfoveale.    Triangle  of  =  an  area  in  abdomen. 

Hassling,  Karl  Theodor.  A  German  anatomist,  1816-  .  Born 
in  Berlin. 

Heusinger,  Carl  Freidrich.  Known  for  his  studies  in  histology, 
anatomy,  zootomy,  physiology,  anthropology  and  pathological  anatomy, 
1792-1883.  He  was  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Wiirzburg, 
1824-29,  as  successor  to  Dollinger;  then  in  Marburg. 

System  der  Histologic,  Eisenach,  1822-24,  in-4'',  4  pis.  De 
organogenia,  Jena,  1823,  in-4°.  Berichte  von  der  ^ootomischen 
Anstalt  zu  Wiirzburg,  tVUrzburg,  1826,  in-4° ,  8  pi. 

Hewson,  William.  An  English  anatomist,  born  at  Hexham,  1739- 
1774.  A  member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  and  public  lecturer  on 
anatomy.    He  wrote  an  interesting  work  on  the  lymphatics,  entitled : 

Experimental  inquiries  on  the  proportions  of  the  blood,  zvith 
some  remarks  on  its  nature  and  an  appendix  relative  to  the  lym- 
phatic system  in  birds,  fishes,  and  amphibious  animals.  London, 
iTJi,  in-8° ;  pt.  II,  containing  a  description  of  the  lymphatic  system 
in  human  subjects  and  animals,  with  observations  on  the  lymph. 
London,  1774,  in-8°. 

Biography:  Richardson,  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  2,  pp. 
532-553,  ipoi. 

Hey,  William.    English  surgeon  at  Leeds,  1736-1819. 

Ligament  of==  the  upper  border  of  the  saphenous  opening. 


Highmore,  Nathaniel.  An  English  anatomist  and  physician  in 
Shrewsbury,  born  at  Fordingbridge,  1613-1685.  His  writings  are  in- 
teresting more  for  their  curious  errors,  reflecting  the  attitude  of  the  time, 
rather  than  for  the  new  facts  they  contain.  The  discovery  of  the  maxil- 
lary sinus  is  wrongly  attributed  to  him,  since  it  was  known  to  all  the 
early  writers  in  anatomy.    His  works  are : 

Corporis  humani  disquisitio  anatomica,  etc.,  LaHaye,  1651. 
The  history  of  generation,  examining  the  opinions  of  divers 
authors  and  chiefly  of  Sir  K.  Dighy.    London,  1651. 

Antrum  of  =  Sinus  maxillaris.    Body  of  =  Mediastinum  testis 
(Corpus  Highmorei) . 

Hilaire.     See  Geoffrey  Saint-Hilaire. 

Hildebrandt,  Georges  Friedrich,  (1764-1816).  Professor  in  the 
University  of  Erlangen;  professor  of  anatomy  at  Bronswick.  Bom  at 

Lehrbuch  der  Anatomic  des  Menschen,  Bronswick,  1789. 

Hilton,  John.    English  surgeon,  1804-1878. 

Sac  of^^Sacculus  laryngis.     Muscle  of  =^  inferior  aryteno- 
epiglottideus.    Line. 

Hippocrates  of  Cos,  (468-367  B.  C).  Also  known  as  Hippo- 
crates II,  or  the  Great;  the  Father  of  Medicine.  Turner  says  of  Hippo- 
crates :  "  It  does  not  appear,  notwithstanding  the  vague  and  general 
panegyrics  of  Riolan,  Bartholin,  Le  Clerc,  and  Portal,  that  the  anatomical 
knowledge  of  this  illustrious  person  was  either  accurate  or  profound." 
(Ency.  Brit.)  None  of  the  genuine  works  of  Hippocrates  treat  of  ana- 
tomical problems,  although  from  his  other  writings  it  is  clear  that  he 
had  an  adequate  knowledge  of  osteology,  but  his  knowledge  of  the  re- 
mainder of  the  body  is  erroneous  and  superficial.  Galen  attributes  to 
him  an  important  place  in  the  history  of  anatomy.  Haller  (Bibliotheca 
Anatomica,  Tome  II,  pp.  15-28,  1774)  gives  an  extensive  discussion  of 
Hippocrates  as  an  anatomist,  and  cites  many  references  to  the  literature 
of  his  predecessors.  Winckel  regards  him  as  a  man  well  equipped  in 
gynecology  and  in  some  of  the  phases  of  embryology.  (See  Handbuch  d. 
Geburtshiilfe,  Bd.  I,  pp.  29-30). 

Emile  Littre's  translation  of  Hippocrates'  writings,  the  result  of 
many  years'  labor,  is  said  to  be  the  best  commentary  on  the  work  of  this 
early  writer. 

In  the  Biographic  Medicale  are  listed  works  on  anatomy  attributed 
to  Hippocrates,  but  there  is  some  doubt  of  their  authenticity.    They  are : 


i)  De  ranatomie,  Venice,  1542;  2)  Du  coeur;  3)  De  la  nature  des  os; 
4)  Des  veines;  5)  De  la  dentition,  etc. 
Chorda  magna. 

His,  Wilhelm  (The  Elder).  An  eminent  German  anatomist  and 
embryologist,  1831-1904.  A  student  of  Johannes  Mueller,  Remak  and 
Virchow.  In  1857  he  was  made  ord.  professor  of  anatomy  and  physi- 
ology at  Basel;  1872  professor  of  anatomy  in  Leipzig,  and  director  of 
the  anatomical  institute.  Editor,  with  Wilhelm  Braune,  of  the  "  Archiv 
fiir  Anatomic  und  Physiologic,"  1875-1904.  He  took  an  active  part 
in  the  revision  of  the  anatomical  terminology.  He  suggested  in  1889  the 
appointment  of  a  commission  on  Nomenclature  and  the  Commission  on 
Nomenclature  was  appointed  with  Kolliker  as  chairman,  with  Professors 
O.  Hertwig,  His,  Kollmann,  Merkel,  Schwalbe,  Toldt,  Waldeyer,  and 
V.  Bardeleben.  In  1895,  the  Anatomical  Society  voted  the  adoption  of 
the  report  of  the  Commission  on  Nomenclature,  at  the  meeting  in  Basel. 
The  expression  BNA  is  an  abbreviated  title  for  the  list  of  some  4500 
anatomical  terms  accepted  at  this  meeting.  His  wrote  the  report  of  the 
Commission  in  the  same  year  and  it  was  published  in  the  "  Archiv  fiir 
Anatomic  und  Physiologic,"  Jahrgang,  1895,  Supplement  Band.  (Ana- 
tomische  Abtheilung).  "Die  Anatomische  Nomenclature.  Nomina 

Beitraege  zur  normalen  u.  path.  Anatomie  d.  Cornea,  1856. 
Crania  helvetica,  with  L.  RUtimeyer,  1865.  Ueberd.  erste  Anlage 
des  Wirbelthiereies,  1868.  Unsere  Korperform  u.  d.  physiol. 
Problem  ihrer  Entstehung,  1875.  Anatomie  menschl.  Embryonen, 

Area  praelobularis.  Ductus  thyreoglossus.  Plica  malleolaris 
(membr.  tym.  ant.).  Spatia  lymphatica.  Sulcus  intermedius  ven- 

Hoboken,  Nicolas  von.  A  German  physician,  born  in  Utrecht, 
1632-1678.  Professor  of  medicine  and  mathematics  in  Utrecht,  1663. 
At  Harderwyk,  1669-1672. 

Novus  ductus  salivalis  Blasianus  in  lucem  protractus,  Utrecht, 
1662,  in-12'' .  Contains  letters  from  Blasius  and  Hoboken  relative 
to  the  discovery  by  Stensen  of  the  ductus  parotideus.  Anatomia 
secundince  humance,  quindecim  figuris  ad  vivum  propria  authoris 
manu  delineatis  illustrata.  Utrecht,  i66g,  in-8° .  Good  description 
of  the  placenta,  and  other  deciduce. 

Hoeven,  Jan  van  der.  A  Dutch  zoologist,  born  at  Rotterdam, 
1801-1868.     Studied  in  Leyden  where  he  was  granted  his  doctorate  in 


1824.    In  1826  he  became  a.  0.  professor,  1835-1868  professor  of  zoology 
in  Rotterdam.    Known  for  his  philosophical  views. 

Tdbulce  regni  animalis,  additus  dassium  ordinumque  character- 
ibus,  Leyden,  1828,  tables,  in  fol.  Icones  ad  illustrandas  colons 
mutationes  in  chameleonte,  Leyden,  1832,  in-4'',  5  pi.,  col. 

Hoffmann,  Ernst  Emil.  A  Swiss  anatomist,  1827-1877.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  in  Basel.    Translator  of  the  German  edition  of  Quain's : 

Elements  of  descriptive  and  practical  anatomy  for  the  use  of 

Hoffmann,  Johann  Moritz.  German  anatomist,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, born  at  Altdorf,  1653-1713.  Succeeded  his  father  as  professor 
of  anatomy  and  botany  at  Altdorf,  then  professor  of  medicine,  1709-1713. 

Idea  machines  humance  anatomico-physiologica,  ad  ohserva- 
tiones  recentiores  conformata,  et  ad  methodum  lectionum  solennium 
accomodata.    Altdorf,  i/oj,  in-4°. 

Hoffmann,  Moritz.  A  German  anatomist  and  botanist.  Born  in 
Fiirstenwald,  1622-1698.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery,  1648,  in 
Altdorf.  Thomas  Bartholin  attributes  to  him  the  discovery  of  the 
pancreatic  duct,  which  is  usually  ascribed  to  Wirsung. 

Synopsis  institutionum  anatomicarum,  ex  sanguinis  natura 
partium  plerarumque  vitam  declarans,  ordine  dissectionis  commodo, 
Accedit  delineatio  anatomes  physio-pathologico-chirurgiccB.  Altdorf, 
1661,  in-8°. 

Duct  of  ==^  Ductus  pancreaticus. 

Holden,  Luther.    An  English  anatomist,  1816-1905. 

A  Manual  of  the  Dissection  of  the  Human  Body,  New  York, 

Line  of  =  a  furrow  in  the  groin. 

HoU,  Moritz.  German  anatomist,  1852-  .  Student  of  Hyrtl 
and  Langer,  1882  professor  of  anatomy  in  Innsbruch,  1889  in  Graz.  An 
author  of  several  essays  on  the  history  of  anatomy. 

Die  Muskeln  und  Fascien  des  Beckenausgangs,  in  Bardeleben's 

Rectal  diaphragm. 

Holmes,  Oliver  Wendell.  An  American  anatomist,  physician, 
poet  and  genial  autocrat  of  the  breakfast  table,  who  lived  in  Boston, 
1809-1894.    He  was  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Dartmouth, 


1839-47,  and  Parkman  professor  of  anatomy  at  the  Harvard  Medical 
School,  1847-82,  where  he  became  a  most  successful  lecturer. 

Medical  Essays,  1883. 

Biography:  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  in  Johns  Hopkins  Hasp. 
Bull.,  vol.  5,  No.  42,  pp.  85-88,  by  Wm.  Osier.  Life  and  Letters 
of  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  by  J'ohn  T.  Morse. 

Home,  Everard.  An  English  physician  and  anatomist,  1763- 
1832.  Associated  with  John  Hunter,  and  retained  possession  of  the 
museum  and  manuscript  notes  of  Hunter.  Professor  of  anatomy  and 
surgery  in  the  Royal  College  of  physicians  and  surgeons. 

Lectures  en  comparative  anatomy,  London,  1814-1828,  6  large 
quarto  volumes,  with  271  plates. 

Many  of  his  memoirs  are  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  the 
Royal  Society. 

Lobe  of  =  median  lobe  of  the  prostate. 

Hooke,  Robert.  An  English  microscopist  in  London,  1635-1703. 
He  first  recognized  the  primitive  fibrillas  in  muscle. 

Micrographia,  or  some  physiological  descriptions  of  minute 
bodies  by  magnifying  glasses,  London,  1665. 

Hoorne,  Jan  van.  A  celebrated  Dutch  anatomist,  born  at  Am- 
sterdam, 1621-1670.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Amsterdam, 
1633 ;  then  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Leyden.  He  was  one 
of  the  first  to  observe  the  thoracic  duct  in  man,  and  described  the  ductus 
submaxillaris,  which  was  subsequently  knov^n  as  Wharton's  duct.  He 
discovered  the  mammary  ducts  in  1652. 

De  ductibus  salivalibus  disputationes,  Leyden,  1656. 
Microcosmus,  seu  brevis  manuductio  ad  historiam  corporis 
humani,  in  gratiam  discipulorum  edita.    Leyden,  1660,  in- 12°. 
Ductus  thoracicus. 

Horner,  William  Edmonds.  An  American  anatomist,  1793-1853. 
Studied  medicine  at  Edinburgh  and  Philadelphia.  Became  prosector  to 
Wistar,  Dorsey  and  Physick.  Succeeded  Physick  as  professor  of  anatomy 
in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  in  1831.  His  successor  was  Joseph 
Leidy.  Horner  discovered  the  tarsi  muscle  (Horner's  muscle)  supplying 
the  lacrimal  apparatus  (Phila.  Journ.  Med.  and  Phys.  Soc,  1824,  vol.  8, 
p.  70).    He  also  studied  the  axillary  odoriferous  glands  of  the  negro. 

A  treatise  on  special  and  general  anatomy,  5th  edition,  in  2 
vols.,  Philadelphia,  1840. 

Pars  lacrimalis  muse,  orbicularis  oculi  (Horneri). 


Houston,  John.     An  Irish  physician  of  Dublin,  1802-1845. 

Muscle  of  =  part  of  musculus  bulbocavernosus.    Fold  of  valve 
of  =  plica  transversalis  recti. 

Howship,  John.  An  English  surgeon  in  London.  At  the  time 
of  his  death  (1841)  he  was  one  of  the  most  renowned  surgeons  in  London. 

On  the  Natural  and  Diseased  State  of  the  Bones,  London, 

Lacuna  of  =  pits  containing  osteoclasts. 

Hoyer,  Heinrich.  A  German  anatomist,  1834-1907.  Studied 
medicine  in  the  universities  of  Breslau  and  Berlin,  where  he  received  his 
degree  in  1856,  with  the  thesis:  " De  membranes  mucosae  narium 
structura."  Assistant  in  the  physiological  institute  to  Reichert;  in  1859 
called  to  the  chair  of  histology  and  physiology  at  the  Academic  Medico- 
Chirurgicale  at  Varsovie,  as  adjunct  professor.  In  1862  professor  ord. 
in  the  faculty  of  medicine  at  the  central  school  of  the  polonaise  uni- 
versity. In  1869  Hoyer  was  made  professor  of  histology,  comparative 
anatomy  and  embryology,  and  resigned  his  chair  after  35  years'  service, 
in  1894.^  His  researches  on  innervation,  and  on  the  circulatory  system 
deserve  especial  mention.  A  complete  bibliography  of  his  writings  is 
in :    "  Iiiternatl.  Monatsch.  f .  Anatomic  und  Physiol.  Bd.  24,  1908. 

Biography:   Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  32,  pp.  501-2,  igo8. 

Hubrecht,  A.  A.  W.  A  Dutch  zoologist  and  comparative  em- 
bryologist,  1853-1^15.  Studied  engineering  in  Delft;  then  zoology  with 
Harting  in  Utrecht,  then  with  Selenka  in  Leyden.  Obtained  his  doctorate 
in  1874  with  a  dissertation  on  the  anatomy,  histology  and  embryology  of 
the  Nemertinea.  In  1876-1882  he  was  curator  of  the  zoological  museum 
in  Leyden ;  in  1882  he  became  ord.  professor  of  zoology  in  Utrecht.  He 
resigned  this  post  in  1910,  in  order  to  devote  his  time  and  attention  more 
fully  to  research,  but  retained  until  his  death  an  association  with  the 
university  as  professor  extraordinary.  His  researches  on  the  placentation 
and  embryology  of  the  apes  and  lower  mammals  are  of  especial  im- 
portance in  determining  the  early  stages  of  mammalian  development.  His 
studies  were  written  in  Dutch,  German,  English  and  French.  His  inti- 
mate knowledge  of  all  the  modern  languages  in  Europe  gave  him  the 
leadership  in  the  organization  of  an  international  institute  for  the  study  of 
Embryology,  which  was  organized  in  Utrecht  in  1912. 

Studies  in  Mammalian  Embryology:  i.  Placentation  of  Erina- 

ceus  europaeus,  with  remarks  on  the  phylogeny  of  the  Placenta. 

Q.  Journ.  Micros.  Science,  (2)  vol.  30,  pp.  283-404,  plates  25-27, 

i88q.    2.  The  Development  of  the  Germ  Layers  of  Sorex  vulgaris. 

Ibid,  vol.  SI,  pp.  499-562,  plates  36-42,  i8po,    3.  Placentation  of 


the  Shrew  (Sorex  vulgaris  L.).    Hid,  vol.  S5,  pp.  481-537,  plates 
31-39,  1894. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  48,  No.  7/8,  pp.  201- 
208,  by  Franz  Keibel,  with  Bibliography. 

Hueck,  Alexander  Friedrich.  A  German  anatomist,  1802-1842. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Dorpat. 

Ligament  of  =  ligamentum  pectinatum  iridis. 

Huguier,  Pierre-Charles.    A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  1804-1874. 
Canal  of  =  Iter  chordce  anterius.    Circle  of  =  around  isthmus 
of  uterus.    Sinus  of  =  fossa  in  tympanum. 

Humboldt,  Friedrich  Heinrich  Alexander,  Baron  von.  A  dis- 
tinguished naturalist  and  traveler,  was  born  in  Berlin,  1 769-1 859.  He 
was  a  man  of  exceedingly  wide  range  of  interests,  and  he  has  contributed 
the  following  to  anatomy: 

Recueil  d' observations  de  zoologie  et  d'anatomie  comparee, 
Paris,  1803-18 32,  14  livraisons,  in  2  vols.,  in-4° ,  57  pi. 

Biography:  Karl  Bruhn's  life  of  Humboldt,  in  3  vols.,  Leipzig, 

Hundt,  Magnus.  A  physician  of  Magdeburg,  1449-1519.  Pro- 
fessor at  Leipzig.  Platner  says  that  Hundt  was  the  first  to  publish 
anatomical  plates,  but  he  was  preceded  by  Mundino  in  1428. 

Anthropologium  de  hominis  dignitate,  1501,  Leipzig,  in-4°. 
Biography:    Haller-Bibliotheca  AnatomicS,  Tome  i,  p.  153, 
1774;  Choulant,  p.  23. 

Hunter,  John.  An  anatomist  and  surgeon  of  London,  1728-1793. 
Brother  to  William  Hunter,  uncle  to  Matthew  Baillie  (i  761-1823),  and 
the  poetess  Joanna  Baillie,  brother-in-law  to  Everard  Home.  He  was 
born  at  Long  Calderwood,  Scotland.  Assistant  in  anatomy  to  his  brother 
William.  Here  began  his  interest  in  anatomy  which  ceased  only  with 
his  death.  He  observed  the  descent  of  the  testis  in  the  foetus,  traced 
the  ramifications  of  the  nasal  and  olfactory  nerves,  experimentally  tested 
whether  veins  could  act  as  absorbents.  In  1767  he  was  made  fellow  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  London.  Teacher  of  Edward  Jenner  in  1770; 
Abernethy  and  Astley  Cooper  were  also  his  students.  It  will  not  be 
possible  to  give  an  idea  of  the  huge  amount  of  experimental  investiga- 
tions carried  on  by  Hunter.  His  museum  formed  the  nucleus  for  the 
famous  Hunterian  museum  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  of  London. 

Observations  on  certain  parts  of  the  animal  aeconomy,  London, 
1786,  in- 4°. 

Natural  History  of  the  human  teeth,  London,  1771. 

Canal  of  =  canalis  adductorius.     Gubernaculum  testis. 


Biography:  Richardson,  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  2,  pp. 
501-531,  1901-  Rohrer,  John  Hunter:  his  life  and  labors,  Bull. 
Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  vol.  25,  pp.  10-24,  ^9^4,  '^^^^  portraits. 

Hunter,  William.  A  distinguished  physiologist  and  anatomist, 
and  the  first  great  teacher  of  anatomy  in  England,  1718-1783.  Studied 
in  Edinburgh  and  London  where  he  became  assistant  to  Dr.  James 
Douglas.  He  visited  Leyden  and  inspected  the  work  of  Albinus.  Wil- 
liam Hewson  was  his  assistant  after  his  brother  John  went  to  the  army. 
He  is  known  chiefly  for  his  anatomy  of  the  gravid  uterus. 

Anatomy  of  the  human  gravid  uterus,  London,  17/5,  with  34 
plates,  representing  the  objects  natural  size. 

Ligament.    Line.    Membrane. 

Biography:  Richardson,  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  i,  pp. 
322-343,  ipoi. 

Huschke,  Emil.  A  German  anatomist,  1797-1858.  Loders'  suc- 
cessor at  Jena  as  professor  of  anatomy,  1827-58. 

Dissertatio  qucedam  de  organorum  respiratoriorum  in  ani- 
malium  serie  metamorphosi,  generatim  scripta,  et  de  vesica  nata- 
toria  piscium  quaestio.  Jena,  18 ip,  in-4° .  De  pulmonum  quad- 
ruplicitate.  Jena,  1824,  in-4°,  pi.  Beitrage  zur  Physiologic  und 
Natur'geschichte.  Weimar,  1824,  in-4° ,  4  pi.  Commentatio  de 
pectinis  in  oculo  avium  potestate  anatomica  et  physiologica.  Jena, 
1827,  in-4°,  pi. 

Auditory  teeth.     Cartilages.    Foramen.    Ligament.     Valve. 

Huxley,  Thomas  Henry.  An  English  biologist,  anatomist,  paleon- 
tologist and  philosopher,  1825-95.  He  was  born  at  Ealing,  Middlesex, 
England.  He,  like  Darwin,  early  in  life  spent  some  years  in  a  voyage 
of  exploration  on  H.  M.  S.  Rattlesnake.  In  1854  he  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  natural  history  and  paleontology  at  the  Jermyn  School  of 
Mines,  and  he  held  this  post  until  his  retirement  in  1885.  He  was 
Fullerian  professor  to  the  University  of  London,  Hunterian  professor  of 
comparative  anatomy  at  the  Royal  Cbllege  of  Surgeons.  Teacher  and 
friend  of  Balfour.  Friend  and  correspondent  of  Darwin,  whose  staunch 
supporter  he  became.  One  of  his  most  important  contributions  was  the 
introduction  of  laboratory  biology  into  the  public  schools.  Huxley  was 
the  author  of  many  memoirs  on  comparative  anatomy,  and  paleontology. 
His  scientific  publications  have  been  -gathered  by  Sir  Ray  Lankester  into 
4  quarto  volumes,  and  his  other  writings  into  14  volumes  octavo.  His 
more  interesting  memoirs  from  an  anatomical  standpoint  are : 

Man's  Place  in  Nature,  1863.  On  Certain  Errors  respecting 
the  Structure  of  the  Heart  attributed  to  Aristotle,  Nature,  1879. 
Manual  of  the  Anatomy  of  vertebrated  Animals,  1871.    On  a  hith- 


erto  undescribed  structure  in  the  human  hair  sheath,  London  Medi- 
cal Gazette,  I,  1340  (July,  1845). 

M.  costo-humeralis.    Stratum  Huxleyi. 

Biography:  Life  and  Letters  of  Thomas  Huxley,  2  vols.,  by 
his  son,  Leonard  Huxley.    New  York  and  London,  1913,  in-8°. 

Hyatt,  Alpheus.  An  American  zoologist  and  paleontologist, 
1838-1902.  He  was  born  at  Washington,  D.  C,  and  in  1856  at  the  age 
of  18  he  entered  Yale  University.  After  one  year  he  went  to  Harvard 
to  study  with  Louis  Agassiz,  and  was  graduated  in  1862.  Hyatt  was 
custodian  and  curator  of  the  collections  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural 
History  from  1870-1902.  His  chief  scientific  interests,  aside  from  his 
routine  work,  were  the  development  of  the  ammonoid  cephalopods, 
especially  the  fossil  forms,  and  he  wrote  a  number  of  memoirs  which 
attracted  world  wide  attention  from  paleontologists  working  in  similar 
fields.  Not  only  did  his  work  attract  the  attention,  of  this  class  of  workers, 
but  the  broad  biological  principles  underlying  all  of  his  investigations 
brought  favorable  comment  from  many  whose  interests  were  quite 
diverse  from  his  own. 

Proceedings,  of  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  vol.  30, 
No.  4,  pp.  413-433,  1902. 

Hyrtl,  Josef.  An  eminent  anatomist  in  Prague,  and  Vienna, 
1811-1894.  He  was  born  at  Eisenstadt  in  Hungary;  studied  in  Vienna, 
1831-35.    Professor  of  anatomy  at  Prague,  1836;  in  Vienna,  1844-74. 

Handbuch  der  topo graphischen  Anatomie,  Vienna,  184/.  Cor- 
rosions Anatomie,  18^3.  Das  Arabische  und  Hebrdische  in  der 
Anatomie,  Vienna,  1879.  Onomatologia  anatomica,  Vienna,  1880. 
Die  alten  deutschen  Kunstworte  der  Anatomie,  Vienna,  1884. 

Arteria  anastomotica.  Articulatio  carpi  sup.  (radio-carpea). 
Canalis    sphenopalatinus    (semicirculcris    sup.    et    pharyngeus). 

—  laminae  spiralis  (spiralis  modioli) .  Collum  fibulae.  Fascia  pel- 
vis visceralis  (endopelvina)  ;  —  transversa  (transversalis) .  Fissura 
Occipitalis    transv.     Fretum    oris.     Ligamentum    intertarseum; 

—  triangulare  urethrae.  Musculus  lateralis  nasi;  —  pleuro-oeso- 
phageus;  — styloauricularis ;  — sustentator  capitis  (sternocleido- 
mast.).  Porus  cranio-nasalis ;  —  crotaphitico-buccinatorius ;  —  op- 
ticus. Processus  paracondyloideus  (paramastodieus)  ;  —  pneumati' 
cus;  — zygamatico-orbitalis.  Ramus  auriculo-ffontalis.  Sutura 
palati  cruciata  (palatina  transv.).     Truncus  tibio-peronaeus. 

Biography:  Anat.  Am.,  Bd.  p,  p.  775, 1894. 

Ingrassias,  Giovanni  Filipo  (Ingrassia).  An  Italian  physician 
and  anatomist;  was  born  at  Recalbuto,  near  Palermo,  1510-1580.  Pro- 
fessor of  the  theory  and  practice  of  medicine  and  of  anatorny  in  Naples 
until  1560.    Here  his  lectures  in  anatomy  and  medicine  were  so  popular 


that  he  earned  the  title  of  the  Sicilian  Hippocrates.  Philip  II,  king  of 
Spain,  appointed  him  chief  physician  to  Sicily.  His  name  has  been 
attached  to  the  wing  of  the  sphenoid  bone.  He  is  reputed  to  have  first 
described  the  stapes,  and  to  rank  high  as  an  osteologist. 

In  Galeni  librum  de  ossibus  doctissima  et  expertissima  com- 
mentaria.  Messina,  1603,  in  fol.  Illustrated  with  figures  from 


Biography:  Haller  (Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  I,  p.  194, 

Innocent  XII.    See  Lancisi. 

Jacob,  Arthur.  An  Irish  physician  and  ophthalmic  surgeon, 

Membrane  of  =  rods  and  cones  of  the  retina. 

Jacobson,  Ludwig  Levin.  A  Danish  anatomist,  1783-1843. 
Physician  in  Copenhagen,  later  military  physician  in  the  French  and 
English  armies. 

Diss,  de  quinto  nervorum  pari  animalium.  Koenigsberg,  1818, 
in-4°.  De  sytemate  venose  peculiari  in  permultis  animalibus  ob- 
servato.  Copenhague,  1821,  in-4°.  Bildrag  til  bloeddgranes  ana- 
tomic og  physiologic.  Copenhague,  1828,  in-4° .  Die  Okenschen 
Koerper  oder  die  Primordialnieren.    Copenhague,  1830,  in-4°. 

Canal  of  =  canaliculus  tympanicus.  Cartilage  of  =  cartilage 
vomeronasalis.  Organ  of  =  Organon  vomeronasal  (lacobsoni) 
Plexus  tympanicus  (lacobsoni). 

Jacopi,  Joseph.  An  Italian  physiologist  and  anatomist.  Pro- 
fessor of  comparative  anatomy  and  physiology  at  the  University  of 
Pavia.  He  died  in  1813.  He  was  associated  with  Scarpa  in  the  school 
of  practical  surgery. 

Elementi  di  fisiologia  e  riotomia  comparativa,  Livourne,  1823, 
J  vols.,  in-i2°, 

Jaeger,  Georg  Friedrich  von.  A  German  paleontologist,  1785- 
1866.  Professor  in  Stuttgart.  Known  for  important  discoveries  in 
vertebrate  paleontology.  In  1828  he  published  the  first  description  of 
the  huge  Labyrinthodonts,  the  early  specialized  land-living  Amphibia. 

Jarjaway,  Jean-Franqois.    A  French  physician,  1815-1868. 
Muscle  of  =  M.  depressor  urethcB. 


Jasolini,  Jules.  A  student  and  successor  to  Ingrassias  in  the  chair 
of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Naples.  He  was  born  at  Santa-Eufemia,  in 
Calabria,  Italy. 

Questiones  anatomicce  et  osteologia  parva;  de  cordis  adipe;  de 
aqua  in  pericardia ;  de  pinguedine  in  genere.  Naples,  I572)  in-S" . 
De  poris  choledochis  et  vesica  fellea,  Naples,  1577. 

Jessenius  (Jessen,  or  Jessensky)  Jean  de  (Johann  von).  IS5^ 
1621.  He  was  born  at  Breslau.  Studied  medicine  at  Leipzig,  in  Italy, 
and  in  Wittenberg.  Became  rector  and  chancellor  of  the  university  at 
Prague.    He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  describe  the  organs  of  voice. 

Anatomice,  Pragw  anno  1600  abs  se  solemniter  celebratce  his- 
toria;  de  msibus  tractatus.     Wittenberg,  1601,  in-4°. 

Joerg,  Johann  Christian  Gottfried.  A  German  physician  known 
for  his  work  in  obstetrics,  1 779-1 856.    He  was  a  professor  at  Leipzig. 

Ueber  das  Gebarorgan  des  Menschen  und  der  Sdugethiere  im 
schwangern  und  nicht-schwangern  Zustande,  Leipzig,  1808. 

Joessel,  Johann  Georg.  A  German  anatomist,  1838-1892.  Born 
near  Strassburg,  where  he  studied  medicine  and  where  he  later  became 
professor  of  topographic  anatomy. 

Lehrbuch  der-  topographisch-chirurgischen  Anatomie,  Bonn, 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  8,  p.  92,  iSp^. 

Jones,  Thomas  Wharton.  Discovered  the  germinal  vesicle  of  the 
mammalian  egg  in  1835. 

On  the  ova  of  women  and  mammiferous  animals,  as  they  exist 
in  the  ovaries  before  impregnation;  and  on  the  discovery  in  them 
of  a  vesicle  analogous  to  that  described  by  Prof.  Purkinje  in  the 
mature  egg  of  the  bird.  Proc.  Royal  Sac,  London,  P.  Ill,  p.  339/ 
340,  1835. 

Josephi,  Wilhelm.  An  anatomist  of  Rostock,  was  born  1763  at 
Bronswick.  He  was  prosector  of  anatomy  at  Goettingen  and  became 
professor  of  anatomy,  medicine,  and  obstetrics  at  the  University  of 
Rostock,  in  1792;  in  1808  he  became  chief  military  surgeon.  His  writ- 
ings show  his  interest  in  obstetrical  anatomy. 

De  conceptione  abdominali  vulgo  sic  dicta,  Goettingen,  1784. 
Observationum  ad  anatomiam  et  artem  obstetrician  spectantium 
satura,  Helmstaedt,  1785,  in-8° . 

Anatomie  der  Saeugethiere,  Goettingen,  1787,  in-8°. 


Jung,  Karl  Gustav.     A  Swiss  anatomist,  1793-1864.     Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Basel. 

Animadversiones  de  ^ssibus  generatim.    Basel,  182^. 
Musculus  pyramidalis  auriculce;  intertragicus. 

Kcill,  James.  An  English  physician,  born  at  Edinburgh,  1763- 
1819.     Practiced  at  Northampton.     He  is  the  author  of: 

The  Anatomy  of  the  human  body  ahr'dg'd,  London,  i6p8. 
An  'account  of  animal  secretion,  the  quantity  of  blood  in  the 
human  body,  and  muscular  motion,  I'joS.    London. 

Kerckring,   Theodor.     A   Dutch   anatomist,   born   at   Hamburg, 
1640-1693.    Physician  in  Amsterdam,  later  in  the  service  of  the  Duke  of 
Tuscany.    Known  for  his  observations  on  the  vasa  vasorum  in  the  horse 
and  for  his  studies  of  the  development  of  the  skeleton  in  the  foetus. 
Opera  omnia  anatomica,  Leyden,  1717,  in-4°. 
Spicilegium  anatomicum  continens  ohservationum,-  etc.,  Am- 
sterdam, 1670,  in-4°. 

Anthropogenic  ichnographia,  sive  conformatio  foetus  ab  ovo 
usque  ad  ossificationis  principia,  in  supplementum  Osteogenics 
foetum.    Amsterdam,  1671,  in-4°. 

Moduli  valvularum.     Plicce  circulares.  (Valvules  conniventes). 

Ketham,  Johannis  de  (deKetaz).     Published  the  first  illustrated 
medical  treatise,  in  folio,  containing  6  woodcuts.     This  work  contains  a 
figure  of  female  anatomy  showing  a  foetus  in  the  uterus.    The  editions 
after  1493  contained  also  the  anatomy  of  Mundinus. 
Fasciculus  Medicinw,  Venice,  1491,  in  folio. 
Biography:    Locy,  Wm.  A.,  Anatomical  Illustrations  before 
Vesalius.    Journ.  of  MorphoL,  vol.  22,  no.  4,  pp.  953-957,  1911. 

Key,  Ernst  Axel  Henrik.  A  Swedish  pathologist  and  anatomist, 
1832-1901.  Born  in  Smaland.  Student  at  Lund,  1848;  i860  studied 
normal  histology  with  Max  Schultze  in  Bonn;  in  1861  he  studied  path- 
ological anatomy  with  Virchow.  In  1862  professor  of  pathological  anat- 
omy at  the  Carolina  Institute.  Editor  of  the  "  Nordiskt  Medicinskt 
Arkiv,"  1862. 

Studien  in  der  Anatomie  des  Nervensystems  und  des  Binde- 
gewebes;  with  Gustav  Retzius  —  a  large  and  magnificently  illus- 
trated work. 

Kielmeyer,  Charles-Frederic  de.  A  French  naturalist,  1765- 
1844.  Teacher  of  Cuvier.  Author  of  an  important  work  entitled :  "  Sur 
les  rapports  des  forces  arganiques  entre  elles  dans  la  serie  des  etres 
organises,  1793." 


Kiernan,  Francis.    An  English  physician,  1800-1874. 
Space  of  =^  interlobular  spaces  in  the  liver. 

Kiesselbach,  W.    German  laryngologist,  1839- 
Area  of  =  on  the  nasal  septum, 

Kilian,  Hermann  Friedrich.     German  obstetrician,  1800-63. 
Line  of  =  at  the  promontory  vf  the  sacrum. 

Kleinenberg,  Nikolaus.  A  German  anatomist,  1842-1897.  Born 
at  Libau  in  Kurland.  Professor  of  zoology  and  comparative  anat- 
omy at  Palermo.  In  1879  professor  of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy 
at  Messina,  and  in  1895  at  Palermo.  Studied  at  the  Naples  Zoological 

Sulla  sviluppo  del  sistema  nervoso  periferico  nei  Molluschi, 

Biography:  Nikolaus  Kleinenberg,  by  Paul  Mayer.  Anat. 
Am.,  Bd.  14,  pp.  267-2'^!,  i8p8,  with  bibliography. 

Knackstedt,  Christophe  Elie  Henri.  A  surgeon  in  Bronswick, 
Germany,  1 749-1 799.  He  is  the  author  of:  " Osteologie,  oder  Beschrei- 
bung  der  Knochen  des  menschlichen  Koerpers.    Bronswick,  178 1,  in-8°. 

Knox,  Robert.    An  anatomist  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  1791-1862. 
He  was  the  first  to  teach  general  anatomy  from  the  descriptive,  histologic 
and  comparative  angles.    He  was  subjected  to  considerable  notoriety  and 
scandal  owing  to  his  connivance  with  the  resurrectionists. 
The  Races  of  Man,  1850. 

Anatomical  Studies  of  the  Bones  and  Muscles  for  the  use  of 
Artists,  London,  1833. 

Koelliker,  Rudolf  Albert  von.  A  German  anatomist,  histologist 
and  zoologist,  1817-1905.  Prosector  for  Henle,  1843.  Professor  of 
physiology  and  comparative  anatomy  in  Zurich,  1846-47;  Wiirzburg, 
1847-1905.  He  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  histologists  of  the  last 
century,  and  did  much  to  advance  biology  in  general ;  he  is  regarded  also 
as  one  of  the  greatest  embryologists  of  his  time  and  his  treatise  on 
general  embryology  is  of  high  merit.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  demon- 
strate cell  division  in  animal  cells. 

Entwicklungsgeschichte  des  Menschen  und  der  Thiere,  Leipzig, 

Mikroskopische  Anatomie,  Leipzig,  1850-4. 
Handbuch  der  Gewebelehre  des  Menschen,  Leipzig,  1852,  6th 
edition,  1889. 

Cells  of  =  osteoblasts.  Glands  of  =  Bowman's  glands.  Layer 
of=:in  the  iris.  Ligamentum  circulare.  Stratum  intermedium 
(Layer).     Substantia  ferruginea.     Reticulum  of  =  neurologia. 


Kohlrausch,  Otto  Ludwig  Bernhard.  A  German  physician,  1811- 

Zur  Anatomie  und  Physiologie  der  Beckenorgane,  Leipzig, 

Valves  of  =  Plicae  transversalis  recti. 

Koken,  Ernst.  A  German  paleontologist,  1860-1912.  He  was 
born  in  Braunschweig  and  studied  at  the  University  of  Gottingen ;  later 
at  Berlin,  where  he  came  under  the  influence  of  Beyrich  and  Dames.  In 
189s  he  was  Quenstedt's  successor  at  the  University  of  Tiibingen  as 
director  of  the  geological  museum,  and  retained  this  position  to  the  end 
of  his  hfe.  Koken's  interests  in  fossil  vertebrates  were  chiefly  from  the 
standpoint  of  geology.  His  contributions  to  the  morphology  of  the 
vertebrates,  though  few,  are  noteworthy. 

Kopho  II.     See  Copho  II. 

Koyter.    See  Coiter. 

Kowalevsky,  Woldemar.  A  Russian  paleontologist,  1843-1883. 
He  was  born  in  the'government  of  Witebsk,  on  the  15th  of  April  (1843). 
A  student  and  admirer  of  Riitimeyer,  under  whose  influence  he  produced 
his  three  remarkable  memoirs  on  fossil  hoofed  mammals.  He  wrote 
these  three  memoirs  in  three  languages,  .not  his  own.  His  EngHsh 
memoir :  "  On  the  Osteology  of  the  Hyopotamidae,  London,  1873" 
was  one  of  the  first  attempts  to  study  problems  of  paleontology  on  the 
broad  basis  of  organic  evolution.  His  other  memoirs  are :  "  Sur 
I' Anchitherium  aurelianense,  Cuv.,  et  sur  I'histoire  paleontologique  des 
Chevaux,  Paris,  1873 ;  Monographie  der  Gattung  Anthrac other ium  Cuv., 
und  Versuch  einer  naturlich  Classification  der  fossilen  Hufthiere,"  in 
"  Paleontographica,"  Cassel,  1873-4,  Bd.  XXII,  dedicated  to  Charles 

Kowalevsky  was  professor  of  paleontology  in  the  University  of 
Moscow  and  died  in  that  city  on  the  28th  of  April  at  the  age  of  40. 
Osbom  says  of  Kowalevsky's  above  mentioned  Monographie:  "  This 
work  is  a  model  union  of  the  detailed  study  of  form  and  function  with 
theory  and  working  hypothesis.  It  regards  the  fossil  not  as  a  petrified 
skeleton,  but  as  having  belonged  to  a  moving  and  feeding  animal ;  every 

joint  and  facet  has  a  meaning,  each  cusp  a  certain  significance 

In  other  words  the  fossil  quadrupeds  are  treated  biologically  so  far  as  is 
possible  in  the  obscurity  of  the  past." 


Krause,  Karl  Friedrich  Theodore.  A  German  anatomist  in 
Hannover,  1797-1868.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  the  school  of  surgery 
at  Hannover. 

Handbuch  der  menschlichen  Anatomic,  Hannover,  1833-38, 
edited  and  augmented  by  Wilhelm  Krause.  Leipzig,  1905.  Synop- 
sis icone  illustrata  nervorum  systematis  gangliosi  in  capite  hominis. 
Hannover,  1839. 

Arcus  tonsillaris.  Fibrocartilagines  falciformes  (Menisci 
genu).  Ligamentuin  pisometacarpeum;  — sacrococcygeum  me- 
dium.     Musculus    coracocervicalis ;  —  coracoradialis    et    ulnaris; 

—  urethralis  transversus  Ramus  supraspinatus.  Scyphulus.  Tu- 
nica folliculi. 

Krause,  Wilhelm.  An  eminent  German  anatomist  (1832-1909) 
in  Goettingen  and  Berlin.  Son  of  Karl  Friedrich  Theodor  Krause.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  in  Goettingen  and  Berlin. 

Neurologie  der  vberen  E'xtremitdten.  Leipzig,  1865.  Hand- 
buck  der  Anatomic  dcs  menschen  unter  Mitwirkung  von  W.His  und 
W.  Waldeycr,  und  unter  Verweisung  auf  den  Handatlas  der  Ana- 
tomie  von  Werner  Spalteholtz,  i8pp-igoj,  4  vols.,  in-8°. 

Arcus  dorsalis  pedis.  Co'rpuscula  bulbiformia.  Crista  muscu- 
laris;  —  palatina  transversa.  Fossa  pubovesicalis.  Glandules  lacri- 
malis  accessorius.  Gl.  mucosa;  —  tympanica.  Ligamentum  cal- 
c  an  CO -navicular  c  interosseum  lat.;  — costotransv.  breve;  — ductus 
venosi;  ■ — ■  popliteum  sup.  (arcuatum)  ;  — tarsocalcaneum  dorsale; 

—  tnangulare.  Linca  semicircidaris  sup.  Lobus  inf.  ant.  cerebelli. 
Membrana  fenestrata  retina;  ■ — pigmenti.  pigmenti  iridis.  Mus- 
culus coracocervicalis;  —  coracoradialis  et  coracoulnaris ;  —  labii 
prop.;  — quadrigeminus  i>rachii;  — quadrigeminus  capitis;  —  trans- 
versospinalis  longi.  Nucleus  pedunculi  cerebri;  —  rcfpiratorius. 
Os  multangulum  accessorium;  — quadratum.  Ostium  tracheale 
laryngis.  Plexus  anscrinus.  Portio  recta; — reflexa.  Processus 
anomalus  mcdius;  —  medialis  calcanei;  —  occultus  oss.  maxillaris. 
Radix  descendens  n.  glossoph.  Sinus  sphenoidalis.  Sulci  trira- 
diati.  Sutura  transv.  oss.  occipitis.  Torus  uteri.  Vasa  aberrantia 

Kuehne,  Willy.     German  histologist,  1837-1900. 
Muscle-spindle  of  =  neuromuscular  spindle. 

Kupffer,  Karl  Wilhelm  von.  A  German  anatomist  and  embry- 
ologist,  1829-1902.  Student  of  Bidder,  Prosector  at  Dorpat,  1858-66; 
professor  of  anatomy  in  Kiel,  1867.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  Konigs- 
berg,  1876-1880;  in  Munich,  1880-1902,  as  successor  to  Bischoff.  He  is 
the  author  of  many  memoirs  on  various  phases  of  embryology,  especially 
of  the  fishes. 

Untersuchungen  ueber  d.  '  Textur  des  Rueckenmarks  u. 
Bntwicklung  seiner  Formelemente,  Leipzig,  1857. 

Entwicklungsgeschichte  d.     Kopfes,  1895. 

Vesicle.    Cellulae  Kupfferi. 


Lacaze-Duthiers,  Henry  de.  A  French  zoologist,  1821-1901. 
Founder  of  experimental  zoology  in  France.  Studied  medicine  in  Paris, 
but  was  influenced  by  de  Blainville  and  Milne-Edwards  to  take  up  the 
study  of  natural  history.  In  1854  professor  of  botany  and  zoology  in 
Lille.  In  1863  he  was  called  to  the  natural  history  museum  in  Paris,  and 
held  the  professorship  in  the  Sorbonne  from  1869  to  the  end  of  his  life. 
In  1872  he  founded,  at  his  own  expense,  the  "  Archives  de  Zoologie 
experimentale,"  and  the  same  year  founded  the  Zoological  Station  at 
Roscoff  on  the  coast  of  Brittany,  and  established  a  laboratory  at  Banyuls. 
He  is  the  author  of  numerous  contributions  to  the  anatomy  of  molluscs, 
ascidians;  and  especially  the  embryology  and  neurology  of  molluscs. 

Les  ascidies  simples  des  cotes  de  France,  1874. 

Biography:  Nekrolog  im  Archives  de  Zoologie  experimentale, 
X,  1902. 

Lacepede,    Bernard-Germain-fitienne-de    Laville,    Comte    de.      A 
French  naturalist  and  writer,  was  born  at  Agen  in  1756;  died  at  Epinay, 
1825.    A  friend  of  Buffon  and  Daubenton.    Professor  of  zoology  at  the 
Jardin-du  Roi,  in  1795.    Grand  chancellor  of  the  Legion-d'Honneur. 
jEloge  historique  de  Daubenton,  Paris,  1700,  in-8°. 
Histoire  naturelle  des  poisSons,  Paris,  iyp8-i8oj,  5  vol. 
Biography:    L'Eloge  historique  de  M.  le  Comte  de  Lacepede, 
Paris,  in-8°, 

Lachmann,  Karl  Friedrich  Johannes.  A  German  zoologist  in 
Braunschweig,  1832-1860.  Student  of  Johannes  Mueller.  Author,  with 
Claparede,  of  important  contributions  on  the  Infusoria  and  Rhizopoda. 

Laennec,  Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe.  A  French  physician,  the 
inventor  and  discoverer  of  the  stethoscope,  born  at  Quimper,  1781-1826. 
Professor  of  medicine  in  the  College  de  France.  He  is  the  author  of  a 
number  of  contributions  which  are  listed  in  "  Disciples  of  ^sculapius," 
Richardson,  vol.  i,  p.  319,  1901,  and  among  them  is  his: 

Memoire  contenant  la  description  de  la  membrane  propre  du 
foie.     1803. 

Laguna,  Andres  a  (Lacana,  Lucana).  i49o(9)-i56o.  Born  at 
Segovie,  Spain.  He  studied  at  the  University  of  Salamanca,  and  Paris, 
and  visited  the  universities  of  Italy  and  Germany.  At  Padua  he  was 
associated  with  Realdo  Colombo ;  was  honored  in  Rome  by  Pope  Leo  X. 
He  is  the  author  of  several  dissertations  on  the  work  of  Galen.  His  best 
contribution  to  anatomy  seems  to  be: 

Anatomica  methodus,  sen  de  sectione  humani  corporis  contem- 
platio.     Paris,  1535,  in-8° . 


Lallemand,  Claude-Francois.    A  French  surgeon,  1790-1853. 
Bodies  of  =  concretions  in  the  seminal  vesicles. 

Lalouette,  Pierre.    A  physician  in  Paris,  1711-1742. 
Pyramid  of  :=  median  lobe  of  the  thyroid  gland. 

Lamarck,  Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine-de  Monnette,  chevalier 
de.  A  distinguished  French  naturalist,  and  evolutionist,  1744-1829. 
Associated  with  Buffon,  Daubenton,  Cuvier,  Geoffrey  Saint-Hilaire  and 
Lacepede  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  where  he  was  professor  of  natural  his- 
tory. In  his  "  Philosophic  Zoologique,"  pubhshed  in  1809,  he  proposed 
his  ideas  of  the  way  in  which  organic  evolution  has  worked.  It  is  said 
that  he  invented  the  term  "  biology."  One  of  the  first  to  believe  in  the 
mutability  of  species,  in  which  he  was  bitterly  opposed  by  his  contem- 
pararies.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  works  on  natural  history.  His 
"  Zoologie  Philosophique,"  is  contained  in : 

"  Histoire  naturelle  des  animaux  sans  vertebris,  Paris,  1815- 
1822,  although  his  ideas  were  given  for  the  first  time  in  his:  "  Sys- 
teme  des  animaux  sans  vertebres,  1801.  His  "  Philosophie  Zoolog- 
ique "  was  issued  in  i8op  in  2  vols.,  in-8° .  He  is  also  the  author  of 
an  important  memoir  entitled:  "  Recherches  sur  I' organisation  des 
I  corps  vivans,  particulierement  sur  leur  origine,  sur  la  cause  de  leur 
developpement,  des  progres  de  leur  composition  et  celle  qui  amine  la 
mart,"  Paris,  1802,  in-8°. 

Biography:  Lamarck,  The  Founder  of  Evolution,  His  Life  and 
Works,  with  Translations  of  his  Writings  on  Organic  Evolution, 
by  Packard,  ipoi. 

Lancisi,  Giovanni  Maria.  An  Italian  anatomist  and  physician  to 
the  Pope  (Innocent  XI,  in  1688),  1654-1720.  Professor  of  anatomy  at 
Sapience,  in  1684;  in  1700  he  was  first  physician  to  Pope  Clement  XI. 
While  in  Rome  he  was  associated  with  Malpighi,  Tozzi,  and  Galliani ;  and 
was  in  correspondence  with  Bellini,  Boerhaave,  Morgagni,  Heister,  and 
many  other  eminent  medical  men.  He  was  assisted  in  his  work  by  Pope 
Innocent  XII,  to  whom  is  attributed  the  first  observation  of  the  circula- 
tion of  the  blood  with  the  microscope,  and  the  discovery  of  blood  capil- 
laries and  corpuscles;  in  which  he  was  probably  stimulated  by  Lancisi. 
The  latter  is  the  author  of  a  number  of  works  in  anatomy,  published  in 
folios  and  quartos.    Among  them  may  be  mentioned : 

Anatomia  corporis  humani  ad  usum  theatri  accommodata, 
Turin,  i/ii,  in-4°.  Anatomia  per  uso  ed  intelligensa  del  disegno, 
ricercata  non  solo  su  gli  ossi  e  mosculi  del  corpo  uman'o,  etc.  Rome, 
i6pi,  in-fol.  This  work  recalls  the  famous  Bridgewater  treatises 
of  later  times.      Tabulce  anatomicce  clarissimi  viri  Bartholommi 


Eustachii,  quas  ex  tenebris  tandem  vindicatas,  etc.     Rome,  1714, 
in  fol.     This  work  was  several  times  reprinted. 
Strice  long.  med.  et  lat.  Lancisii. 

Landi,  Bassiano.  An  Italian  physician  of  the  i6th  century  at 
Padua.    He  is  the  author  of : 

Anatomia  corporis  humani,  Basel,  1542,  in- 4°. 

Langenbeck,  Bernhard  Rudolf  Konrad  von. '  A  German  surgeon, 

Triangle  of  =  an  area  over  head  of  femur. 

Langenbeck,  Konrad  Johann  Martin.  A  German  surgeon,  1776- 
1851.  Professor  of  surgery  and  anatomy  in  Wiirzburg,  1799;  1802  in 
Gottingen;  1814  professor  of  surgery  and  anatomy;  1848,  professor  of 

Anatomisches  Handhuch,  1806. 
De  Structura  Peritoncei,  i8iy. 
Icones  Anatomicce,  iSsd-^p. 
Handbuch  der  Anatomie,  18^1—4/. 
Mikroskopisch  anatomische  Abbildungen,  1848—51. 
Nervenlehre,  Goettingen,  1831. 

Commissura  transversa  sulcata.  Fovece  parvce.  N.  superfici- 
alis  scapulce. 

Langer,  Carl,  Ritter  von  Edenberg  von.  German  anatomist,  1819- 

1887.  In  1843-47  assistant,  1849  privat  docent  for  anthropology,  anatomy 
and  physiology;  in  1851  professor  of  zoology  in  Pest;  in  1856  professor 
of  normal  anatomy  in  (Josefinum)  ;  1870  at  the  university  in  Vienna. 

Lehrbuch  der  Anatomie,  Wien.  Lehrbuch  d.  fopogr.  u.  system. 
Anatomie,  gth  ed.,  ipio,  Langer-Toldt.  Das  Kiefergelenk  des 
Menschen,  Wien,  i860. 

Crista  sphenoidalis.  Crura  furcata  (antihelicis).  Meditullium 
Ossamanus  (metacarpalia).  Pectenmanus.  Processus  falciformis 
axillaris.     Tuberculum  intercondyloideum. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anseig'er,  Bd.  j,  p.  77-80,  1888. 

Langerhans,  Paul.     A  German  physician  and  anatomist,   1847- 

1888.  Studied  with  Virchow  and  Ludwig.  Prosector  at  Freiburg,  where 
he  later  became  professor  extraordinarius. 

Beitrag  sur  mikroscopischen  Anatomie  der  BauchspeicheldrUse, 
Berlin,  1869. 

Cellules.  Stratum  granulosum.  Insulce  (small  groups  of  epi- 
thelial cells  in  the  interstitial  tissue  of  the  pancreas). 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  j,  pp.  850-851,  1888, 
with  list  of  25  contributions. 


Langhans,  Theodor.     German  pathologist  and  anatomist,  1839- 
Cells  of  =  polygonal  cells  forming  Langhan's  Layer  (covering 
the  placental  vUli). 

Latham,  Peter  Mere.    An  English  physician,  1789-1875. 
Diseases  of  the  Heart,  London,  184^. 

Circle  of  =  an  area  on  the  chest  corresponding  to  the  area  of 
pericardial  dullness. 

Laumonier,  Jean-Baptiste.     A  French  surgeon,  1749-1818. 
Ganglion  of  =  Ganglion  caroticum. 

Lauth,  Ernest  Alexandre.    A  German  physiologist  and  anatomist, 
1803-1837.    Professor  of  physiology  in  Strassburg. 
Handbiich  der  Anatomic,  Stuttgart,  18^6. 
Mcmoire  sur  les  vaisseaux  lymphatiques  des  oiseaux  et  sur  la 
maniere  de  les  preparer,  Paris,  1825,  in-8° . 

Appendix  epididymidis  (Canalis)  Ductus  aberrans  testis.    Lig. 
scaphocuneiforme.     Sinus  venosus  (sclerce)  ^  Schlemmi. 

Lauth,  Thomas.  A  German  anatomist,  1 758-1826.  Student  of 
Lobstein,  Desault,  Hunter.  Demonstrator  of  anatomy,  1784;  professor 
of  anatomy  and  surgery,  1785 ;  professor  of  anatomy  at  the  Ecole  de 
Sante,  1794,  in  Strassburg. 

Myologie  et  syndesmologie,  1798,  also  Halle,  1805. 
Histoire  de  I' anatomic,  Strassburg,  18 15,  in-4°.     i  vol.     (Up 
to  the  time  of  Bartholin,  16^1.) 

Canal   of  =  Canal   of  Schlemm.    Ligament  of  =  lig.   trans- 
versum  atlantis. 

La  Valette  St.  George.     See  Valette  St.  George. 

Lawrence,  Jason  Valentine.  An  American  physician  and  anat- 
omist, 1791-1823.  Assistant  to  Horner  in  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, 1822. 

Lawrence,  Sir  William.  An  English  anatomist  and  surgeon  in 
London,  1783-1867.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the  Royal 
College  of  Surgeons. 

Comparative  anatomy.  Physiology,  Zoology  and  the  Natural 
History  of  Man,  1816-1818. 

Leber,  Ferdin  Jos,  Edler  von.  An  anatomist  in  Vienna,  1727-1808. 
Student  of  Jaus.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  university  in  Vienna, 

Vorlesungen  ueber  d.  Zerglicderungskunst,  2nd  ed.,  Vienna, 


Le  Boe.    See  Boe. 

Lecat,  Claude-Nicolas  (Le  Cat).    A  French  surgeon,  1700-1768. 

Gulf  of  =  the  bulbous  urethra. 

Lee,  Robert.  An  English  physician,  1 793-1 877.  Professor  of 
obstetrics  in  London.  "  The  morbid  anatomy  of  the  uterus  and  its 
appendages,"  London,  i8j8. 

Ganglion  of  =  cervical  ganglion. 

Leeuwenhoeck  (Leewenhoeck).  (Antoine,  Antonius  von)  Antonj 
van.  An  eminent  Dutch  anatomist,  naturalist  and  physician  at  Delft, 
1632-1723.  He  was  one  of  the  pioneers  in  microscopical  observations. 
He  discovered  the  blood  corpuscles,  the  striae  in  skeletal  muscle,  the 
dental  canals,  and  through  his  student,  Johann  Ham,  the  spermatozoa. 
He  held  the  humble  post  of  beadle,  or  exciseman,  as  did  Robert  Burns 
of  Scotland,  at  the  small  salary  of  $125  per  year.  Leeuwenhoeck  held 
this  post  for  39  years,  and  the  stipend  was  paid  him  till  his  death.  He 
contributed  over  375  papers  and  letters  to  the  Royal  Society  of  London, 
and  several  to  the  Academy  of  Science  in  Paris.  Richardson  (Sir 
Benjamin  Ward),  in  the  "  Asclepiad,"  vol.  2,  1885  {Disciples  of 
Msculapius,  vol.  i,  pp.  108-12^,  ivith  portrait  and  figures  of  his  apparatus 
and  copies  of  figures  from  Leeuwenhoeck's  work  —  copied  by  Locy  — 
Biology  and  its  Makers,  pp.  77-88,  1908),  says:  "  *  *  *  although  not 
a  regular  professor  of  medicine  by  an  orthodox  system  of  training,  he 
was  learned  in  physic  *  *  *  every  line  he  writes  *  *  *  shows  that 
he  was,  for  his  time,  a  remarkable  anatomist." 

Naturkundige  Werken,  Delft,  i6g6,  in-j". 
Biography:  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,   Tome  I,  p.  606. 

Leidy,  Joseph.  An  eminent  paleontologist,  biologist,  and  anat- 
omist, 1823-1891.  One  of  the  most  noted  teachers  of  anatomy  of  the 
Philadelphia  School  of  Anatomy.  (See  Keen,  W.  W.,  History  of  prac- 
tical Anatomy,  Philadelphia,  1874.)  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  as  successor  to  Horner,  which  chair  he  filled  for 
38  years.  (See  life  of  William  Pepper,  by  F.  N.  Thorpe,  Philadelphia, 
1904,  pp.  110-113.)  He  was  the  author  of  599  contributions  to  biology, 
including  protozoology,  parasitology,  human  anatomy,  vertebrate  paleon- 
tology. The  titles  of  his  papers,  with  notes,  have  geen  gathered  by  his' 
son.     (Smithsonian  Miscellaneous  Collections,  xlvi,  no.  1477,  1904.) 

Elementary  Treatise  on  Human  Anatomy,  i88p. 

Musculus  extensor  brevis. 


Biography:  The  Life  and  Works  of  Joseph  Leidy,  by  Henry 
C.  Chapman,  iQOf  —  Science,  N.  S.,  vol.  26,  no.  6^6.  p.  812. 
H.  F.  O shorn,  Biographical  Memoir  of  Joseph  Leidy,  Natl.  Acad. 
Sri.,  (Biog.  Mem.),  vol.  7,  pp.  339-395,  1913,  with  portrait  and 
bibliography.  See  also:  Pop.  Sci.  Monthly,  vol.  17,  pp.  684.-691, 

Lenhossek,  Joseph  von.  An  anatomist  of  Budapest,  1818-1888. 
Studied  anatomy  under  Berres  at  Vienna;  then  for  9  years  assistant  in 
anatomy  at  the  University  of  Budapest,  and  became  professor  e.  o.  of 
topographic  anatomy  and  later  studied  in  Vienna  under  Hyrtl  and 
Bruecke.  He  was  called  to  Klausenburg  as  professor  of  anatomy  for 
five  years,  when  he  returned  to  Pest  as  professor  of  descriptive  and 
topographic  anatomy,  which  position  he  held  until  his  death. 

Ueber  den  feineren  Bau  der  sogennanten  Medulla  spinalis. 

Leonardo  da  Vinci  was  an  eminent  Italian  artist,  anatomist,  engi- 
neer and  inventor,  1452-1519.  He  was  born  at  the  Castle  Vinci,  in 
the  valley  of  the  Arno,  about  midway  between  Pisa  and  Florence.  Marc 
Antonio  della  Torre  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  teacher  of  Leonardo 
in  anatomy,  and  to  have  secured  his  services  as  an  artist  for  the  illus- 
tration of  his  "Anatomy."  McMurrich,  however,  says:  (Med.  Lib., 
IV,  p.  346,  1906),  there  are  difficulties  in  the  way  of  such  a  belief.  It 
has  been  suggested  by  Jackschath  (Med.  Blaetter,  1902,  xxv,  pp.  770- 
772),  that  Vesalius  plagiarized  the  drawings  in  his  "  Fabrica  corporis 
humani,  1543,"  from  Leonardo.  This  is  denied  by  McMurrich  (Med. 
Lib.,  .IV,  1906,  p.  350).  Leonardo's  manuscripts  and  drawings  in  anatomy 
have  been  published  under  the  following  titles : 

"  Les  Manuscrits  de  Leonard  de  Vinci  de  la  Bibliotheque  Roy- 
ale  de  Windsor:  De  I'Anatomie,  Feuillets  a  publics  par  Theodore 
Sabachnikoff  avec  Traduction  en  Langue  Francaise,  Transcrits  et 
Annates  par  Giovanni  Piumati;  precedes  d'une  Stude  par  Mathias 
Duval,  Paris,  5  vols.  1898— 1901,  in  folio.  Leonardo  da  Vinci 
—  Quaderni  d'Anatomia  —  Tradici  fogli  della  Royal  Library  di 
Windsor,  Pubblicati  do  Ove.  C.  L.  Vangensten,  A.  Fonahn, 
H.  Hopstock,  1911-1914,  Christiania,  4  vols,  in  folio. 

The  original  manuscripts  and  drawings  are  in  the  Royal  Library 
at  Windsor. 

Biography:  McMurrich,  J.  P.  1906  —  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and 
Vesalius,  Med.  Lib.,  vol.  4,  pp.  338-350.  In  the  bibliography  at 
the  end  of  this  paper  is  given  a  complete  list  of  references  to  the 
life  and  anatomical  works  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  Ency.  Brit.; 
Bull.  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  vol.  22,  p.  140. 

See  Marcantonio  della  Torre  and  Diirer  for  other  biographical 


Leoniceno,  Giovanni  Nicola.  An  Italian  physician  (1428-1524), 
who  was  professor  of  anatomy  at  Ferrara,  where  he  was  the  teacher  of 
Realdo  Colombo. 

Leuckart,  Rudolf.  A  German  zoologist,  1822-1898.  Studied 
zoology  in  Gottingen  where  he  was  associated  with  Rudolf  Wagner.  In 
1855  professor  of  zoology  at  Giessen;  in  1869  in  Leipzig;  the  author  of 
numerous  contributions  to  zoology. 

Zur  Kenntnis  des  Generationswechsels  und  Parthenogenesis 
bei  den  Insekten,  Frankfurt,  1858.  Die  Blasenbandwiirmer  und 
ihre  Entwickelung,  Giessen,  1856.  Die  Parasiten  des  Menschen 
und  die  von  ihnen  herriihrenden  Krankheiten,  Leipzig,  1863-18/6. 
2  vols. 

Biography:  Victor  Cams,  Zur  Erinnerung  an  Rudolf  Leuckart, 
Ber.  Ub.  d.  Verhandl.  d.  Kgl.  Sachs.  Ges.  d.  IViss.  Bd.  50,  1898; 
Taschenberg,  Rudolf  Leuckart-Leopoldina,  Heft  XXXV,  No.  4, 

Leunis,  Johannes.  A  German  zoologist,  1802-1873.  Professor  of 
natural  history  at  the  gymnasium  at  Hildesheim.  Author  of  a  "  Synopsis 
of  zoology,  botany  and  geology."  The  zoological  part  was  arranged  on 
a  taxonomic  basis  according  to  the  Cuverian  system. 

Leveling,  Henri-Marie  de,  son  of  the  following,  born  at  Ingolstadt, 
1766.     Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Ingolstadt,  1790. 

Introductio  anatomica,  Ingolstadt,  1790,  in-4°.  Anatomie  des 
Menschen,  Erlangen,  1794,  in-8° . 

Leveling,  Henri-Palmaz  de,  was  born  at  Treves,  Prussia,  1742- 
1798.    Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Ingolstadt,  Bavaria. 

Dissertatio  de  valvula  Eustachii  et  foramine  ovali,  Ingolstadt, 
1780,  in-4°.  Anatomische  Erklaerungen  der  Original  figuren  von 
Andreas  Vesal,  samt  einer  Anwendung  der  Winslowischen  Zer- 
gliederungslehre,  in  sieben  Buechern,  Ingolstadt,  1781,  in-4°. 
Observationes  anatomicce  rariores,  iconibus  aeri  incisis  illustratcB. 
Ingolstadt,  1786,  in-8°. 

Leyden,  Ernst  Victor  von.  A  German  physician  in  Berlin,  1832- 

Duct  of  =  mesonephric  duct. 

Leydig,  Franz  von.  A  German  comparative  histologist,  1821- 
1908.  He  is  called  the  founder  of  comparative  histology,  and  especially 
well  known  for  his  work  on  the  cutaneous  sense  organs,  in  amphibians 
and  fishes.     Studied  natural  history  at  Mitnchen  where  he  became  es- 


pecially  interested  in  the  fishes.  In  1846  assistant  in  the  physiological 
institute;  in  1848  prosector  in  the  anatomical  institute;  in  1857  professor 
of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy  at  Tiibingen;  in  1875  professor  in 
the  medical  faculty  at  Bonn  and  director  of  comparative  anatomy  in  the 
institute  with  von  La  Valettte  St.  George  in  charge  of  normal  human 

Lehrhuch  der  Histologie  des  Menschen  und  der  Tiere,  Frank- 
furt, iS^y.  Die  augendhnlichen  Organe  der  Fische,  Bonn,  1881. 
Zur  Kenntniss  der  Zirbel  und  Parietalorgane,  Frankfurt,  i8po. 

Cells  of  =  Henle's  cells.  Duct  of  ^Wolffian  duct.  Primi- 
tive cylinders  =  bundles  of  muscular  fibres. 

Biography:  Anat.  Anz.,  Bd.  ^2,  pp.  503-506,  igo8;  Sitsungs- 
berichte  d.  Niederrhein.  Ges.  f.  Natur-  u.  Heilk.  Bonn,  ipo8; 
MUnch.  med.  Wochenschrift.    Nr.  18,  ig>o8. 

Lieberkuehn,  Johann  Nathaniel.  A  German  physician  and  anat- 
omist in  Berlin,  known  especially  for  his  wonderful  injections  and  his 
microscopical  observations,  1711-1756.  A  student  of  Albinus  in  Berlin, 
1740,  and  of  Boerhaave,  Van  Swieten,  and  Gaubius.  In  1738  he  visited 
London  and  exhibited  his  marvelous  vascular  injections  to  the  Royal 
Society.    In  1740  he  visited  Paris. 

Dissertatio  de  valvula  coli,  Leyden,  1739,  in-4° .  Dissertatio 
de  fabrica  et  actione  villorum  intestinorum  tenium,  Leyden,  1745, 
in-4°.  These  two  treatises  were  printed  in  one  volume  in  1782, 
London,  in-4°. 

Glandulae  intestinales  (Cryptce.  Folliculce).  Ampulla  of 
=  blind  end  of  a  lacteal. 

Lieutaud,  Joseph.  A  French  physician  and  anatomist,  first 
physician  to  Louis  XV  and  XVI,  born  in  Paris  (1703-1780).  He  con- 
tributed to  the  advancement  of  pathological  anatomy  through  the  great 
number  of  autopsies  he  performed. 

Essais  anatomiques  antenant  I'histoire  exacte  de  toutes  les 
■  parties  qui  composent  le  corps  humain,  Aix,  1742,  in-8°. 

Corpus  trigonum.  Cuspis  valvulare.  Septum  valvulare. 

Linnaeus,  Carolus  (Karl  von  Linne).  An  eminent  Swedish 
naturalist,  was  born  at  Rashult,  in  the  province  of  Smaland,  Sweden, 
1707-1778.  In  1727  he  went  to  the  university  at  Lund,  later  at  Upsala. 
Later  he  visited  various  universities  in  Germany  and  Holland,  and  at 
Leyden  showed  his  MSS.  of  the  Systema  Natures  to  Gronovius,  who 
ordered  it  published  at  his  own  expense.  This  was  first  issued  as  8 
folio  sheets,  and  the  work  saw  12  augmented  editions  during  the  life  of 
the  author.    Later,  as  a  professor  at  the  University  of  Upsala,  Linnaeus' 


fame  as  a  lecturer  increased  the  role  of  the  university  from  500  to  1500, 
representing  students  from  all  parts  of  the  world.  It  is  said  that  he 
found  biology  a  choas  and  left  it  a  cosmos.  The  cosmos,  however,  was 
a  taxonomic  one  which  he  left  and  on  this  has  been  built  a  large  super- 
.structure  by  a  great  host  of  workers  in  all  lands.  He  proposed  the  term 
Homo  sapiens  for  man.  Besides  the  Systema  naturce,  which  went  through 
numerous  editions,  he  was  the  author  of  over  200  essays  on  plants  and 

Lisfranc,  Jacques.  A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  1 790-1847.  An 
author  of  surgical  memoirs  and  a  promoter  of  surgical  anatomy. 

Articulationes    tarso-metatarsce.     Ligamentum.     Tuberculum 

Lissauer,  Heinrich.    A  German  neurologist,  1861-1891. 
Zona  Lissaueri. 

Littre,  Alexis.    A  French  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1658-1726.    He 
described  the  triangular  space  of  the  bladder,   and  demonstrated  the 
urethral  glands.    He  is  often  confused  with  the  following. 
Glandules  urethrales.     Trigomim. 

Littr6,  Maximilien-Paul-fimile.  An  eminent  French  medical 
scholar,  1801-1881.  Littre,  in  1839-61,  published  in  Paris,  his  10  volume 
edition  of  the  writings  of  Hippocrates.  This  is  the  most  scholarly  edition 
of  the  writings  of  this  ancient  author  which  has  yet  been  issued.  This 
work  inaugurated  a  new  phase  in  the  study  of  Hippocrates.  Pagel  says : 
"  Jeder  der  tiber  Hippokrates  mitsprechen  will,  muss  die  Littresche 
Ausgabe  in  Handen  haben  und  studieren." 

Lobstein,  Johann  Georg  Christian  Friedrich  Martin.  A  German 
pathologist  in  Strassburg,  1777-1835.  Prosector  in  Strassburg,  1796. 
1819  professor  of  pathological  anatomy. 

Ganglion.     Placenta  velamentosa. 

Lobstein,  Johann  Friedrich.  A  physician  and  anatomist  at  Strass- 
burg, 1736-1784.  Demonstrator  of  anatomy  in  1764.  In  1768  professor 
of  anatomy  and  surgery  as  successor  to  Eisenmann. 

Dissertatio  de  nervo  spinali  ad  par  vagum  accessorio,  Stras- 
bourg, 1760,  in-4°.  Dissertatio  de  valvula  pustachii,  Strasbourg, 
177 1,  in-4°.  Dissertatio  de  nervis  diirce  matris.  Strasbourg,  1773, 
in-4°.  Dissertatio  de  liene,  Strasbourg,  1774,  in-4°.  Dissertatio 
de  hepate,  Strasbourg,  1775,  in-4°. 


Loder,  Justus  Christian.  A  German  surgeon  and  anatomist, 
1753-1832.  In  1778  o.  professor  of  anatomy,  surgery  and  obstetrics  in 
Jena;  1803-06,  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  Halle,  later  in 
Konigsberg,  then  in  St.  Petersburg;  then  in  Moscow. 

Anatomische  Tafeln,  Weimar  i^py-1803,  2  Bde.  182  Kupft. 
4  Bde.  Text  Folio. 

Grundrisse  der  Anatomie,  Jena,  1806. 

Louis,  Antoine.  An  eminent  French  surgeon  and  physiologist 
in  Paris,  1723-1792.  Professor  of  physiology.  In  1764  he  was  made 
permanent  secretary  of  the  Academy  of  Science.  He  is  the  author  of 
numerous  works  on  surgery  and  surgical  anatomy. 

Loven,  Otto  C.  A  Swedish  histologist  and  physiologist,  1864- 
1904.  He  is  known  for  his  discovery  of  the  taste  fibres  in  the  papillae 
of  the  tongue  of  mammals. 

Lower,  Richard.  An  English  anatomist,  and  physician  in  London, 
1631-1691.  He  was  born  in  Tremere,  Cornwall,  England.  He  studied 
medicine  at  Oxford,  where  he  worked  with  Willis.  In  1667  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Royal  Society.    Known  for  his  studies  on  the  heart. 

Tractatus  de  corde;  item  de  motu  et  colore  sanguinis,  et  chyli 
in  cum  transitu,  London,  1669,  in-8°.  ' 

Tuherculum  intervenosum.  Truncus  innominatus.  Tendo 

Lucae,  Samuel  Christian.  A  German  physician,  born  at  Frank- 
furt-am-Main,  1787-1821.  Professor  of  medicine  in  Marburg,  and  di- 
rector of  the  Medico-clinic  Institute  and  of  the  hospital. 

Observationes  anatomicw  circanervos  arterias  adeuntes,  Frank- 
furt, 18 10,  in-4° .  Anatomische  Untersuchungen  der  Thymus  in 
Menschen  und  Thieren.  Frankfurt,  1811,  in-4  .  Anatomische 
Bemerkungen  ueher  die  Diverticula  am  Darmcanal,  und  ueher  die 
Hohlen  der  Thymus.    Nuremberg,  1813,  in-4°. 

Ludwig,  Karl  Friedrich  Wilhelm.  A  German  physiologist,  in 
Liepzig,  1816-1895.  Professor  of  comparative  anatomy  in  Marburg, 
1846;  1849  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Ziirich;  1855  pro- 
fessor of  zoology  and  physiology  at  Vienna ;  1865  professor  of  physiology 
at  Leipzig,  which  position  he  held  until  1895.  Member  of  a  family  dis- 
tinguished in  medicine. 

Lehrbuch  der  Physiologie  des  Menschen,  1862-1869. 
Ganglion.    N.  laryngo-vago  cardiacus  (depressor  cordis). 


Luschka,  Herbert  von.  A  German  anatomist,  1820-1875.  Pror 
fessor  of  anatomy  in  Tuebingen,  1849-75. 

Die  Brustorgane  des  Menschen  in  ihrer  Lage,  Berlin,  1858. 
Anatomie  des  Menschen,  j  vols.  TUbingen,  1862— 1867.  Die  Hirn- 
anhang  u.  d.  Steissdrusen  d.  Menschen,  Berlin,  i860.  Die 
Kehlkopf  des  Menschen,  1871. 

Annulus  fibrosus;  — foveae  ovalis  cordis.  Apex  pleura. 
Aponeurosis  diaphragmatis.  Arcus  venosus  (juguli).  Bursa 
pharyngea.  Cartilago  laryngis  (sesam.  lig.  vocalis).  Diaphragma 
secundarium.  Eminentia  triangularis.  Flexura  lienalis  coli. 
Foveae  glandulares;  — nuchw.  Glandula  coccygea.  Interstitium 
thoracico-humerale.  Intestinum  pancreaticum.  Ligamentum  in- 
terarticulare  art.  humeri;  — jugale;  — sterno-cardiaca;  — sus- 
pensorium  dentis  prop.;  — vocale.  Membrana  hyoepiglottica. 
Mesocardium.  Musculus  arytaenoid^o-corniculatus ;  ■ — ■  costalis 
dorsi;  — flexor  manus  med.;  — 'levator  vaginae;  — obliqui  capitis 
et  (folli;  pharyngo-mastoideus ;  — pubotransversalis  (pubore'ctalis). 
Pars  tendinea  diaphragmatis ;  — parietalis  fascia  pelvis;  — tendinea. 
M.  epicranii;  — visceralis.  Plexus  cardiacus  magnus;  — sem- 
inalis;  — supraclavicularis.  Plica  pharyngo-epiglottica;  — pra- 
pylorica;  — salpingo-nasales.  Ramus  bronchialis  n.  vagi.  Rima 
aquceductus  vestibuli.  Sulcus  pyloricus.  Superficies  oralis  maxilla. 
Synchondrosis  costo-clavicularis.  Tuberculum  vagina.  Tuberosi- 
tas olecranii;  —  scapularis.    Valvula  recti.    Vena  azygos  communis. 

Luys,  Jules-Bernard.    A  French  physician  in  Paris,  1828-1897. 
Corpus,    Nucleus  hypothalamicus. 

Lykos.  A  Greek  physician,  contemporary  of  Galen,  son  of  Pelops, 
Galen's  teacher,  is  said  to  have  written  a  work  on  the  muscles. 

Lyonnet,  Pierre.  A  naturalist,  anatomist  and  engraver,  he  was 
born  at  Maestricht,  1 707-1 789.    He  is  known  for  his : 

Traits  anatomique  de  la  chenille  quie  ronge  le  bois  du  saule. 
La  Haye,  1740,  in-4°. 

Lyser,  Michael.  A  German  physician  of  the  17th  century  at 
Leipzig,  where  he  was  professor  of  medicine.  Studied  with  Thomas 
Bartholin  at  Copenhagen.  He  wrote  the  first  comprehensive  work  on 
anatomical  technique. 

Culter  anatomicus,  Copenhagen,  1653. 

Magendie,  Frangois.  A  French  physiologist,  1783-1855.  Studied 
in  Paris,  where  he  was  prosector  to  the  anatomist  Boyer.    Physician  to 


the  Hotel  Dieu,  and  professor  of  medicine  at  the  College  de  France. 

Founder  of  the  "Journal  de  physiologic  experimentale,  Paris,  1821-31. 

Anatomie   des  systcmes  nerveu.v  des  animaux   a   vertebres, 

applique  a  la  physiologie  at  a  la  oologie,  Paris,  1821.       Memoire 

sur  les  vaisseaux  lymphatiques  des  oiseaux.     Paris,  i8ip. 

Apertura  mediana  ventriculi  quarti  (Magendii).  Spaces  of 
=  between  the  pia  and  arachnoid. 

Biography:  A  Biography  of  Francois  Magendie,  Med.  Lib., 
IV,  P-  45,  1906. 

Maier,  Rudolf.  A  German  physician  and  pathologist,  1824-1888. 
Author  of  a. textbook  of  pathology. 

Sinus  of  =  an  infundibuliform  depression  on  the  internal  sur-' 
face  of  the  lachrymal  sac. 

Maissiat,  Jacques-Henri  (1805-1878).  A  French  anatomist  in 
Paris,  professor  in  Paris.  Curator  of  the  collections  of  the  School  of 

Tractus  iliotibialis. 

Major,  Johann  Daniel.  A  German  physician  and  teacher  of  medi- 
cine, born  at  Breslau,  1634-1693.  He  studied  at  Wittenberg,  Leipzig,  and 
visited  Italy,  where  in  1660  he  took  his  degree  at  the  University  of 
Padua.  Professor  of  medicine  at  the  University  of  Kiel,  with  charge  of 
the  botanical  gardens.    He  was  called  to  Stockholm. 

Dissertatio  de  pulmone,  Wittenberg,  1655,  in-4'^.  Memoriale 
anatomicum,  Kiel,  1668,  in-4° . 

Malacarne,  Michele-Vincenzo-Giacinto  (1744-1816).  Professor 
of  anatomy  at  Acqui,  1775-83;  professor  of  surgery  and  obstetrics  at 
Pavia,  then  surgery  in  Padua.  One  of  the  founders  of  surgical  anatomy 
and  a  student  of  comparative  anatomy,  especially  of  the  brain.  He  wrote 
an  especially  good  description  of  the  cerebellum. 

Nuova  esposiz.  d.  vera  struttura  del  cerveletto  umano,  Turin, 
iTj6.  Nervo  encefalotomia,  Pavia,  I'/^i,  8°.  Encefalot.  di  alcunl 
quardup.  Mant.,  i^QS,  4°.  Delle  opere  de'  medici  e  de'  cerusici 
che  nacquero  0  florirono  prima  del  sec.  XVI  negli  stati  delta  r., 
casa  di  Savoja,  1786,  i^Sp,  4°,  2  vols. 

Pyramid  of^a  lobule  on  the  under  surface  of  the  cerebel- 
lum.   Space  of  =  substantia  perforata  posterior.    Modulus. 

Malgaigne,  Joseph-FranQois.  A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  1806- 
1865.    Professor  of  surgical  anatomy  in  Paris. 

Traite  d' Anatomie  chirurgicale,  Paris,  1837. 
Fossa  of  =  fossa  carotica.    Triangle  of  =  the  superior  carotid 


Malpighi,  Marcello.     An  Italian  anatomist,  was  born  at  Creval- 
core,  near  Bologna,  Italy,  March  loth,  1628,  died  in  Rome,  1694.     He 
studied  at  Bologna,  and  in   1653  he  received  the  degree  of  doctor  of 
medicine  and  philosophy.     In  1656  professor  of  medicine  at  Bologna, 
also  in  Pisa  during  the  same  year;  in  1659  recalled  to  Bologna;  1662  at 
Messina;  1666  Bologna;  to  Rome  as  physician  to  Pope  Innocent  XII. 
Malpighi  was  one  of  the  founders  of  embryology  and  his  observations 
on  the  chick  made  for  the  advancement  of  this  science.     In   166 1  he 
demonstrated  the  structure  of  the  lungs.     His  observations  on  glands 
were  extensive  and  his  name  is  associated  with  portions  of  the  kidney 
and  spleen.    He  made  many  observations  in  comparative  anatomy  and  has 
published  an  especially  fine  monograph  on  the  anatomy  of  the  silk-worm. 
De  pulmonibus  dua  epistolm,  Bologna,  1661,  in-fol.     The  let- 
ters were  addressed  to  Borelli.     They  were  reprinted  by  Bartholin 
at  Copenhagen  in  his  treatise  on  the  lung.    De  renibus,  Bouon, 
1666.     Epistola  anatomica  de  cereb^o,  Bologna,  1665,  in-i2°.    De 
formatione  pulli  in  ovo  dissertatio  epistolica,  London,  16^3,  in-4°. 
Opera  omnia,  London,  1686,  2  vol.,  in-fol. 

Body  of  =  corpuscle;  capsule  of  =  capsule  vf  spleen.  Cor- 
pusculum  renis.  Glomerules  of  =  coil  of  capillary  'blood  vessels 
around  M.'s  capsule.  Layer  of  ==  the  deeper  portion  of  the  epi- 
dermis. Pyramid  of  =  pyr amis  renalis.  Rete  mucosum.  Stratum 
germinativum.  Stigmata  (in  spleen).  Stratum.  Tuft  of^ 
glomerulus.     Vesicles  of  =  in  lung. 

Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  Msculapius,  'vol.  2, 
p.  75(5,  1901.  Locy-Biology  and  its  Makers,  p.  58,  igoS.  Carus- 
Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  p.  jp4,  1872.  Haller-Bibliotheca  Ana- 
tomica, Tome  I,  p.  486,  1774- 

Manget,  Jean-Jacques.  A  laborious  bibliographer  at  Geneva, 
1652-1742.  He  collected  all  the  principal  anatomical  writings  of  the  17th 
century,  giving  especial  emphasis  to  viscera  and  organs  of  sense. 

Bibliotheca  anatomica,  sive  recens  in  anatomia  inventorum 
thesaurus  locupletissimus,  Geneva,  1685,  2  vol.  in  folio. 

Marcantonio  della  Torre  (Antonius,  Marcus  Antonius  della  Torre). 
An  Italian  anatomist  of  Verona  (i48i[2]-i52i).  Professor  of  anatomy 
at  Padua  and  Pavia.  Supposed  to  have  been  the  teacher  of  Leonardo 
da  Vinci  and  to  have  secured  the  services  of  this  famous  artist  in  the 
illustration  of  his  "Anatomy."  He  pointed  out  the  strong  muscular 
character  of  the  heart ;  and  observed  that  the  blood  which  returns  when 
the  heart  opens  is  not  the  same  as  that  which  closes  the  valves. 

Biography:  Ueber  Marc  Antonio  della  Torre  und  Leonardo 
da  Vinci,  die  Begriinder  der  bildlichen  Anatomic.  K.  von  Marx- 
Abhandl.  d.  k.  Gesellsch.  d.  Wissensch.  Gottingen,  iv.  1848-1850. 
Einiges  ueber  die  Beziehungen  Vesal's  zu  Leonardo  da  Vinci  und 


zu  Marco  Antonio  della  Torre.     Arch.  f.  Anat.  u.  Ph'ysiol.,  Anat. 
Abth.,  ipo4,  pp.  372-384  (A.  Forster).    See  also  Choulant,  p.  5. 

Marchand,  Felix.     A  German  pathologist,  1846- 

Adrenals  vf  =  accessory  adrenal  bodies  in  the  \broad  ligament. 

Marchetti,  Domenico  de.  An  Italian  anatomist  at  Padua,  1626- 
1688.  Associated  with  Vesling.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Padua, 
1649-88.  One  of  the  first  to  make  injections  of  blood  vessels.  Son  and 
successor  of  the  following.  To  him  is  attributed  the  discovery  of  the  pneu- 
mogastric  nerve,  which  he  divided  into  16  parts. 

Anatomia,  cui  responsiones  ad  Riolanum  anatomicum  Paris- 
iensem  in  ipsius  animadversionihus  contra  V eslingium  additae 
sunt,  Padua,  1652,  in- 4°. 

Marchetti,  Pietro  de  (Senior).  An  Italian  anatomist  and  surgeon, 
1593-1673.  Father  of  the  above  and  his  teacher  and  predecessor  in  the 
chair  of  surgery  and  of  anatomy  in  Padua. 

Tendinis  flexoris  pollicis  ab  equo  evulsi,  observatio  seorsim 
edita,  Padua,  1658,  in-4°.  ^ 

Marinus  (Marinos).  A  noted  physician  and  anatomist  who  lived 
during  the  reign  of  Nero  (44-68  A.  D.).  Galen  calls  him  the  restorer 
of  anatomy,  and  says  he  wrote  an  accurate  description  of  the  muscles, 
that  he  discovered  the  glands  of  the  mesentery,  and  that  he  enriched 
neurology  with  several  discoveries.  He  is  said  to  have  written  an  anatomy 
in  20  volumes,  the  substance  of  which  is  preserved  in  the  writings  of 
Galen.  Toply  (p.  184)  gives  the  following  diagram  to  illustrate  the  re- 
lations of  Marinus,  Galen  and  Pelops.  (See  also:  Bio.  Med.;  Ency. 
Brit.;  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  i,  p.  80,  1774.) 



/ ' ^ 

Satyros  Numisianus  Lykos 

, ^ , 

Pelops              ,11  I 

12  3 

v_ , ^ 

Mariotte,  Edme.    Prior  of  the  cloister  of  Saint  Martin  and  mem- 
ber of  the  Academy  of  Science  at  Paris   (         -1684).     He  discovered 
the  blind  spot  in  the  retina. 

Nouvelles  decouverte  touchant  la  vue,  Paris,  1668. 

Marsh,  Othniel  Charles.  An  American  paleontologist,  1831-1899. 
He  was  born  near  Lockport,  New  York,  and  received  his  early  academic 


training  at  Yale  University,  1856-60.  It  was  during  the  summer  vaca- 
tion of  1855  that  he  made  his  first  paleontologic  discovery.  While  collect- 
ing minerals  in  the  coal  measures  of  the  South  Joggins,  Nova  Scotia,  he 
discovered  some  fossil  vertebrae  which  he  later  (1862)  described  as 
Eosaurus  acadianus,  regarding  them  as  representing  a  reptile,  allied  to 
the  ichthyosaurs  at  that  time  known  from  the  Mesozoic.  We  now  know 
that  these  vertebrae  represent  a  stereospondylous  Labyrinthodont.  This 
discovery  directed  Marsh's  studies  into  the  channel  which  became  his 
life's  work  and  by  means  of  which  he  was  able  to  enrich  American 
paleontology.  After  spending  three  years  abroad  in  study  he  returned  to 
Yale  in  1866  as  professor  of  paleontology,  retaining  this  position  for  the 
remainder  of  his  life.  Marsh's  investigations  among  the  rich  fossiliferous 
deposits  of  the  western  states  resulted  in  a  host  of  discoveries  which  he 
was  able,  through  his  connection  with  the  United  States  Geological  Sur- 
vey and  by  the  use  of  his  own  ample  means,  to  describe  and  illustrate  in 
a  most  excellent  manner,  all  of  his  contributions  being  accompanied  by 
beautifully  executed  wood  cuts  or  lithographic  plates.  Among  his  im- 
portant discoveries  may  be  mentioned  the  recognition  of  birds  with  teeth, 
from  the  Cretaceous  deposits  of  Kansas,  the  elucidation  of  the  anatomy, 
and  relationships  of  the  dinosaurs.  Among  the  mammals  his  most 
noted  studies  were  those  dealing  with  the  evolution  of  the  horse,  by 
means  of  which  he  was  able  to  show  that  this  mammal  had  its  origin  and 
chief  development  in  North  America.  At  Yale  the  Peabody  Museum 
became  most  noted  for  its  collections  of  fossil  vertebrates  which  were  as- 
sembled under' the  direction  of  Professor  Marsh.  Marsh  contributed  some 
250  studies  to  vertebrate  paleontology  from  1 862-1 899.  Among  these  may 
be  especially  mentioned  the  beautiful  and  elaborately  illustrated  mono- 
graphs: Odontornithes;  A  Monograph  of  the  extinct  toothed  Birds  of 
North  America,  Washington,  1880,  in-4° ;  Dinocerata;  A  Monograph  of 
an  extinct  Order  of  Gigantic  Mammals,  Washington,  18S6,  in-4" ;  The 
Dinosaurs  of  North  America,  Washington,  i8p6,  in-4°.  His  "History 
and  Methods  of  Paleontological  Discoveries,  1879,  and  the  Introduction 
and  Succession  of  Vertebrate  Life  in  America,  1877,  are  worthy  of  note 
as  being  of  more  general  interest.  Leidy,  Marsh  and  Cope  are  the 
founders  of  vertebrate  paleontology  in  North  America,  and  have  been 
among  the  most  liberal  contributors  to  the  science. 

American  Journal  of  Science,  4th  series,  vol.  vii,  pp.  40J-428, 
June,  i8pp,  with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Marshall,  John.    An  English  anatomist  and  surgeon,  in  London, 
1818-1891.    Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  London. 

On  the  development  of  the  great  anterior  veins  in  Man  and 
Mammalia,  Philos.     Trans,  of  the  Royal  Society,  London,  1850. 
Vena    obliqua    atrii    sinistri.      Ligamentum    venae    cavae 


Martianus  (Martianos,  Martialios,  Martialis).  A  disciple  of 
Erasistratus  (304  B.  C.) ;  an  anatomist  in  Rome.  According  to  Galen  he 
was  the  author  of  two  works  on  anatomy,  which  are  lost.  Galen  ascribes 
to  him  a  worlc  entitled :    "  De  Anatomia  Erasistrati." 

Martin,  Bernardin.    Born  at  Paris,  1629,  during  the  reign  of  Marie 
de  Medicis.     Son  of  an  apothecary  and  himself  a  chemist. 
Dissertation  sur  les  dents,  Paris,  167P,  in- 12°. 

Martin,  L. 

De  la  nature  des  dents,  Paris,  i8jp. 

Martinez,  Crisostomo.  A  Spanish  artist,  1650-1694.  At  Valencia 
he  undertook  the  preparation  of  an  anatomical  work  on  human  anatomy 
for  artists. 

Nouvelles  figures  de  proportions  et  d'anatomie  du  corps 
humain,  Paris. 

Mascagni,  Paolo.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1752-1815.  Born  at 
Castelleto.  In  1774  professor  of  anatomy  in  Siena,  Italy,  as  successor 
to  Tabarrani;  1800  in  Pisa;  1801-15  in  Florence,  in  charge  of  anatomy, 
physiology  and  chemistry  in  the  great  hospital  Santa-Maria  Nuova.  He 
wrote  the  most  complete  work  on  lymphatics  ever  published. 

Vasorum  lymphatic  arum  corporis  humani  historia  et  icono- 
graphia,  Sienne,  1787,  in-fol.,  with  41  plates.  Tavole  figurate  di 
alcune  parti  organiche  del  corpo  umano  degli  animali  e  dei  vegeta- 
bili,  esposte  nel  pr'odromo  della  grande  anatomia  di  Paolo  Mascagni, 
Florence,  iSip,  in-fol. 

Biography:  See  Choulant,  pp.  143-147. 

Massa,  Nicolas.  A  physician  of  the  i6th  century,  born  at  Venice, 
died  1569.  Took  his  medical  degree  at  Padua.  Noted  for  his  studies  on 
the  anatomy  of  the  stomach  and  the  prostate. 

Introductorius  anatomies,  seu  dissectionis  corporis  humani, 
Venice,  1536,  in-4°. 

Mauchart,  Burkhard  David.    A  German  anatomist,  1696-1751. 
Ligament  of  =>  Ligamentum  alare. 

Mauthner,  Ludwig.    Austrian  physician,  1840-1894. 

Cells  of;  Sheath  of  =  a  fine  membrane  surrounding  the  axis- 
cylinder  of  a  nerve-fibre^  and  separating  it  from  the  white  sub- 
stance of  Schwann. 


Mayer,  August  Franz  Joseph  Karl.    An  anatomist  who  was  born 

at  Greifswald,  1787-1865.     Prosector  in  Bern,  1813;  1815  professor  of 

anatomy  and  physiology;  in  Bonn  1819-65. 

Ueber  Histologie  u.  eine  neue  Einteilung  der  Gezvebe  des 
menschlichen  Korpers,  Bonn,  i8ip,  8°. 

Mayer,  Franz-Xavier.  Son  of  Michael  M.  Professor  of  anatomy 
at  Graz,  1824-63. 

Mayer,  Johann  Christian  Andreas.  A  German  anatomist,  1747- 
1801.     Professor  of  anatomy  and  botany  in  Berlin. 

Beschreibung  des  ganzen  menschlichen  Korpers,  Berlin  and 
Leipzig,  i/8j-i;^p4.  Kupfertafeln.  Anatomisch-physiologisch 
Abkandlung  von  Gehirn,  Rueckenmark  und  Ursprung  der  N erven, 
Berlin,  lyjg,  in-4°. 

Mayer,  Johann-Ignaz  von  Mayersbach.  He  reconstructed,  in 
173 1,  the  anatomical  theater  in  Prague,  at  his  own  expense. 

Mayer,  Michael.  Prosector  to  Prochaska  1800;  professor  in  1810; 
teacher  of  anatomy  1791-1830,  in  Vienna. 

Mayer,  Siegmund.  Histologist  in  the  German  University  at 
Prague.  Bom  at  Bechtheim,  near  Worms,  in  1842;  died  at  Innsbruck 
in  1910.  He  studied  at  Heidelberg,  Giessen  and  Tiibingen,  receiving  his 
doctorate  at  the  latter  place,  under  Luschka's  direction,  choosing  as  his 
thesis  the  carotid  ganglion.  He  later  studied  physiology  with  Helmholtz, 
Briicke,  Ludwig  and  Cohnheim.  In  1870  he  went  to  Prague  as  assistant 
to  Ewald  Hering  who  succeeded  Purkinje  at  that  place.  Mayer  placed 
the  greatest  emphasis  in  his  work  upon  physiology  and  histology  as  is 
testified  by  his  list  of  62  essays  on  these  subject. 

Studien  zur  Physiologic  des  Herzens  und  der  Blutgefdsse, 
i8yi—i8yp.     Histologisches  Taschenhuch,  Prag,  188/. 

Biography :  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  38,  pp.  87-93,  'with 
list  of  publications. 

Meckel,  Johann  Friedrich  (Senior)  (1714-1774).  A  student  of 
Albrecht  von  Haller.  Demonstrator  at  Berlin,  1751 ;  1753-1773  pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  as  successor  to  Buddeus.  He  wrote  the  first  exact  de- 
scription of  the  N.  trigeminus ;  discovered  the  Ganglion  sphenopalatinum 
(Gangl.  Meckelii  Majus)  as  well  as  the  Ganglion  submaxillare.  He  was 
the  progenitor  of  a  family  of  anatomists :  Philipp  Friedrich  M.,  who  was 
professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Halle,  1756-1803 ;  Johann  Friedrich 
M.   (Junior),  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Halle,  1781-1831 ; 


August  Albrecht  M.,  professor  of  anatomy  at  Bern,  1790-1829;  Heinrich 
Meckel  von  Hemsbach,  pathological  anatomist  at  the  Charite,  Berlin, 
1821-1856  (see  Toply,  p.  288). 

Dissertatio  de  quinto  pare  nervorum  cerebri,  Gottingen,  1748, 
in-4°,  with  2  plates. 

Band  of  ^=  ligament  to  malleus.  Cavity  of  =  between  laminm 
of  dura  mater.  Diverticulum  of  =  remains  of  the  omphaloenteric 
duct.  Ganglion  of  =  ganglion  sphenopalatinum;  ganglion  sub- 
maxillar e.    Ligament  of  ^  Band.    Space  of  =^  cavity. 

Meckel,  Johann  Friedrich  (Junior).  Grandson  of  the  elder  Johann 
Friedrich  Meckel,  a  German  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1781-1833.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Halle,  1781-1831.  A  noted  comparative 

Abhandlungen  aus  der  vergleichenden  und  menschlichen  An~ 
■atomic.  Halle,  i8o§,  in-8°.  Beitrage  zur  vergleichenden  An- 
atomic. Leipsick,  i8o8-i8og,  2  vol.  in-$°.  Handbuch  der  patho- 
logischen  Anatomie.  Lcipsick,  1812-1818,  3  vol.  in-8° .  System 
der  vergleichenden  Anatomie.  Halle,  1821-1833,  6  tomes  en  7 
vol.  in-8° ,  dont  les  trois  premiers  ont  etc  traduits  en  6  tomes,  par 
Riester  et  A.  Sanson.  Paris,  18 28-18 30,  in-8° .  Diss,  descrip- 
tionem  ex  anatomia  comparativa  brevem  continens.  Leipzick, 
182 J,  in-4°.  Ornithorhynchi  paradoxi  descriptio.  Leipzick,  1826, 
in-fol.  8  pi. 

Cartilage  of  =  cartilage  of  mandibular  arch.  Plane  of  = 
craniometric  plane  cutting  the  alveolar  and  auricular  points.  Rod 
of  =  cartilage. 

Meckel,  Phillippe  Frederic  Theodore.  Son  of  the  preceding. 
Born  in  Berlin,  1756-1803.  At  Halle,  in  1803,  professor  of  anatomy 
and  surgery. 

Dissertatio  de   labyrinthi  auris  contentis,  Strasbourg,   1777, 


Meek,  Anthony.  An  anatomist  at  Leyden  (i  650-1692).  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  at  Leyden.  Showed  that  the  embryo  is  not  nourished 
through  the  lymphatics.  Made  a  number  of  discoveries  on  lymphatic 
system,  and  was  first  to  inject  lymphatics  with  mercury. 

Meibom,  (Junior)  (-Meybaum,  Meibomius),  Heinrich.  A  Dutch 
anatomist  and  physician,  1 638-1 700.  The  discoverer  of  the  Meibomian 
glands  in  the  eyelid.  Professor  of  medicine  (also  of  history  and  poetry) 
in  Plelmstaedt.    The  author  of  numerous  general  scientific  dissertations. 

De  vasis  palpebrarum  novis  epistola,  Helmstadt,  1666,  in-4°. 

Glandules  tarsiccc. 


Meissner,  Georg.  A  German  physiologist  and  histologist,  1829- 
1903.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Basel;  physiology  and 
zoology  in  Freiburg;  physiology  in  Gottingen. 

Corpuscula  tactus.     Plexus  submucosus. 

Mendel,  Gregor  Johann.  An  Austrian  monk  and  naturalist,  1822- 
1884.  He  was  born  at  Heinzendorf  bei  Odrau,  in  the  "  Kuhland  "  district 
of  Austrian  Silesia.  Studied  in  the  gymnasium  at  Troppau  and  at  Olmiitz. 
On  finishing  his  education  he  applied  for  admission  to  the  Augustinian 
house  of  St.  Thomas  in  Brunn,  generally  spoken  of  as  the  Konigskloster. 
He  was  admitted  and  in  1847  was  ordained  priest.  From  1851-53  he 
studied  mathmatics,  physics  and  natural  science  at  the  University  of 
Vienna  at  the  expense  of  the  cloister.  On  his  return  to  Briinn  he  became 
a  teacher  of  physics.  In  1868  he  was  elected  abbot  or  Pralat  of  the" 
Konigskloster.  The  experiments,  which  have  made  his  name  famous  the 
world  over,  were  carried  on  in  the  large  garden  of  the  cloister.  Here  he 
continued  his  work  on  peas  for  eight  years,  publishing  his  results  in  the 
transactions  of  the  Natural  History  Society  at  Briinn,  in  two  papers,  in 
1866  and  1869.  Besides  his  work  on  Pisum  he  carried  on  investigations 
in  the  heredity  of  bees.  The  notes  of  these  latter  experiments  have  not 
been  found.  His  researches  ended  about  the  time  of  his  assumption  of  the 
executive  duties  of  abbot. 

Versuche  iiber  Pflanz  en-Hybrid  en,  Brunn,  1866.  Reprinted 
in  ipoi  and  also  translated  into  English;  republished  in  English  by 
Bateson  in  ipog.  Ueber  einige  aus  kiinstlicher  Befruchtung 
gewonnene  Hieracium-Bastarde,  Briinn,  i86g. 

Biography:  Biographical  Notice  of  Mendel,  in  "Mendel's 
Principles  of  Heredity,"  by  W.  Bateson,  Carmbridge,  ipop,  pp. 
30P-316,  with  portraits,  translations  of  papers  and  complete 

Merkel,  Karl  Ludwig.  A  German  anatomist  and  physiologist, 
18 12-1876.    He  founded,  in  1862,  a  polyclinic  for  laryngology. 

Anatomie  und  physiologie  der  menschlich.  Stimm-  und 
Sprachorgane,  1857. 

Corpuscles  of  =  tactile  corpuscles.  Filtrum  ventriculi. 
Ganglia.    Musculus  ceratocricoides.     Touch  cells. 

Mery,  Jean.  An  anatomist  of  Paris,  1645-1722.  In  1684  he  dis- 
covered the  glands  which  bear  the  name  of  Cowper.  In  1700  he  was  chief 
surgeon  to  the  Hotel  Dieu. 

Description  exacte  sur  I'oreille  de  I'Homme,  Paris,  1677,  in-i2°. 
Nouveau  systeme  de  la  circulation  du  sang  par  le  trou  ovalis,  dans 
le  foetus  humain,  Paris,  1700. 


Meyer,  Georg  Hermann  von.  German  anatomist  and  physiologist, 
1815-1892.     Professor  of  anatomy  in  Ziirich,  1856-89. 

Lehrbuch  der  Anatomie  des  Menschen,  3rd  ed.,  i8yj.  Statik 
und  Mechanik  des  Knochengerilstes,  Leipzig,  18^4. 

Line.  Organ  of  =  a  collection  of  glands  on  the  tongue. 
Sinus  of^in  floor  of  external  auditory  canal. 

Meynert,  Theodor  Hermann  1833-1892.  Professor  of  psychiatry 
in  Vienna. 

Oommissura.    Decussatio.    Fasciculus. 

Michelangelo  Buonarroti.  An  Italian  architect,  engineer,  artist, 
and  sculptor  of  Florence  and  Rome.  Born  at  Caprese,  March  6th,  1475. 
He  ended  an  extremely  active  career  at  Rome  on  February  i8th,  1564. 
Among  his  many  interests,  anatomy  was  at  one  time  a  passion  with 
Michelangelo.  So  much  so,  as  Condivi  tells  us,  that :  "  His  prolonged 
habits  of  dissection  injured  his  stomach  to  such  an  extent  that  he  lost  the 
power  of  eating  and  drinking  to  any  profit.  It  is  true,  however,  that  he 
became  so  learned  in  this  branch  of  knowledge  that  he  has  often  enter- 
tained the  idea  of  composing  a  work  for  sculptors  and  painters,  which 
should  treat  exhaustively  of  all  the  movements  of  the  human  body,  the 
external  aspect  of  the  limbs,  the  bones,  and  so  forth,  adding  an  ingenious 
discourse  upon  the  truths  discovered  by  him  through  the  investigations 
of  many  years."  Michelangelo  often  conferred  on  anatomical  subjects 
with  the  famous  anatomist  Realdo  Colombo,  who  was  instrumental  in  pro- 
curing for  him  the  body  of  an  exceptionally  well-formed  young  Moor,  on 
which  the  artist  was  able  to  make  a  number  of  important  observations. 

Biography :  Vita  di  Michelangelo  Buonarroti,  Scritta  da 
Ascanio  Condivi,  Pisa:  N.  Capurro,  1823.  The  Life  of  Michel- 
engelo  Buonarroti,  based  on  studies  in  the  archives  of  the  Buonar- 
roti family  at  Florence,  iiy  John  Addington  Symonds,  New  York, 
i8pj,  2  "Vols.,  in-8°. 

Mihalkovics,  Victor  von  (Mihalkovics  Geza).  A  Hungarian  anat- 
omist, 1844-1899.  Born  in  Pest;  in  1869-1872  he  was  assistant  in  the 
anatomical  institute  in  Budapest  with  Joseph  v.  Lenhossek.  Studied  in 
Vienna  with  Toldt,  afterwards  with  Ludwig  in  Leipzig  and  in  1873  in 
Strassburg.  In  1875  he  was  called  to  the  University  of  Budapest  as  pro- 
fessor extraordinar.  of  embryology ;  in  1878  he  was  ordinariat  for  embry- 
ology and  'topographic  anatomy  and  director  of  the  institute  1892,  as 
successor  to  Lenhossek.  He  is  the  author  of  23  contributions  to 
embryology  and  histology. 

Entwickelungsgeschichte  des  Gehirns,  Leipzig,  18'j'j,  in-4°. 
Anatomie  und  Histologic  des  Menschen,  Budapest,  i8p8. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  16,  pp.  349-352,  i8pp, 
■with  bibliography. 


Milne-Edwards,  Henri.  A  French  naturalist,  1800-1885.  Studied 
medicine  at  Paris,  where  he  was  granted  the  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1823, 
although  he  had  devoted  himself  chiefly  to  the  study  of  natural  history. 
In  1838  member  of  the  Academic  des  Sciences  in  the  place  of  Cuvier.  In 
1 841  he  filled  the  chair  of  entomology  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  and  in 
1844.  became  professor  of  zoology  and  physiology.  He  published  numer- 
ous original  memoirs  of  importance  in  the  Annales  des  Sciences  Natur- 
elles,  a  journal  he  himself  assisted  in  editing  for  50  years. 

Minot,  Charles  Sedgwick.  An  American  embryologist,  1852-1914. 
He  was  bom  on  the  twenty-third  of  December  at  Woodbourne  in  West 
Roxbury,  Massachusetts,  into  a  family  noted  for  excellent  attainments. 
In  1868  Minot  began  his  scientific  career  by  joining  the  Boston  Society 
of  Natural  History,  where  he  became  an  enthusiastic  entomologist.  In 
the  same  year  he  entered  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology 
specializing  particularly  in  chemistry,  though  he  did  some  good  work  in 
microphotography  of  the  parts  of  insects  in  the  laboratory  of  physics. 
In  1872  he  entered  the  graduate  school  of  Harvard  College,  and  in  the 
following  summer  he  was  with  Agassiz  in  Penikese.  The  year  following 
( 1873-1875)  Minot  went  to  Leipzig  to  study  with  Ludwig  and  Leuckhart ; 
spent  the  winter  of  1875-76  at  Wiirzburg  with  Semper,  and  studied  in 
Paris  for  a  brief  period.  After  his  return  to  America  he  received  the 
degree  of  Sc.  D.  in  1878  from  Harvard.  After  two  years  he  became,  at 
the  Harvard  University  Medical  School,  successively  lecturer  in  em- 
bryology and  instructor  in  oral  pathology  and  surgery  1880-83 !  instructor 
in  histology  and  embryology,  1883-87 ;  a  ;sistant  professor  of  histology  and 
embryology,  1887-92;  professor,  1892-1906;  James  Stillman  professor 
of  comparative  anatomy,  1906-1914. 

In  1886  Minot  designed  a  rotary  microtome  which  has  since  come 
into  general  use.  It  was  primarly  for  cutting  serial  sections  of  embryos. 
His  interest  in  this  important  addition  to  -modern  histological  technique 
was  unfaiHng  and  in  later  years  he  improved  the  original  design,  besides 
perfecting  a  new  precision  microtome. 

His  Human  Embryology,  the  result  of  many  years'  labor,  was  pub- 
lished in  1892.  This  was  a  comprehensive  summary  of  embryology  as 
it  bears  on  the  problem  of  human  development.  The  work  was  well  re- 
ceived and  in  1894  was  translated  into  German.  One  of  the  greatest  and 
most  lasting  features  of  this  work  is  the  bibliographic  portion,  which  will 
be  used  after  other  parts  of  the  work  have  been  superseded.  He  followed 
this  work  in  the  following  year  (1893)  by  a  "Bibliography  of  vertebrate 
Embryology"  of  127  quarto  pages. 

While  Minot's  interests  were  largely  embryological,  yet  he  con- 
tributed much  of  value  to  general  biology.     His  work  on   senesence, 


growth,  the  nature  of  sex  and  other  questions  is  of  a  high  type.  These 
investigations  are  summed  up  in  his  work  "  The  Problem  of  Age,  Groiuth 
and  Death.  A  Study  in  Cytomorphosis,  New  York,  1908,  in-8°.  So 
broad  was  his  grasp  of  modern  biological  science  that  he  was  regarded 
as  a  zoologist,  an  entomologist,  a  physiologist,  and  an  embryologist,  having 
contributed  important  studies  to  each  of  these  phases  of  biology. 

Minot  did  much  to  advance  laboratory  teaching,  especially  in  micro- 
scopic anatomy.  He  was  instrumental  also  in  planning  many  laboratories. 
His  activities  in  the  scientific  societies  and  associations  was  so  notable  that 
he  became  the  recognized  leader  of  biological  workers  in  America. 

He  received  the  honorary  degree  of  LL.  D.  from  Yale  in  1899; 
Sc.  p.  from  Oxford  in  1902;  LL.  D.  from  Toronto  in  1904  and  from 
St.  Andrews  in  191 1.  At  the  University  of  Jena  (1912-1913)  he  repre- 
sented, as  exchange  professor,  the  anatomists  of  America,  and  presented 
the  results  of  American  anatomical  research.  These  lectures  were  pub- 
lished in  1913  in  booklet  form  "  Modern  Problems  of  Biology."  Among 
other  works  to  be  mentioned  Minot  is  the  author  of :  Uterus  and  Embryo, 
1889;  A  Laboratory  Textbook  of  Embryology,  1903;  Normal  Plates  of 
the  Development  of  the  Rabbit,  1905,  in-4° ,  besides  some  one  hundred 
and  fifty  shorter  publications. 

Biography:     Science,  1914,  vol.  40,  pp.  926-921;  Proc.  Bost. 

Soc.  Natl.  Hist.,  1915,  vol.  55,  pp.  79-93;  Science,  1915,  vol.  41, 

pp.  701-704;  Boston  Med.  and  Surg.  Journal,  1914,  vol.  171,  pp. 

911-914,  and  1915,  vol.  172,  pp.  467-470;  Anatomical  Record,  vol. 

10,  no.  3,  1916,  pp.  133—164,  with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Mitsukuri,  Kakiohi.  A  Japanese  zoologist,  1858-1909.  His  family 
for  generations  had  produced  prominent  scholars  and  especially  physi- 
cians. Mitsukuri  and  two  of  his  brothers  were  among  the  first  who  sought 
training  in  foreign  universities,  and  he  owed  his  training  largely  to  the 
United  States.  He  received  his  first  foreign  education  in  Hartford,  then 
in  1875  ^^  entered  the  Sheffield  Scientific  School,  from  which  he  took 
his  Ph.  B.  in  1879.  The  same  year  he  matriculated  at  Johns  Hopkins 
and  studied  with.  Brooks  and  Newell  Martin  for  four  years.  He  suc- 
ceeded Whitman  in  the  Department  of  Zoology  at  the  University  of 
Tokyo,  and  subsequently  was  dean  of  the  college  of  science.  He  estab- 
lished an  important  biological  station  at  Misaki,  assisted  in  building  up 
a  fisheries  bureau,  and  in  general  brought  the  study  of  zoology  to  a  high 
level  in  Japan.  His  researches  cover  many  branches  of  zoology,  but  his 
most  important  contributions  were  to  the  embryology  of  the  reptiles. 
Besides  his  strictly  scientific  studies  he  wrote  important  economic  trea- 
tises on  oyster  culture  and  pearl  fisheries,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  was 
completing  a  monograph  of  the  holothurians  of  Japan.  The  following 
contribution  may  be  mentioned  as  indicating  the  type  of  his  researches 


in  reptilian  embryology :  "  On  the  Fate  of  the  Blastopore,  the  Relations 
of  the  Primitive  Streak,  and  the  Formation  of  the  Posterior  End  of  the 
Embryo  in  Chelonia,  together  with  Remarks  on  the  Nature  of  merohlastic 
Ova  in  Vertebrates,"  i8p6. 

Popular  Science  Monthly,  December,  1909. 

Mohrenheim,  Joseph  Jacob,  Freiherr  von.  An  Austrian  surgeon, 
1799-        .    Professor  of  surgery  in  St.  Petersburg. 

Trigonum  deltoideopectorale.     Fossa  infraclavicularis. 

Moll,  Jacoib  Antonius.  A  Dutch  oculist  and  physician  in  Utrecht, 

Glandulce  ciliares.     Musculus  subtarsalis;  tensor  palati. 

Mondino  (Mundinus)  (Raimondo  da  Luzzi).    A  famous  physician 
and  a  celebrated  anatomist  of  the  14th  century.     In  1316  professor  of 
medicine  in  the  University  of  Bologna,  where  he  died  in  1326.    He  was 
one  of  the  first  of  the  moderns  to  dissect  human  bodies. 
Anathomia,  Pavia,  1478,  in-fol. 

Biography:  The  M'ondino  myth,  by  Lewis  Stephen  Pilcher, 
in  Med.  Lib.,  vol.  4,  pp.  jii-j^i,  with  figures,  1906.  See  also 
p.  244,  same  number;  also  vol.  i,  p.  i,  1903. 

Monro,  Alexander  (Monro  Primus).  A  celebrated  Scottish  physi- 
cian and  teacher  of  anatomy,  1687  (97?) -1767.  In  1 719  he  began  giving 
private  lectures  and  demonstrations  in  anatomy.  In  172 1  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  anatomy  at  the  Edinburgh  University  which  he  held  until 
1759,  when  he  resigned  to  be  succeeded  by  his  son,  Alexander  Monro 
(Secundus).  Another  son,  Donald,  became  a  military  surgeon  and  an 
eminent  practitioner  in  London. 

Anatomy  of  the  human  bones  and  nerves,  Edinburgh,  1726, 
in-8°.     Essay  on  comparative  anatomy,  London,  1744. 

Foramen  interventriculare.  Glandula  concreta.  Linea. 
Sulcus  hypothalamicus. 

Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  ^sculapius,  vol.  2, 
pp.  425-438,  with  portrait. 

Monro,  Alexander  (Monro  Secundus)  (1733-1817).  Son  of  the 
preceding  and  his  successor  in  the  chair  of  medicine,  anatomy  and  sur- 
gery in  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  1759-1801. 

A  System  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology,  with  the  comparative 
anatomy  of  animals,  dedicated  to  Monro  Secundus,  Edinburgh, 
1795.  A  description  of  all  the  bursas  mucosce  of  the  human  body, 
London,  1788,  in-fol.  Three  treatises  on  the  brain,  the  eye,  and 
the  ear.     Edinburgh,  1797,  in-4° . 

Biography:  Medical  Library  and  Historical  Journal,  vol.  5, 
pp.  84-85,  1967. 


Monro,  Alexander  (Monro  Tertius)  (1773-1859).  Son  of  the  pre- 
ceding and  his  successor  in  the  chair  of  anatomy,  surgery  and  medicine 
in  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  1801-1846.  The  three  Monros  held 
sway  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh  from  1721-1846,  or  a  period  of  125 


Montgomery,  Thomas  Harrison,  Jr.  An  American  zoologist,  1873- 
1912.  He  studied  at  the  University  of  Berlin  with  Waldeyer,  O.  Hert- 
wig,  Schulze  and  others,  and  received  his  Ph.  D.  in  1894,  at  the  age 
of  21.  He  taught  in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  from  1898-1903. 
He  was  then  called  to  Texas  as  professor  of  zoology  and  remained  there 
until  1908,  when  he  returned  to  Pennsylvania  as  professor  of  zoology. 
During  the  last  two  years  of  his  life  he  designed  and  completed  a 
zoological  institute.  His  published  essays  deal  chiefly  with  the  habits, 
and  development  of  spiders  and  with  cytology,  though  he  had  wide  in- 
terests ranging  the  whole  field  of  zoology.  He  was  co-editor  of  the 
Journal  of  Morphology,  1903-1908. 

Biography:  Science,  N.  S.,  vol.  38,  no.  g'ji,  pp.  20^-214,  ipij. 

Montgomery,  William  Fetherston.  An  Irish  physician  and  ob- 
stetrician in  Dublin,  1797-1859. 

Glandula  areolaris.  Tubercles  of  =  papular  elevations  formed 
hy  M.'s  Glands. 

Morand,  Sauveur  Francois.     A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,   1697- 


Foramen  ccecum.    Hippocampus  minor.    Calcar  avis. 

Morgagni,  Giovanni  Battisti.    An  Italian  anatomist  and  patholo- 
gist, 1682-1771.    Regarded  as  the  founder  of  pathological  anatomy.    He 
acted  as  prosector  to  Valsalva,  whom  he  succeeded  as  demonstrator. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Padua,  1715-        .    His  most  famous  work  is: 
De  sedibus  et  causis  morborum  per  anatomen  indagatis  libri  V, 
Venice,  1761. 

He  verified  all  the  important  discoveries  of  his  contemporaries.  He 
is  also  the  author  of  numerous  works  dealing  with  anatomical  questions, 
a  list  of  which  may  b^  found  in  the  Bio.  Med. 

Biography:  Med.  Lib.,  vol.  4,  p.  41,  igo6;  Richardson — Dis- 
ciples of  jSsculapius,  vol.  i,  pp.  283-301,  ipoi.  Med.  Lib.,  vol.  i, 
p.  270,  1903. 

Numerous  anatomical  structures  are  associated  with  the  name  of 

Appendix  testis.  Cartilage  of^=in  larynx.  Caruncle  of  = 
middle  lobe  of  prostate.     Columna  rectalis.     Concha  nasalis  su- 


perior.  Crypt.  Foramen  caecum.  Fossa  naviculare  urethra. 
Frenulum  valvulce  coli.  Glandules  urethrales.  Globules  of  =  be- 
neath crystalline  lens.  Humor  of=^in  crystalline  lens.  Hydatid 
of  =  appendix  testis;  appendix  vesiculosus.  Lacuna  urethralis. 
Liquor^ humor.  Modulus  valvules  semilunaris.  Retinaculum. 
Sinus  rectalis=Utriculus  masculinus.  Spheres.  Bulbus  olfac- 
torius.     Valve.     Ventriculus  laryngis. 

Morton,  Samuel  George.  An  American  craniologist,  paleontolo- 
gist and  anatomist  in  Philadelphia,  1799-1851. 

Crania  Americana,  iS^p.  Crania  Mgyptiaca,  1844.  Illustra- 
tions of  pulmonary  consumption,  1834. 

Mueller,  Heinrich.  A  German  anatomist,  1820-1864.  Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Wiirzburg. 

Arterice  helicince  penis.  M.  Compressor  lentis.  Fibres  circu- 
lares  muse,  ciliaris.    Musculus  orbitalis.     Trigonum. 

Mueller,  Hermann  Franz.  A  German  histologist,  1866-1898. 
Known  for  Mueller's  Fluid,  a  tissue  fixative. 

Mueller,  Johannes  Peter.  A  German  anatomist  and  physiologist, 
1801-1858.  He  became  known  as  one  of  the  most  distinguished  physi- 
ologists of  Germany,  and  gained  a  wide  reputation  as  an  embryologist 
and  naturahst.  Privat-docent  in  the  university  at  Bonn  in  1824.  In  1826 
he  became  extraordinary  professor  of  physiology  in  the  same  university, 
and  professor  in  1830.  From  1833-1858  he  filled,  with  distinction,  the 
chair  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  the  University  of  Berlin.  Founder 
of  the  Archiv  fiir  Anatomic,  Physiologic  und  wissenschaftliche  Medicin, 
Berlin,  1834- 

HandbuSh  der  Physiologie  des  Menschen,  1834-1840.  Unter- 
suchungen  iiber  die  Eingeweide  der  Fische,  Berlin,  1845.  Be 
glandularum  secernentium  earumque  prima  formatione  in  homine 
atque  animalibus,  Leipzig,  1830. 

Canal  or  duct  of  =  Ductus  paruretetius  primordalis.  Capsule 
of  =  Capsula  glomeruli. 

Biography:  Ency.  Brit.;  N.  &  P.,  Bd.  U,  p.  370;  W.  B. 
Piatt,  Johannes  MUll'er,  A  University  Teacher.  Bull.  Johns  Hop- 
kins Hospital,  vol.  7,  p.  16,  1896.  Pop.  Sci.  Monthly,  LXXII,  No. 
6,  June,  ipo8. 

Mundinus.    See  Mondino. 

Munro.    See  Monro. 

Muys,  Weijer  Willem  (1682-1744).  Born  in  Steenwyk.  Student 
of  Bidloo.    In  1709  professor  of  mathematics ;  1712,  also  medicine,  and  in 


1720  the  subject  of  chemistry  was  added,  in  Franeker.    He  was  the  first 

to  give  a  scientific  description  of  the  fibrillar  structure  of  the  muscle 


Investigatio  fahricce,  qucB  in  partib.  musculos  dompenentib. 
exstat.  1738,  in-4°. 

Naboth,  Martin  (1675-1721).  A  Leipzig  physician  and  anatomist. 
He  described  the  glands  of  the  neck  of  the  uterus,  also  called  Nabothian 
follicles,  eggs,  ova  or  ovules;  they  are  minute  retention  cysts  resulting 
from  the  closure  of  the  openings  of  the  uterine  glands. 

Nageli,  Carl.  A  German  botanist,  1817-1891.  Known  for  his  im- 
portant observations  on  cell  structure.  Said  to  have  been  the  first  to 
have  observed  cell  division. 

Needham,  John  Tuberville.    An  English  ecclesiastic  who  is  noted 
for  his  microscopic   observations    (1713-1781).     He  visited   Buffon  in 
Paris.     Became  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  1747. 
Microscopical  discoveries,  London,  1745. 

Needham,  Walter.     An  English  physician,  -1691,  who  de- 

scribed the  placenta  and  foetal  blood  vessels;  and  recognized  the  nature 
of  the  parotid  duct. 

Disquisitio  anatomica  de  formato  foetu,  London,  1667,  in-8°. 

Nelaton,  Auguste.    A  Parisian  surgeon,  1807-1873. 
Lima.    M.  spincter  ani  superior. 

Neubauer,  Johann  Ernst.  German  anatomist,  1742-1777.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  Giessen. 

Descr.  Anat.  arteries  innominatce  et  thyroidece  imce,  1772. 
Arteria  thyroidea  ima. 

Nishikawa,  T.  A  Japanese  zoologist,  1874-1909.  He  was  for  a 
number  of  years  an  assistant  tO'  Dr.  Kishinouye  in  the  Imperial  Fisheries 
Bureau  in  Tokyo.  He  is  noted  for  his  studies  on  pearl  fisheries,  and  the 
method  of  secreting  pearls  from  the  oyster  mantle.  The  publications  of 
Nishikawa  include  important  contributions  to  our  knowledge  of  Japanese 
fishes,  structural,  systematic  and  embryological.  He  is  especially  noted 
for  his  studies  on  the  development  of  the  frilled  shark,  Chlamydoselachus 


Nuck,  Anton.    A  Dutch  anatomist  and  physician,  1650-1692.    He 

practiced  medicine  in  La  Haye  and  in  Leyden  where  he  was  professor 

of  anatomy  and  surgery,  and  became  president  of  the  college  of  surgeons. 

De  vasis  aquosis  oculi,  Leyden,  1685,  in-i2°.    De  ducti  salivali 

novo,  Leyden,  1686,  in-i2°.     Adenographia  curiosa,  et  uteri  foemini 

anatome  nova,  Leyden,  i6g2. 

Canal  or  diverticulum  of  ^^  Processus  vaginalis  peritonei. 

Nuhn,  Anton.  A  German  anatomist  at  Heidelberg,  1814-1889. 
Professor  of  anatomy  at  Heidelberg. 

Chirurgisch-Anatomische  Tafeln,  Mannheim,  folio. 
Glandula  lingualis  anterior.     Ligamentum  patellae. 

Oehl,  Eusebio.     An  Italian  anatomist,  1827-1903. 

Stratum  lucidum  (epidermis).  Mm.  contractores  chords 

Oellacher,  Josef.  A  German  anatomist,  1842-1892.  Studied  in 
Wiirzburg,  with  von  KoUiker,  and  became  his  demonstrator  in  1864-65. 
In  1870  prosector  in  Innsbruck.  In  1872  professor  of  embryology  and 
histology,  which  he  held  until  his  death  in  1892.  He  is  the  author  of 
several  contributions  to  embryology. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  7,  p.  556,  1892, 

Oken,  Lorenz.  German  physiologist,  3779-1851.  Shares  with 
Goethe  the  vertebral  theory  of  the  skull. 

Programm  ueber  die  Bedeutung  der  Schaedelknochen,  Bam- 
berg,  i8o'j,  in-8°.     Lehrbuch  der  Naturphilosophie,  Jena,   183 1. 
Lehrbuch  der  Zovlogie,  Leipzig,  1815-1816,  2  vols. 
Body  of  =  Wolffian  body. 

Oppel,  Albert.  A  German  anatomist  and  histologist,  1863-1915. 
Practiced  medicine  in  Tuebingen,  Beriin  and  Mtinchen.  In  1888-1891 
assistant  in  the  anatomical  institute  in  Miinchen;  1891  he  was  called  to 
Freiburg  as  prosector  at  the  anatomical  institute;  1894  ausordl.  pro- 
fessor. At  this  time  he  was  considering  the  plan  of  a  large  work  on 
comparative  microscopic  anatomy  of  the  vertebrates.  In  pursuance  of 
this  object  he  worked  at  the  zoological  station  in  Triest.  and  in  the 
laboratories  in  Miinchen  and  Stuttgart.  In  1907  he  was  called  to  Halle 
as  chief  assistant  to  W.  Roux  in  the  anatomical  institute. 

Lehrbuch  der  vergleichenden  mikroskopischen  Anatomic  der 
Wirbelthiere,  Bd.  I-VIII,  Jena,  1896-1914. 

Biography:  Anat.  Am.,  Bd.  48,  no.  16,  pp.  414-415,  1915. 

Oribasius  of  Pergamus  (326-403  A.  D.).  Friend  and  physician  of 
the  emperor  Julian.  Primarily  a  compiler,  he  improved  on  the  work  of 
Galen.    He  gave  a  description  of  the  salivary  glands,  not  given  by  Galen, 


and  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  describe,  the  membrana  tympani.  The 
first  Greek  edition  of  Oribasius  was  published  in  Paris  in  1556.  Some 
of  the  writings  of  Oribasius  are  lost. 

Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  I,  p.  113.  Tome  II, 
P-  739,  1774- 

Owen,  Sir  Richard.  An  English  anatomist  and  paleontologist, 
1804-1892.  Born  at  Lancaster,  England.  Assistant  curator  of  the 
Hunterian  museum;  1834  professor  of  comparative  anatomy  at  St. 
Bartholomew's  Hospital;  Hunterian  professor  of  the  same  subject  at  the 
Royal  College  of  Surgeons,  1836;  Superintendent  of  the  natural  history 
department  in  the  British  Museum,  1856.  A  voluminous  writer  on  com- 
parative anatomy  and  paleontology. 

Palaeontology;  or  a  systematic  summary  of  extinct  animals 
and  their  geological  relations,  Edinburgh,  i860.  Archtype  and 
homologies  of  the  vertebrate  skeleton,  London,  1847.  On  the 
anatomy  of  vertebrates,  vols,  i-j,  London,  1866-1868,  in-8°. 
Odontography;  or  a  treatise  on  the  comparative  anatomy  of  the 
teeth,  London,  1840-1845. 

Biography :  Life  of  Sir  Richard  Owen,  'by  his  grandson,  2  vols., 
i8p4.  Hay-Bibliography  and  catalogue  of  fossil  vertebrates.  Bull. 
I'/p,  U.  S.  Geol.  Siirv.,  pp.  185-1^2,  ipo2  (list  of  titles).  Sir 
Richard  Owen;  his  life  and  works,  by  C.  W.  G  Rohrer.  Bull. 
Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  vol.  22,  pp.  133-139,  1911. 

Paaw  (Pavius),  Pierre.  Born  at  Amsterdam,  1564-1617.  Studied 
anatomy  at  the  University  of  Rostock;  visited  Padua  and  studied  with 
Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  botany  in  Leyden, 
1589-1617,  where  he  was  superintendent  of  the  anatomical  theater.  He 
was  especially  noted  for  his  knowledge  of  osteology. 

PrimiticB  anatomicce  de  humani  corporis  ossibus,  Leyden,  1615, 
in- 4°. 

Pacchioni,  Antoine.  A  celebrated  Italian  anatomist,  born  in  Reg- 
gio,  Lombardy,  1665-1726.  Studied  in  Rome  with  Malpighi  in  1689, 
and  became  the  friend  of  Lancisi.  Physician  in  Tivoli  and  Rome  and 
one. of  the  foremost  anatomists  of  his  time.  Discovered  the  arachnoid 
bodies  which  bear  his  name,  known  as  the  glands  of  Pacchioni. 

Dis'sertatio  epistolaris  de  glandules  conglobatis  durce  meningis 
Humana;,  indeque  ortis  lymphaticis  ad  piam  meningen  productis. 
Rome,  1705,  in-8° . 

FovealcB  granulares.     Granula  arachnoidica. 

Biography:  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  II,  p.  i,  1776. 

Pacini,  Filippo.  An  Italian  anatomist  in  Florence,  18112-1883. 
Professor   of    descriptive   and  .artistic   anatomy,    then    of    topographic 


anatomy  and  histology,  1847-1883,  in  Florence.    He  redescribed  the  cor- 
puscles of  Vater,  and  wrote  a  good  description  of  the  retina. 

Nuove  richerche  microscop.  s.  tessitura  int.  della  retina,  Bo- 
logna, 1845.  Sulla  scoperta  di  Monneret  dei  pretesi  muscoli  delle 
valvole  semilun.  del  cuore,  Florence,  i8§o. 

Corpusculum  lamellosum.  (Pacinii,  Vateri). 

Pagel,  Julius  Leopold.  A  German  physician  and  medical  his- 
torian, 1851-1912.  Born  at  Pohlnow  in  Pomerania,  of  Jewish  parents. 
He  studied  medicine  in  the  University  of  Berlin  where  he  was  associated 
with  Helmholtz,  Dubois-Reymond,  Virchow,  Hirsch  and  Traube.  His 
doctor's  thesis  was  a  historical  study :  "  Geschichte  der  Gottinger 
Medizinischen  Schule  im  18  Jahrhundert,  18/3."  In  1891  he  began 
teaching  medical  history  at  the  University  of  Berlin,  received  a  professor- 
ship in  1898  which  he  retained  until  his  death.  Pagel  has  been  very> 
active  in  the  production  of  works  on  medical  history;  especially  to  be 
noted  is  the  3  volume  work :  "  Handbuch  der  Geschichte  der  Medisin,'" 
with  Neuherger  and  Puschmann,  ipos-o^.  "  Biographisches  Lexikon 
hervorragender  Aertze  des  ip  Jahrhunderts,"  1903.  "  EinfUhrung  in 
die  Geschichte  der  Medizin,"  i8p'j  and  1915. 

Pander,  Heinrich-Christian  von.  A  German  embryologist  and 
paleontologist,  1794-1865.  Pander  and  von  Baer  were  associated  as 
friends  and  fellow  students  under  DoUinger  at  Wurzburg,  and  it  was 
partly  through  von  Baer's  influence  that  Pander  began  his  studies  on 
development.  His  ample  private  means  made  it  possible  for  him  to  bear 
the  expenses  of  illustrating  his  work.  In  St.  Petersburg,  1823-27 ;  1842- 
65.  His  work  on  the  fossil  fishes  of  the  Devonian  is  of  the  best  type. 
He  confirmed  Wolff's  theory  of  the  germ  layers. 

Beitraege  zur  Entwickelungsgeschichte  des  Huehnchens  im 
Eie.  Wurzburg,  1817  (handsomely  illustrated),  10  pi.  fol.  Dis- 
sertatio  inaug,  sistens  historiam  metamorphoses,  quam  ovum 
incubat.  priorib.  5  dieb.  subit.,  Wiirzburg,  1817  (unillustrated ) , 
in-8°.  Ueber  die  Placodermen  des  devonischen  Systems.  St. 
Petersburg,  185/,  in-4°. 

Nucleus  of  =  nerve  cells  beneath  the  thalamus. 

Biography:  Locy,  Biology  and  its  Makers,  p.  218;  Carus- 
Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  p.  621;  Hay-Bibliography  and  catalogue 
of  fossil  vertebrates,  Bull.  179,  U.  S.  Geol.  Surv.,  p.  193. 

Panizza,  Bartolommeo.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1 785-1 867.  A 
friend  of  Mascagni  and  Bufalini ;  student  of  Atti,  Cairoli,  Volpi,  Scarpa, 
^Monteggia,  Palletta;  with  Scarpa,  in  1814,  in  Pavia;  1817,  professor  of 


anatomy  in   Pavia.     Known   for  his   studies   in   comparative   anatomy, 
especially  on  the  vascular  system  of  the  crocodile. 

Foramen  PanizzcB  =  communication  between  two  Mood  vessels 
in  crocodile. 

Pansch,  Adolph.  A  German  anatomist,  1841-1887.  Prosector  in 
Kiel,  1865 ;  1866  privat  docent ;  professor  extraordinary. 

De  sulcis  et  gyris  in  cereb.  simiar.  et  horn,  1866.  Modell  des 
menschl.  Grosshirns,  Kiel,  1878.  Die  Furchen  und  Wiilste  am 
Grosshirn  des  Menschen,  Berlin,  i8yp.  Beitraege  s.  Morphologic 
des  Gfosshirns  der  Sdugethiere,  Leipzig,  i8yp.  GrundzUge  der 
Anatomic  des  Menschen,  Berlin,  1881. 

Fissure  of  =  from  central  fissure  to  occipital  lobe. 

Paracelsus,  (Aureolus-Theophrastus-Bombastus-von  Hohen- 
heim).  A  Swiss  physician,  1490  (91  or  93)-iS4i.  Born  at  Einsiedeln, 
in  the  canton  Schwyz,  Switzerland,  near  Zurich,  the  son  of  a  physician. 
Professor  of  medicine  and  city  physician  at  Basel,  1527-1528,  when  he 
was  forced  to  resign  because  he  did  not  teach  Galen,  but  attempted  to 
introduce  new  methods  of  teaching.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  attempt 
to  break  away  from  the  traditional  methods  of  learning  and  teaching,  but 
his  efforts  attained  no  success  during  his  lifetime. 

Opera  omnia  medico-chymico-chirurgica,  Geneva,  1658,  3  vols., 

Haeser,  Bd.  II,  p.  71,  gives  a  full  account  of  Paracelsus  with 
full  bibliography.  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  I,  pp.  158, 
739,  1774- 

Par6,  Am'broise.  An  eminent  French  surgeon,  1510-1590.  One 
of  the  first  surgeons  to  break  away  from  traditional  methods.  While  in 
Paris  he  visited  Sylvius  de  Boe,  the  anatomist.  Pare  was  a  man  much 
honored  by  the  royalty.    He  contributed  the  following  to  anatomy : 

Anatomic  universelle  du  corporis  humani,  dvmp.  Far  A.  Pare, 


Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  Msculapius,  vol.  i, 
pp.  176-192,  ipoi.  Haller-Bibliotheca  anatomica.  Tome  I,  p.  ip7, 

Parker,  Thomas  Jeffries.  An  English  zoologist,  1850-1897.  He 
was  born  in  London,  the  eldest  son  of  William  Kitchen  Parker,  F.  R.  S., 
the  renowned  comparative  osteologist.  Parker  received  his  early  training 
at  the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  1868-1871.  Became  Science  Master  at  the 
Bramham  College.  In  1872  he  returned  to  London  at  the  request  of 
Huxley  as  Demonstrator  in  Biology  in  the  Royal  College  of  Science  and 
he  held  this  post  until,  in  1880,  he  was  appointed  to  the  professorship  of 


Biology  at  the  University  of  Otago,  Dunedin,  New  Zealand.  With  Pro- 
fessor W.  A.  Haswell,  the  author  of  a  general  textbook  of  elementary 
zoology  issued  in  two  volumes.  He  is  the  author  of  some  40  separate 
contributions  to  zoology  and  embryology. 

Structure  and  Development  of  Apteryx,  Cranial  Osteology, 
Classification  and  Phytogeny  of  the  Dinornithidde. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anseiger,  Bd.  14,  pp.  301-304,  i8p8. 

Parker,  William  Kitchen.  An  English  zoologist  and  comparative 
osteologist,  1823-1890.  Studied  at  Kings  College,  1844-46;  elected  fellow 
of  the  Royal  Society  1865 ;  Hunterian  professor  at  Royal  College  of 
Surgeons,  1873.    Member  of  numerous  scientific  societies. 

Mammalian  Descent,  Hunterian  Lectures  for  1884.  A  Mono- 
graph on  the  Structure  and  Development  of  the  Shoulder  Girdle 
and  Sternum  in  the  Vertebrates,  1868,  London.    On  the  Structure 

and  Development  of  the  Skull  in  Sharks  and  Skates ;  

in  the  Sturgeons ; in  Lepidosteus  osseous; in  the  Salmon, 

Studies  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
London,  1873-1883. 

Biography:  A  Memoir  of  William  Kitchen  Parker,  Smith- 
sonian Report,  1890,  pp.  771-774;  reprinted  from  Nature,  vol.  42, 
pp.  297-299,  1S90. 

Paul  of  Aegina  (Paulos  von  Aigina).  A  physician  in  Alexandria, 
Greek  eclectic  and  compiler,  625-690  A.  D.  He  was  one  of  the  last  of 
the  Alexandrian  school.  Of  his  "  Epitome  of  Medicine,"  in  seven  books 
(Venice,  1528,  Greek,  in  folio;  Basel,  1532,  Latin,  in  folio;  Arabic  and 
English)  his  sixth  book  was  the  standard  work  on  surgery  up  to  the  time 
of  Albucasis. 

Pecquet,  Jean.  A  French  physician  (1622-1674),  born  in  Dieppe, 
and  doctor  in  the  faculty  of  medicine  in  Montpelher,  in  1647.  Observed 
and  described  the  thoracic  duct  in  man  and  mammals ;  he  also  discovered 
the  receptaculum  chyli. 

Experimenta  nova  anatomica,  quibus  incognitum  hactenus  chyli 
receptaculum,,  et  ab  eo  per  thoracem  in  ramos  usque  subclavios  vasa 
lactea  deteguntur,  Paris,  1651,  in- 12°. 

Cisterna  chyli.  Ductus  thoracicus.  Cistern.  Duct.  Reser- 
voir.    Canalis. 

Pelops,  of  Smyrna,  was  a  Greek  physician  who  is  supposed  to  have 
been  the  teacher  of  Galen. 

Peremeschko,  Peter  Iwanowitsch.  A  Russian  anatomist,  1833- 
1894.     Born  in  Dorf  Rybotin.     Studied  in  Kiew,   1854,  University  of 


Kasan,  1863;  in  Germany,  1868,  at  which  date  he  became  docent  in  his- 
tology at  Kasan ;  soon  afterwards  professor  of  histology  at  the  Waldimir 
University  in  Kiew ;  in  1870  ord.  professor.  His  publications  relate  to 
microscopy  and  histology. 

Petit,  Antoine.  A  French  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1718-1794.  He 
succeeded  Ferrein  in  the  chair  of  anatomy  at  the  Jardin  du  Roi.  His 
writings  are  not  regarded  as  important. 

Petit,  Frangois-Pourfour  du.  A  French  physician,  1 664-1 741. 
Studied  anatomy  with  Duverney.  He  studied  especially  the  anatomy  of 
the  eye  and  the  mechanics  of  vision.  He  has  left  some  desultory  writ- 
ings on  the  subject. 

Spatia  zonularia.    Sinus  of  Valsalva. 

Petit,  Jean-Louis.    A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  1674-1760.    Mem- 
ber of  the  Royal  Society  of  London. 
Trigonum  lumbale. 

Payer,  Johann  Conrad.  A  noted  Swiss  anatomist,  born  at  Schaff- 
hausen,  1653-1712.  Professor  of  rhetoric,  logic  and  physics  at  Schaff- 
hausen.  Studied  with  Duverney  in  Paris.  Discovered  the  glands  of  the 
small  intestine,  known  as  Peyer's  patches. 

Exercitatio  anatomico-medica  de  glandulis  intestinorum, 
earumque  usu  et  affectionibus,  S chaff hausen,  i6'/j. 

Noduli  lymphatici  solitarii.    Moduli  lymphatici  aggregati. 

Peyligk,  Johannes.  A  jurist  of  Leipzig,  who,  in  1499,  published 
his  "  Philosophic  Naturalis,"  in  folio ;  which  contains  the  figures  of 
separate  organs  of  the  body  besides  one  large  figure  showing  internal 
anatomy  of  head,  thorax  and  abdomen. 

Biography:  Locy,  Wm.  A.,  1911,  Anatomical  Illustration 
before  Vesalius,  Journ.  of  Morphol.,  vol.  22,  no.  4,  pp.  961-962, 
figs.  6-7-8. 

Physick,  Philip  Syng.  An  American  surgeon  and  teacher  of  anat- 
omy in  Philadelphia,  1 768-1837.  A  student  of  John  Hunter.  Professor 
of  surgery  and  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1805-18.  He 
described  the  diverticula  of  the  rectum,  1836. 

Piccolomini,  Archange.  An  Italian  physician,  born  at  Ferrara, 
1626-        .     He  practiced  medicine  and  taught  anatomy  in  Rome.     He 


recognized  the  separation  of  the  cerebrum  into  white  and  grey  substance ; 
and  that  the  aorta  did  not  pierce  the  diaphragm. 

Anatomicce  praelectiones  explicantes  mirificam  corporis  humani 
fabricam,  Rome,  1586,  in-fol. 

Pinel,  Philippe.  A  French  physician,  1755-1826.  Student  of 
Barthez,  whose  philosophical  ideas  he  developed  into  his  famous  analytical 
method.  Pinel  is  known  as  the  "  Descartes  of  Medicine."  He  first 
studied  theology,  but  in  his  thirtieth  year  he  began  the  study  of  medicine 
at  Toulouse  and  Montpellier.  He  then  went  to  Paris,  where  he  pursued 
his  studies  in  poverty.  Later  he  came  to  be  recognized  and,  after  holding 
important  practicing  positions,  he  became  professor  of  pathology  in  the 
ilcole  de  Paris.  He  is  said  to  have  suggested  to  Bichat  the  idea  of  dis- 
tinguishing the  different  tissues.  His  analysis  is  the  most  complete  prior 
to  that  of  Bichat.  Pinel  distinguished  fevers  of  the  stomach,  intestine, 
mucosa,  glands  and  nerves,  and  stated  that  a  proper  diagnosis  depended 
on  an  exact  knowledge  of  the  tissue  affected.  He  differentiated  the 
mucosa,  the  serous  membranes,  cellular  tissue,  the  parenchyma,  muscle, 
skin,  etc. 

Nosographie  philosophique   ou  la  Methode  de  I'analyse  ap- 

pliquee  a  la  medicine.    Paris,  178Q,  in  2  vols.;  1803,  in  j  vols. 

Biography:  R.  Semelaigne:  Alienistes  et  philanthropes.    Les 

Pinel  et  les  Tuke.    Paris,  191 2,  in-8° . 

Pirogo-ff  (Pirogrov),  Nicolas  Ivanovitch.  A  Russian  surgeon  and 
anatomist,  1810-1881.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  L' Academic 
medico-chirurgicale.  Especially  noted  for  his  large  work  on  topographic 
anatomy  based  on  the  cross-section  method.  He-  founded  an  anatomical 
institute  in  St.  Petersburg. 

Anatome  topographica,  sectionibus  per  corpus  humanum 
congelatum,  triplici  directione  ductis  illustrata.  Petropoli,  1852- 
1859,  in  5  vols. 

Pliny  the  Roman  naturalist  —  the  Elder  (23-79  A.  D.)  Caius 
Plinius  Secundus  was  born  at  Novum  Comum  (Como).  Pliny  was  an 
industrious  compiler,  but  he  was  not,  like  Aristotle,  a  man  of  original 
research.  Of  his  many  works  the  Naturalis  Historia  in  thirty-seven 
books  has  alone  been  preserved,  and  in  a  nearly  complete  state.  This 
voluminous  treatise  professes  to  be  an  encyclopaedia  of  Roman  knowl- 
edge, mainly  based  on  ithe  researches  and  speculations  of  the  Greeks. 

Poirier,   Paul-Julien.     A   French  surgeon  and  anatomist,    1853- 


Traite  d'anafomie  Kumaine,  Paris,  1899,  in  5  vols.,  8°. 
Line  of  =^  from  nasofrontal  angle  to  a  little  above  lambda. 


Pollard,  Henry  Bargman.  An  English  zoologist,  1868-1896.  Pol- 
lard was  one  of  the  most  promising  young  men  in  comparative  anatomy, 
as  exemplified  by  his  contributions  on  the  comparative  anatomy  of  Ganoid, 
Siluroid  and  Marsipobranch  fishes.  During  the  six  years  he  devoted  to 
the  cultivation  of  the  science  he  accomplished  much  of  lasting  value.  He 
was  drowned  at  Dover  in  the  28th  year  of  his  life. 

Pouchet,  Georges.  A  French  comparative  anatomist,  1833-1894. 
Born  in  Rouen,  where  he  studied  natural  history  and  medicine.  In  1865 
assistant  in  the  natural  history  museum;  1879-1894,  professor  of  com- 
parative anatomy.  Director  of  the  zoological  station  connected  with  the 

Memoire  sur  I'encephale  des  Edentes,  Paris,  1868. 

Portal,  Antoine,  Baron.  A  French  physician  and  anatomist  in 
Paris,  1 742-1 832.  Professor  of  medicine  (anatomy  and  surgery)  in  the 
Royal  College  of  France,  1772;  professor  of  human  anatomy  at  the  , 
Jardin  du  Roi,  1776,  as  successor  to  Antoine  Petit;  1788,  physician  to 
the  king.  The  author  of  an  important  work  on  the  history  of  anatomy 
and  surgery. 

Histoire  de  I'anatomie  et  de  la  chirurgie,  Paris,  6  tomes,  1770- 
177 3 1  in-8° .     Toply  speaks  of  this  as  a  very  important  work. 

He  has  written  also  a  large  number  of  other  memoirs  listed  in  the 
Biographic  Medicate. 

M.  Capsularis  subbrachialis. 

Poupart,  Frangoi^.  A  French  anatomist  and  surgeon  in  Paris, 
1616-1708.  Known  on  account  of  his  description  of  the  ligament  in  his 
Chirurgie  complete,  Paris,  i6p3,  in-i2°. 

Poupart' s  ligament  ^  Ligamentum  inguinale. 
Biography:  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,   Tome  i,  p.  765, 

Power,  John  Hutch.  An  Irish  surgeon,  1806-1863.  Known  in 
Dublin  as  an  eminent  surgical  anatomist.  Author  of  an  important  work 
on  the  Nervus  opticus. 

Praxagoras  of  Cos  (335  B.  C.)  was  the  first  to  distinguish  arteries 
from  veins.  His  book  on  anatomy  is  lost,  but  his  work  is  preserved  in 
the  writings  of  Galen. 

Prentiss,  Charles  William.  An  American  anatomist,  1874-1915. 
In  1901  instructor  of  anatomy  at  the  Harvard  Medical  School.     Later 


studied  with  Bethe  in  Strassburg.  Taught  zoology  in  Western  Reserve 
University  and  in  the  University  of  Washington.  In  1909  assistant  pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  Northwestern  Medical  School,  Chicago;  1913  pro- 
fessor of  microscopic  anatomy.  Author  of  several  studies  on  nervous 
anatomy  and  an  important  Text-book  of  Embryology,  which  appeared 
some  six  months  before  his  death. 

Biography:  Science,  n.  s.  vol.  42,  no.  10/5,  p.  178,  191 5. 

Prevost,  J.  L.  He  was  the  first  to  describe  (with  J.  B.  Dumas) 
segmentation  in  detail,  1824. 

Prevost  et  Dumas — Mem.  sur  le  developpement  du  poulet  dans 
I'oeuf.  Ann.  sc.  nat.,  1826.  De  la  generation  dans  les  mammiferes 
et  des premiers  indices  du  developpement  de  I'emhryon.  Ann.  sc.  nat., 
T.  Ill,  1824,  p.  iij.  Memoire  sur  les  phenomenes  qui  accompag- 
nent  la  contraction  de  la  fibre  musculaire,  Paris,  1823,  in-8° ,  i  pi. 

Prochaska,   Georg.     An  anatomist  and  physiologist  in  Vienna, 
1749-1820.    Professor  of  anatomy  and  ophthalmology  in  Prague,  1778-91 ; 
also  physiology,  1786-91 ;  professor  of  physiology  in  Vienna,  1791-1819. 
Said  to  be  the  first  to  distinguish  between  motor  and  sensory  roots  of. 
spinal  nerves. 

De  Came  muse.     Vienna,  1778. 

De  structura  nervorum,  Vienna,  1779,  7  pi. 

Prussak,  Alexander.    A  Russian  otologist,  1839-1897. 

Fibres  of  =  bounding  Shrapnell's  membrane.  Pouch  or  space 
of  =■  Recessus  membranes  tympani  superior. 

Purkinje,  Johannes  Evangelista  von.  Bohemian  anatomist, 
physiologist  and  microscopist,  1 787-1869.  Professor  of  physiology  and 
pathology  at  the  University  of  Breslau,  1823-1850;  professor  of  physi- 
ology at  the  University  of  Prague.  He  discovered  nucleus  of  ovum 
which  he  called  "  germinal  vesicle ; "  and  discovered  the  lacunae  and 

Symbolce  ad  ovi  avium  historiam  ante  incubationem,  Leipzig, 
1830,  in-4°,  2  pi. 

Cells  or  corpuscles  of  =^  large  pyriform  nerve  cells.  Fibres 
of  =  beneath  endocardium.  Figures.  Images.  Network.  Stratum 
gangliosum  cerebelli. 

Pythagoras  of  Samos  (ca  575-500  B.  C.)  is  the  author  of  one  of 
the  earliest  anatomical  writings  of  the  ancient  Greeks. 

Quain,  Jones.  An  English  anatomist,  1796-1865.  Born  in  Mallow, 
Ireland.     Educated  in  Dublin  and   Paris.     Lecturer  on  anatomy  and 


physiology  in  Aldersgate  School  of  Medicine,  London,  1829-31 ;  pro- 
fessor of  same  1831-36.  His  brother,  Richard  Quain,  was  an  eminent 
physician  and  surgeon. 

The  Muscles  vf  the  Human  Body,  London,  1836. 

Elements  of  Anatomy,  4th  edition,  183/,  nth  edition,  1914. 

Quatrefages  de  Breau,  Jean-Louis-Armand  de.  A  French  zoolo- 
gist and  anthropologist,  1810-1892.  Professor  of  anthropology  in  the 
Paris  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Rapport  sur  le  progres  de  I'anthropologie,  i86j.    Les  pygmies, 
i88y.     L'espece  humaine,  i8j'j.    Histoire  gcnerale  des  races  hu- 
maines,  i88p.     Crania  ethnica,  187^-yg. 
Angle  of  ^parietal  angle. 

Queckett,  John.    An  English  physician,  1816-1861.    He  published 
one  of  the  early  textbooks  on  microscopic  anatomy. 
Lectures  on  Histology,  18^0-52. 

Rainey,  George.    An  English  anatomist,  1801-1884. 
Corpuscles  or  tubes  of^Miescher's  tubes. 

Ranke,  Hans  Rudolph.    A  Dutch  anatomist,  1849-1887. 
Angle  of  =  one  of  the  cephalic  angles. 

Rathke,  Martin  Heinrick.  A  German  antomist  and  embryologist, 
1793-1860.  Born  in  Danzig,  studied  in  Gottingen,  1814-1817;  1829-35 
professor  of  anatomy  in  Dorpat;  1835-60  as  professor  of  zoology  and 
anatomy  at  Konigsburg  as  successor  to  K.  E.  von  Baer.  (See  Carus- 
Geschichte  der  Zoologie,  p.  625). 

Abhandlung  sur  Bildungs — und  Entwickelungsgeschichte  des 
Menschen  und  der  Thiere,  Leipzig,  1834,  in-4°,  7  pi.  Entwicke- 
lungsgeschichte der  Natter  (Coluber  natrix),  iS^p.  Die  Entwicke- 
lungsgeschichte der  Schildkroten,  1848.  Untersuchungen  ilber  den 
Korperhau  und  die  Entivickelung  der  Krokodile,  1866. 

Columns  of  =  at  anterior  end  of  chorda  dorsalis.  Diverticu- 
lum, pouch  or  pocket  of=an  ectodermic  pouch  in  bucco-pharyngeal 
region  of  embryo.  Folds  of  ^^  folds  of  mesoderm  which  complete 
the  rectum.    Cartilage. 

Rau  (Ravius),  Johannes  Jacobus.  A  Dutch  surgeon  and  anatom- 
ist, 1668-1721.  Studied  in  Leyden,  then  under  Duverney  and  Mery  in 
Paris.  Professor  of  anatomy,  medicine  and  surgery  at  Leyden,  1713- 
1717,  as  successor  to  Bidloo. 

De  origine  et  generatione  dentium,  Leyden,  1694,  i^-4° ■ 
EpistolcE  duce  de  septo  scroti  ad  Ruyschium,  Amsterdam,  i6gg, 

Processus  gracilis  anterior  (of  malleus). 


R6aumur,  Rene-Antoine,  Ferchault  de.  A  French  zoologist,  1683- 
1757.  He  was  admitted  to  the  Academy  of  Science  in  Paris  at  the  age 
of  twenty-five.  He  was  a  many-sided  investigator  and  became  proficient 
in  entomology,  general  zoology  and  physics.  He  issued  a  large  work  on 
insects :  "  Memoires  pour  servir  a  I'histoire  naturelle  des  insectes,"  6 
vols.,  Paris,  1734-1742.  Pie  created  a  large  zoological  museum  in  Paris 
which  later  became  the  property  of  the  Jardin  des  Plantes. 

Sur  les  diverses  reproductions  qui  se  font  dans  les  ecrevisses, 
les  omars,  etc.,  et  entre  autres  sur  celles  de  leurs  jamhes.  Paris, 

Biography:  Memoires  Acad.  sc.  Hist.,  1757,  p.  201. 

Recklinghausen,  Friedrich  Daniel  von.  A  German  pathologist 
and  histologist  known  for  his  investigations  on  the  lymphatic  system, 
1833-1910.  Born  at  Giitersloh  in  Westphalia;  studied  at  the  Universities 
of  Bonn,  Wiirzburg  and  Berlin ;  worked  with  Rudolf  Virchow  and  Cohn- 
heim  in  pathology,  then  visited  the  Universities  of  Vienna,  Rome  and 
Paris.  In  1858-64  he  was  assistant  at  the  Berlin  Pathological  Institute. 
At  the  age  of  32  he  was  called  to  Konigsberg  as  ordentlicher  professor  of 
pathology ;  later  at  Strassburg  as  director  of  the  pathological  institute. 

Die  Lymphgefasse  und  ihre  Beziehung  zum  Bindegewebe, 
Berlin,  1862. 

Canals  of  Recklinghausen. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  37,  pp.  ^op-511,  igio. 

Redi,  Francesco  of  Arezzo,  1626-1697.     He  confirmed  Harvey's 
observations  on  lower  animals,  and  made  embryological  studies  of  insects. 
Esperienze  intorno   alia  generazione  degli  insetti,   Florence, 
1668,  in-4°. 

Reichert,  Karl  Bogislaus.  A  German  anatomist,  1811-1883. 
Student  of  Karl  Ernst  von  Baer,  Joh.  Mueller,  R.  Froriep;  1843-53, 
professor  of  human  and  comparative  anatomy  in  Dorpat;  1853-58,  in 
Breslau  as  successor  of  Th.  v.  Siebold,  director  of  the  physiological  in- 
stitute; 1858-  in  Miillers  place  in  Berlin.    Designed  a  microtome. 

De  embryonum  arcub.  sic  dictis  branchialib.  Berlin,  1836-48. 
Vgl.  Entwickelungsgeschichie  des  Kopfes  devnachten  Amphibien, 
Konigsburg,  1838,  in-4°.  Das  Entwicklungsleben  im  Wirbelthier- 
reiche,  1840.    Der  Bau  des  menschlichen  Gehirns,  Leipzig,  iS^g. 

Cartilago.  Macula  cribrosa  quarta.  Membrana.  Recessus 

Reil,  Johann  Christian.  A  German  physician,  and  student  of 
anatomy,  1759-1813.  He  wrote  one  of  the  most  important  treatises  on 
the  brain  which  appeared  in  the  i8th  century.    Professor  of  medicine  in 


Halle  and  Berlin.    A  monument  was  erected  to  Reil  in  the  city  of  Halle 
in  1915. 

Exercitationum  anatomicarum  fasciculus  primus  de  structura 
nervorum,  Halle,  1796,  in  fol. 

Insula.  Substantia  innominata.  Tceniola.  Trigonum  lemnisci. 
Ansa  peduncularis.    Sulcus  circularis. 

Reisch,  Gregor.  Published  in  1504  in  his  "  Margarita  Philo- 
sophica,''  an  illustration  showing  the  internal  anatomy  of  the  thorax  and 

Reisseisen,  Frangois  Daniel.  A  German  anatomist  in  Berlin, 

Muscles  of  ^microscopic  smooth  muscle  fibres  in  the  smallest 
bfonchial  tubes. 

Reissner,  Ernst.  A  German  anatomist  in  Berlin  and  Dorpat, 
1824-1878.    Professor  of  anatomy  in  Dorpat. 

De  auris  internee  formatione,  Dorpat,  1851. 
Crista.     Membrana  vestibularis.    Fibre. 

Remak,  Ernst  Julius.  A  German  neurologist,  son  of  Robert 
Remak,  1849-1911. 

Remak,  Robert.  A  neurologist  in  Posen,  1815-65.  Student  of 
Johannes  Mueller;  assistant  to  Schonlein. 

Observationes  anatomicce  et  microscopicce  de  systematis  nervosi 
structura,  Berol,  1838,  in-4°.  Ueber  ein  selbstdndiges  Darm- 
Nervensystems,  Berlin,  184/.  Untersuchungen  ueber  die  Entwick^ 
elung  der  Wirbelthiere,  Berlin,  i8sj,  fol. 

Fibres.     Ganglia.    Nuclear  division.     Plexus. 

Retzius,  Andreas  Adolf.  A  Swedish  anatomist,  father  of  Gustav 
Retzius,  1796-1860.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  anthropology  in  Stock- 
holm, 1840-60. 

Ueber  d.  Zusammenhang  der  Pars  thorac.  n.  sympath.  mit  den 
Wurzeln  der  Spinalnerven,  1832. 

Om  lefvcrns  finare  bygnad,  1844. 

Apertura  lateralis  ventriculi.  Cavum  praeperitoneale.  Emi- 
nentia  medialis  (trigoni).  Fascia.  Funiculus  separans.  Gyrus 
ambiens;  —  antic entralis;  —  intralimbus ;  —  olfactorius  lat.  et  med.; 
—  semilunaris.  Ligamentum  fundiforme.  Membrana  pericapsu- 
laris.    Pallium  inferius.    Pars  opercularis.     Vence. 

Rhazes  (Razes)  (Abu  Bekr  Muhammed  ben  Zakerijja  er-Razi). 
An  Arabian  anatomist,  923.    (The  dates  of  his  death  are  given  as:    923, 


932,  940,  966,  1070,  1085).  The  first  Arabic  textbook  of  anatomy, 
based  on  the  works  of  Hippocrates  and  Galen,  was  written  by  Rhazes 
and  entitled:    Kitaah  al  tib  al  Mansury  (liber  medicinae  mansuricus). 

Ribes,  Frangois.    French  physician,  1800-1864. 

Ganglion  of  =  uppermost  sympathetic  ganglion. 

Ridley,  Humphrey.  An  English  anatomist  in  London,  1653-1708. 
He  attributed  muscular  contraction  to  the  flow  of  nervous  fluids  in  the 
muscles.    He  described  the  restiform  body. 

Anatomy  of  the  brain,  containing  its  mechanism  and  physiolo- 
gie,  London,  1695,  in-8°. 
Sinus  circularis. 

Riedel,  Bernhard  Moritz  Carl  Ludwig.  A  German  surgeon, 

Lobe  of:::=a  tongue-like  process  from  the  lower  margin  of  the 
liver,  external  to  the  gall-bladder. 

Riolan,  Jean.  A  French  anatomist  (1577-1657) ;  son  of  Jean 
Riolan,  a  physician  of  Paris  who  was  Dean  of  the  faculty  of  medicine, 
1586.  Jean  Riolan,  Junior,  was  made  royal  professor  of  anatomy  and 
botany  in  1613,  and  was  first  physician  to  Marie  de  Medicis.  He  was 
one  of  the  first  in  France  to  emphasize  the  practical  importa;nce  of 
anatomy.  Known  for  his  study  of  the  myology  and  anatomy  of  the 

Anatomica,  seu  anthropographia,  Paris,  1618. 

Opuscula  anatomica  nova,  London,  1649. 

Bones  of^in  petro-occipital  suture.  Arch  of  =  mesocolon. 
Bouquet  of  =  at  styloid  process.    Musculus  ciliaris. 

Rivinus  (Bachmann),  Augustus  Quirinus.  A  German  physiolo- 
gist in  Leipzig,  1652-1723.  Born  in  Leipzig,  son  of  Andre  Rivinus,  a 
physician.  Known  in  anatomy  through  the  discovery  of  the  ducts  of 
the  sub-lingual  glands.  Professor  of  physiology  and  botany  in  Leipzig. 
He  was  a  celebrated  botanist. 

Dissertationes  medicw,  Leipzig,  17 10,  in-4° .  Complete  works, 
with  biography  (Leipzig,  1727). 

Canals  or  ducts  of  ^  ducts  of  the  sublingual  glands.  Foramen. 
Glands  of  =^  sublingual.  Membrane  of  =  Shrapnell's  membrane. 
Notch  or  segment  of  =  in  sulcus  tympanicus. 

Rivinus,  Johann.  A  German  physician  in  Leipzig,  1692-1725. 
Son  of  preceding. 

De  auditus  vitiis,  (Disserta)  17^7- 
Incisura  tympanica. 


Roby,  Joseph.  An  American  anatomist,  1807-1860.  Fellow 
student  of  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes  at  Brown  University,  1828.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  and  surgery  ait  Bowdoin  College,  1837-43;  anatomy 
and  physiology  at  University  of  Maryland,  1843-60. 

Rolando,  Luigi.  An  Italian  anatomist  in  Turin,  1773-1831.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Turin ;  physician  to  King  Victor 
Emmanuel  of  Sardinia;  professor  of  medicine  in  Sassari;  known  for  his 
studies  on  the  brain  and  spinal  cord. 

Saggio  sopra  la  vera  struttura  del  cervello,  dell'  uomo  e  degli 
animali,  e  sopro  le  funsioni  del  systema  nervosa,  Sassari,  i8op,  in-8° . 
Humani  corporis  fabrics  ac  functionum  analysis  adumbrata,  Turin, 
1817,  in-4°. 

Angle.  Area  of  ^  precentral  and  postcentral  convolutions. 
Cells.  Column  of  =  on  medulla  oblongata.  Fissure  of  =  sulcus 
centralis.  Substantia  gelatinosa.  Operculum.  Points.  Tuber- 

Roller,  Christian  Friedrich  Wilhelm.  A  German  alienist,  1802- 

Nucleus  lateralis  anterior,  medius  et  posterior.  Nucleus  emi- 
nentice  medialis.    Radix  ascendens  N.  glossopharyngei. 

RoUet,  Alexander.     An  Austrian  physiologist,   1834-1903. 
Stroma  of  =  colorless  stroma  of  erythrocytes. 

Rosel  von  Rosenhof,  August  Johann.  A  German  zoologist, 
1705-1759.  Noted  for  his  beautifully  illustrated  works  on  natural 
history.  His  most  important  work  is  perhaps:  " Historia  naturalis 
ranarum  nostratium,''  which  appeared  in  1758  with  an  introduction  by 
Albrecht  von  Haller  and  is  spoken  of  as  an  artistic  masterpiece.  He  had 
the  plates  nearly  finished  for  a  large  work  on  lizards,  but  did  not  live  to 
finish  it. 

Rosenmueller,  Johann  Christian.  A  German  anatomist  in  Leipzig. 
1771-1820.  1794  prosector;  1802-20  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery 
in  Leipzig.  An  anatomist  of  many  interests,  he  has  written  a  number  of 
important  treatises  which  have  advanced  the  science  of  anatomy. 

Organorum  lachrymalium  partiumque  externarum  oculi 
humani  descriptio  anatomica,  Leipzig,  1797,  in-4°.  Quccdam  de 
ovariis  embryonum  et  fwtuum  humanorum,  Leipzig,  1802,  in-/j° . 
Chirurgisch-anatomische  Abbildungen  filr  Aertze  und  Wundaertze, 
Weimar,  180^-12,  in  foL,  3  pts.  Handhuch  der  Anatomie,  Leipzig, 
1808,  in-8° .  He  also  translated  the  work  of  Alexander  Monro  ton 
the  bursce  of  the  human  body,  into  German. 


Fossa.  Glandula.  Gl.  lacrimalis  inferior.  M.  sterno-abdom- 
inalis.  Organon.  Valvula.  Parovarium.  Epoophoron.  Recessus 
pharyngeus.    Plica  lacrimalis. 

Rosenthal,  Friedrich  Christian.  A  German  anatomist,  1780-1829. 
Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  in  Greifswald,  1820.  A  student  of 

Canalis.  Ganglion.  Vence  ascendentes.  Vena  basalis.  V. 

Roser,  Wilhelm.  A  German  surgeon,  1817^1888.  Professor  of 
surgery  in  Marburg,  Ziirich  and  Berlin. 

Handbuch  der  anatomischen  Chirurgie,  1883. 
Chirurgisch  anatomisches  Vademecum. 
Linea  Roser-Nelaton. 

Rudbeck,  Olaiis.  A  Swedish  physician  and  anatomist,  1630-1702. 
Professor  of  riiedicine  in  the  University  of  Upsala,  1660-90.  He  dis- 
covered the  lymphatics  in  165 1,  after  dissecting  some  400  animals.  These 
had  since  the  time  of  Aselli  been  confused  with  the  lacteals.  He  was 
also  the  founder  of  an  anatomical  theater  at  Upsala.  Thomas  Bartholin 
also  claimed  the  discovery  of  the  lymphatics. 

Dissertatio  de  circulatione  sanguinis,  Westeras,  1652. 

Exercitatio  anatomica  exhibens  ductus  riovos  hepaticos  aquo- 
sos,  et  vasa  glandularum  serosa,  cum  figuris  aeneis  et  observation- 
ibus  anatomicis.    Westeras,  165s,  in-4°. 

Rudolphi,  Karl  Asmund.  A  German  parasitologist,  1771-1832. 
Studied  medicine  in  Greifswald,  1790,  and  there  presented  a  thesis 
on  intestinal  worms  for  his  doctor's  thesis.  In  1797  he  was  a.  o. 
professor  in  Greifswald;  1808  ord.  professor  of  medicine;  1810  professor 
of  anatomy  at  Berlin,  where  he  founded  an  anatomical-zoological  museum. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  successful  teachers  of  zoology  in  his  time.  He 
was  the  teacher  of  Johannes  Mueller.  His  writings  deal  chiefly  with 

Ruedinger,  Nikolaus.  A  German  anatomist  in  Miinchen,  1832- 
1896.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  Miinchen,  1881-96.  Student  of  Henle, 
F.  Arnold,  Th.  W.  L.  Bischofif ;  in  1855  prosector  to  Bischofl. 

Atlas  des  peripheren  Nervensystems,  2nd  ed.,  1872.  Atlas  des 
menschlichen  Gehororganes,  1866-75.  Topographisch  chirurgische 
Anatomic  des  Menschen,  1872-78.  Beitraege  zur  Anatomic  des 
Verdauungsapparates,  Stuttgart,  1879.  Beitraege  zur  Morphologic 
des  Gaumensegels,  Stuttgart,  187Q.  Anatomic  der  Him  und 
Ruechenmarksnerven,  Muenchen,  1868-72.    Ueber  die  Verbrcitung 


des  Sympathicus,  Muenchen,  1863.  Kursus  der  topograph.  Anato- 
mie,  4th  aufl.  iSpp. 

Ligg.  sacculorum.  Trigonum  caroticum;  —  olfactoriwn. 
Canaies  semicirculares. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  vol.  13,  pp.  21^-232,  i8p7. 

Rufus  (Rhupihos)  of  Ephesus,  was  a  celebrated  Greek  physician 
who  lived  during  the  reign  of  Trajan  (53-117  A.  D.).  He  divided  nerves 
into  motor  and  sensory;  was  the  first  to  describe  the  optic  chiasma;  said 
to  have  recognized  the  Fallopian  tubes  in  the  sheep;  formulated  an 
anatomical  terminology. 

Biography:  Anatomische  Werke  des  Rhuphos  und  Galenas, 
Erste  deutsche  Uebersetzung  von  Robert  Ritter  v.  Toply.  Anatom- 
ische Hefte,  Bd.  25,  erste  Abth.,  pp.  351-398,  1904. 

Rusconi,  'Mauro.     An  Italian  biologist  in  Pavia,  1776-1849. 

Descrizione  anatomica  degli  organi  della  circolazione  delle  sala- 
mandre  aquatiche.  Pavie,  i8if,  in-4,  pi.  Amours  des  salamandres 
aquatique's,  et  developpement  du  tetard  de  ces  salamandres  depuis 
I'oeuf  jusqu'a  I'animal  parfait.  Milan,  1821,  in-4° ,  5  pi.  Developpe- 
ment de  la  grenouille  commune,  depuis  le  moment  de  sa  naissance 
I'mqu'a  son  etat  parfait.    Milan,  1826,  in-4° ,  4  pi. 

Blastoporus.     Coelenteron. 

Riitimeyer,  Ludwig.  A  German  comparative  anatomist  and 
paleontologist,  1825-1895.  Extraordinariat  at  the  University  of  Bern, 
1853.  Ordinarius  for  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy  at  Basel,  1855. 
Co-founder  of  the  "  Archives  fiir  Anthropologie,"  and  the  editor  of  the 
"  Crania  Helvetica."  His  paleontological  studies'  are  of  the  highest  type. 
It  was  under  the  influence  of  Riitimeyer's  "  Odontographie,"  that 
Kowalevsky  completed  his  memoirs  on  fossil  mammals. 

Beitrag  zur  Kenntniss  der  fossilen  Pferde  und  zu  einer  ver- 
gleichenden  Odontographie  der  Hufthiere  im  Allgemeinen,  Basel, 
1863.  Ueber  die  Herkunft  unserer  Thierwelt,  Eine  Zoogeo- 
graphische  Skizze.    Basel  and  Geneva,  1867. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  11,  pp.  508-512  1896. 
Autobiographie,  in  "  Kleine  Schriften,"  Basel,  1898. 

Ruysch,  Frederick.  A  Dutch  anatomist  of  distinction,  1638-1731. 
Born  at  The  Hague.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  botany  at  Amsterdam, 
where  he  formed  the  first  anatomical  museum.  He  was  a  student  of 
Swammerdam  from  whom  he  learned  the  injection  method  which  he 
used  extensively  in  the  formation  of  his  museum.  He  discovered  the 
bronchial  artery;  the  internal  plate  of  the  choroid. 

Dilucidatio  valvularum  in  vasis  lymphaticis  et  lacteis.  Acces- 
serunt  qucedam  observationes  anatomicee  rariores.    La  Haye,  1665; 


in-i2° .  Opera  omnia  anatomico-medico-chirurgica.  ^  Amsterdam, 
1721-1727,  in  5  vol.,  in-4°. 

Membrana  (Lamina  choriopilioris).  Muscle  of=^in  fundus 
uteri.    Tube  of  =  in  nasal  septum  in  foetus.    Vv.  vorticosae. 

Ryder,  James  Adams.  An  American  embryologist,  1852-95. 
Professor  of  comparative  embryology  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
1886.  Said  to  have  invented  a  microtome.  Known  for  his  studies  in  the 
embryology  of  fishes. 

Development  of  the  silver  gar  (Belone  longirostris) ,  with  ob- 
servations on  the  genesis  of  the  blood  in  embryo  fishes  and  a  com- 
parison of  fish  ova  with  those  of  other  vertebrates.  Bull.  U.  S. 
Fish  Comm.,  1881.  A  contribution  to  the  embryography  of  osseous 
fishes,  with  special  reference  to  the  development  of  the  cod  (Gadus 
morrhua).  Ann.  Rep.  U.  S.  Fish  Comm.,  1884.  The  development 
of  the  Toad-fish,  1886. 

Sabatier,  Raphael-Bienvenu.  A  French  anatomist  and  surgeon 
in  Paris,  1732-1811.  Professor  of  anatomy  in  the  Royal  College  of  Sur- 
gery. He  contributed  a  number  of  important  memoirs  on  surgery  and 
anatomy  to  the  Academy  of  Science. 

Trait e  d' anatomic,  Paris,  1764,  j  vols.,  in-8°. 

Saint-George.    See  Valette  St.  George. 

Saint-Hilaire.     See  Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. 

Sandifort,  fiduard.    A  German  physician  who  succeeded  Albinus 
as  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  Leyden.    He  increased  the  ana- 
tomical museum,  developing  the  pathological  collections,  especially. 
Tabulce  intestini  du'odeni,  Ludg.  Batav.,  1780,  in-4°. 

Santorini,  Giovanni  Domenico.  An  Italian  anatomist  in  Venice, 
1681-1737.  Student  of  BelHni.  Professor  of  anatomy,  and  a  physician 
in  Venice,  1703- 

Observationes  anatomicce,  Venice,  1724,  in-4°. 
Cartilago  corniculata.  Concha  nasalis  suprema.  Corpusculum. 
Ductus  pancreaticus  accessorius.  Emissaria.  Fissura.  Incisura 
ant.  auries;  —  cartilaginis  meatus  acust.  ext. ;  —  intragica.  Laby- 
rinthus  pudendovesicalis.  Ligamentum.  Musculus  arytceno-epi- 
glott.  major.;  — corrugator  posticus;  — depressor  urethrae  mul.; 

—  incisura  helicis;  —  occipitalis  minor;  —  risorius;  —  socius 
(pyram.  nasi)  ;  —  triangularis  coccygis.  Papilla  duodeni.  Plexus 
ganglioformis  n.  maxillaris  inf.;  — labyrinthicus   (prostaticus) ; 

—  vesicalis.     Tuberculum  corniculatum.     Vena  parietalis. 

Biography:  Haller-Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome  II,  p.  23, 
590,  632,  714,  1776. 


Sappey,  Marie-Philibert-Constant.  A  French  anatomist,  1810- 
1896.    Professor  of  anatomy  in  Paris,  1859-68. 

Anatomic,  Physiologie,  Pathologic  des  Vaisseaux  lymphatiques 
chez  Vhomme  et  les  vertehres,  1874. 

Traite  d'anatomie  descriptive,  Paris,  i8y6-/p. 
Sur  la  conformation  et  la  structure  de  I'uretre  de  I'Homme, 
Paris,  1854. 

Ansa.  Cornu  frontale;  —  occipitale;  —  sphenoidale.  Fossa 
parietalis.  Fossula  suprapyramidalis.  Glandulae  ciliares.  Muscu- 
lus  occipitostaphylinus ;  — sphincter  praeputii.  Nates.  Nucleus 
ruber.  Papillae  corolliformes;  —  hemisphaeria  linguae.  Pars 
lac.rimalis  palp.;  — ocularis  palp.;  — palpebralis  gl.  lacr.  Sulcus 
orbitopalpeb.  sup.  Testes  (Colliculi  inferiores). 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  12,  i^p,  i8g6. 

Scarpa,  Antonio.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1747  (46  or  52)-i832.  A 
student  of  Morgagni ;  1772-83,  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the 
University  of  IVEodena;  1783-1803,  professor  of  anatomy  in  Pavia,  also 
surgery,  1787-1812.  Physician  to  Napoleon.  His  work  on  the  eighth 
nerve  (1794)  and  the  splanchnic  nerves,  in  general  exactness  of  descrip- 
tion and  beauty  of  engraving,  has  never  been  surpassed.  He  discovered 
the  ganglion  oticum. 

Anatomicce  disquisitiones  de  auditu  et  olfactu,  Pavia,  1780, 

in-fol.     Tabulce  nevrologicce  ad  illustrandum  historiam  cardiacorum 

nervorum,  Pavia,  1794,  in-fol.      De  Structura  fenestrce  rotundae 

auris  et  de  tympano  secundario  anatomicae  observationes.    Modena, 

1772,  in-8°. 

Arteria  nasopalatina.     Canales  semicirculares.     Ganglion  ves- 

tibulare ;  —  temporale.      Fascia  cremasterica ;  —  intercolumnaris. 

Intumescentia  ganglioformis.     Ligamentum  triangulare.     Liquor. 

Nervus  nasopalatinus.      Sinus  ellipticus.      Sulcus  nasopalatinus. 

Trigonum.    Zona. 

Biography:  Haller  —  Bibliotheca  Anatomica,  Tome,  II,  p.  696, 

1776.     Richardson  —  Disciples  to/  Msculapius,  vol.  i,  pp.  143-157, 

with  portrait,  ipoi. 

Schaarschmidt,  Agustus.  A  German  surgeon  and  anatomist  born 
at  Halle,  1720-1791. .  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Butzow,  where  he  also  established  a  school  for  obstetricians. 
His  works  on  anatomy  have  long  been  considered  classics. 

Osteologische  Tabellen,  Halle,  1746,  in-8° .  Myologische  Ta- 
bellen,  Halle,  1747,  in-8°.  Splanchnologische  Tabellen,  Halle,  1748, 
in-8° .  Neurologische  Tabellen,  Halle,  1750,  in-8° .  Adenologische 
Tabellen,  Berlin,  17 51,  in-8°.  Syndesmologische  Tabellen,  Berlin, 
1752,  in-8°. 

Schacher,    Polycarp   Gottlieb.     German   physician,    1674-1737. 
Ganglion  ciliare. 


Schani,  Zadeh  'Mehemmed  Ataullah.  A  Turkish  physician  who 
studied  medicine  in  Italy  and  whp  pubHshed  in  1820  a  work  in  Turkish, 
the  title  of  which  translated  into  German  reads : 

Spiegel  der  Korper  in  der  Anatomie  der  Glieder  des  Menschen, 
1820,  in  folio,  Zi'ith  §6  copper  plates. 

Scheiner,  Christopher.  A  German  physician  and  mathematician, 
born  in  Wald,  in  Swabia,  1595.  He  wrote  the  first  exact  description  of 
the  relations  of  the  optic  nerve  to  the  eyeball. 

Oculus,  sen  fundamentum  opticum,  in  quo  radius  visualis  erui' 
tur,  Muhldorf,  16 ip,  in-4°. 

Scheuchzer,    Johann-Jacob.      A    German    physician,    1672-1733. 
Born  in  Zurich.    He  made  a  large  collection  of  petrifactions  and  w  rote 
Sir  Hans  Sloan,  of  London,  a  letter  relating  the  discovery  of  the  skeleton 
of  a  fossil  man,  later  shown  by  Cuvier  to  be  a  giant  salamander. 
Piscium  vindicicB  et  querulce,  Zurich,  1708,  in-4° . 

Schleiden,  Matthias  Jacob.  A  German  botanist,  1804-1881.  Pro- 
fessor of  botany  at  Jena,  Dorpat  and  Frankfurt-am-Main.  He  shares 
with  Theodor  Schwann  the  discovery  of  the  cellular  nature  of  plant  and 
animal  tissues. 

Beitraege  zur  Phytogenesis,  Mailer's  Archiv,  Berlin,  i8j8, 
pp.  127-176,  2  pi.  (Later  republished  by  the  Sydenham  Society, 

Schlemm,  Friedrich.  A  German  anatomist,  1795-1858.  Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Berlin,  1833. 

Arteriar.  capitis  superf.  icon  nova.  Berlin,  1830,  fol. 
Bemerkungen  ueber  d.  angehl.  Ohrknoten  (Ganglion  oticum), 

Canalis.  Ganglion  rhachitico-coccygeum.  Ligamentum.  Sinus 
venosa  sclerce. 

Schmidel,  Casimir  Christophe.  A  German  botanist  and  anat- 
omist, 1718-1792.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  botany,  in  Erlangen,  1743. 
He  is  the  author  of  several  anatomical  memoirs. 

Dissertatio  de  nervo  intercostali,  Erlangen,  1754,  in-4°. 

Schneider,  Conrad  Viktor.  A  German  anatomist,  1614  (io)-i68o. 
Professor  at  Wittenberg  and  physician  to  the  Elector  of  Saxony.  The 
discoverer  of  the  Schneiderian  membrane;  described  the  lining  mem- 
branes of  the  nasal  fossae,  the  pituitary  membrane,  and  nerves  distributed 


to  it.    One  of  the  first  to  deny  the  Galenic  idea  that  catarrhal  discharges 
were  from  the  brain. 

Dissertatio  de  osse  cribriformi,  et  sensu  ac  organo  vdoratus  et 
morbis  ad  utrumque  spectantibus,  Wittenberg,  1655,  in-i2°.  Dis- 
sertationes  anatomkae  de  partibus,  quas  vacant,  principalioribus, 
corde,  capite,  hepate,  cum  observationibus  a  danatomiam,  necnon 
ad  artem  medendi  pertinentibus,  Wittenberg,  1543,  in-8°. 
'  Membrane    of  =  pituitary    membrane  —  Schneiderian    mem- 


Schreger,  Christian  Heinrich  Theodor.  A  Danish  anatomist, 

Versuch  einer  vergleichenden  Anatomie  des  Auges  und  der 
Thraenenorgane,  Leipzig,  18 10,  in-8° . 

Line  of  =  concentric  lines  caused  by  a  bending  of  the  dentinal 
tubules  near  the  surface  of  the  dentine. 

Schroeder  van  der  Kolk,  Jacob  Ludow  Conrad.  A  Dutch  anat- 
omist, 1797-1862.  He  is  known  especially  for  his  study  of  the  structure 
of  the  brain  and  spinal  cord,  and  his  contributions  to  embryology. 

Waarnemingen  over  het  maaksel  van  de  menschelijke  Placenta 
en  over  haren  bloeds-omloop,  Amsterdam,  1851. 

Schultze,  Bernard  Sigismund.  A  German  gynecologist,  1827- 
Son  of  Karl  August  Sigismund  Schulze. 

Superfetation    und    Superfecundation.      (Jenaische    Zeit.    f. 
wissensch.     Medisin,  1866.) 

Folds  of=^a  fold  of  amniotic  membrane  at  point  of  insertion 
of  dord  into  placenta. 

Schultze,  Carl  August  Sigismund.  A  German  anatomist,  1795- 
1877.  Student  of  J.  Fr.  Meckel,  and  his  prosector,  1818-21 ;  professor  of 
anatomy  and  physiology  in  Freiburg;  1831-68  in  Greifswald,  also  director 
of  the  institute  (also  comp.  anat.) 

Systematisches  Handbuch  der  vergleichenden  Anatomie.    Ber- 
lin, 1828,  in-8°. 

Schultze,  Max  Johann  Sigismund.  A  German  anatomist,  1825- 
1874.  Son,  student  and  prosector  of  Karl  August  Sigismund  Schultze; 
also  with  Johannes  Mueller  in  Berlin.  In  1854  professor  at  Halle; 
1859-1874  professor  of  anatomy  and  director  of  the  anatomical  institute 
at  Bonn.  In  1865  he  founded  the  "  Archiv  fiir  mikroskopische  Anatomie," 
of  which  he  was  the  editor  until  1874,  when  it  was  continued  by  his 
successor  La  Valette  St.  George  and  Waldeyer.  Schultze  was  the  author 
of  a  number  of  important  zoological  and  anatomical  memoirs,  among 


which  may  be  especially  mentioned  his  work  on  the  structure  of  the 

Zur  Kenntnis  der  elektrischen  Organe  der  Fische,  Halle,  1858, 
Das  Protoplasma  der  Rhizopoden  und  der  Pflanzenzellen,  Leipzig, 
i86j.     Ueber  den  gelben  Fleck  der  Retina,  Bonn,  i86f. 

Bundle  of  =^  comma  tract.  Cells  of  =  olfactory  cells.  Tract 
of  =  bundle. 

Biography:  Gurlt-Hirsch;  Burckhardt,  Geschichte  der  Zoolo- 
gie,  Leipzig,  190'J. 

Schulze,  Johann  Heinrich.  A  German  physician  and  anatomist, 
1687-1744.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  Altdorf,  1720,  as  successor  to 
Heister.  In  1732  professor  of  medicine,  eloquence  and  antiquities  in 

Historia  medicines  a  rerum  initio  ad  annum  Romce  535  deducta, 
Leipzig,  1728. 

Dissertatio  de  musculis  abdominis,  Halle,  1736,  in-4°. 

Schurig,  Martin.  A  German  physician.  Received  'his  doctorate 
at  Erfurt  in  1688,  practiced  in  Dresden,  where  he  died  in  1733. 

Embryologia,  hoc  est  infantis  humani  consideratio:  partus 
prcematurus  et  serotinus;  partus  per  vias  insolitas;  partus  supposi- 
tus,  Dresden,  1732,  in-4°. 

Schwann,  Theodor.     A  German  anatomist,  1810-1882.     Student 
of  Johannes  Miiller  at  Bonn,  and  his  prosector  at  Berlin.    Professor  of 
anatomy  in  Louvain,  1839 ;  1840-1880,  professor  of  physiology  and  com- 
parative anatomy  in  Liittich.     He  shares  with  Schleiden  the  discovery 
and  demonstration  of  the  cellular  nature  of  tissues,  first  published  in  1839. 
Mikroskopische  Untersuchungen  ue'ber  die  Uebereinstimmung 
in  der  Struktur  und  dem  Wachstum  der  Tiere  und  Pflanzen,  Berlin, 
1839.     Reprinted  with  the  paper  of  Schleiden  by  the  Sydenham 
Society  in  1847. 

Sheath  of  =  neurilemma.  White  substance  of  =  medullary 

Schweigger-Seidel,  Franz.  A  German  histologist,  1834-1871.  He 
made  in  Halle,  many  important  discoveries  in  the  finer  structure  of  the 
kidneys  of  man  and  mammals.    He  published  his  results  in  1865. 

Seeley,  Harry  G.  An  English  paleontologist.  One  of  the  most 
voluminous  contributors  to  the  comparative  anatomy  and  paleontology  of 
the  vertebrates.  He  pubHshed  more  than  150  contributions  between  1859 
and  1905,  chiefly  on  the  paleontology  of  the  Permian  and  Triassic 
reptiles,  especially  of  Germany  and  South  Africa.  Many  of  his  con- 
tributions are  of  quarto  size  and  are  extensively  illustrated.    His  studies 


in  these  fields  brought  him  world-wide  fame  as  an  investigator.  His 
services  as  a  teacher  were  none  the  less  important.  He  was  for  many 
years  an  assistant  in  the  British  Museum  of  Natural  Hitory,  and  in  1876 
was  professor  of  geography  and  geology  in  Queen's  College,  London; 
later  dean  of  the  school.  In  1896  he  was  professor  of  geology  and 
mineralogy  at  King's  College.  He  is  the  author  of  a  popular  account  of 
the  pterodactyls:  Dragons  of  the  Air,  London,  1901,  in-8°.  His  Re- 
searches on  the  Structure,  Organization  and  Classification  of  the  Reptilia, 
in  ten  parts,  published  in^the  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London, 
1888-1896,  are  the  most  valuable  sourpes  of  information  on  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  early  Mesozoic  and  late  Paleozoic  reptiles,  especially  of  South 

Geological  Magazine,  Decade,  V,  vol.  IV,  No.  516,  June,  ipoi, 
with  portrait  and  bibliography. 

Seessel,  Albert.  An  American  embryologist,  1850-1910.  Born 
in  Memphis,  Tennessee.  Studied  in  Yale  University;  then  went  to 
Germany  where  he  was  assistant  to  Wilhelm  His,  1876-77.  In  New 
York  as  a  practicing  physician,  specializing  in  nervous  diseases.  His 
name  is  known  through  his  discovery  of  the  diverticulum,  known  as 
Seessel's  pocket,  in  the  buccophrayngeal  membrane. 

Zur  Entwickelungsgeschichte  der  Vorderdarms,  iSyj. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anseiger,  Bd.  j8,  p.  250,  ipii. 

Semper,  Karl.  A  German  zoologist,  1832-1893.  After  studying 
zoology  at  Wiirzburg  he  traveled  in  the  Philippines  making  zoological 
observations.  On  his  return  to  Wiirzburg  in  1869,  he  was  elected  pro- 
fessor of  zoology  and  comparative  anatomy.  In  1889  he  was  director 
of  the  zoological-anatomical  institute.  Between  1862  and  1895  there 
appeared  numerous  contributions  from  the  pen  of  Semper,  on  embryology, 
zoology  and  travel. 

Entwickhmgsgeschichte  der  Ampullaria,  .  .  .  Utrecht,  1862. 

Serres,  Antoine-l&tienne-Renaud-Augustin.     A  French   physician 
in  Paris,  1786-1868.     Author  of  the  centrifugal  theory  of  development 
which  he  used  to  explain  the  development  of  monsters. 
Angle  of  =  metafacial  angle.    Gingival  glands. 

Serveto,  Miguel  (Michael  Servetus)  (Servet).  A  physician, 
priest  and  polemic,  was  born  in  151 1  at  Tudela  in  Navarre;  received  his 
doctorate  at  the  University  of  Padua;  1536  he  practiced  medicine  in 
Paris,  later  in  Vienna.  He  became  involved  in  a  religious  controversy 
with  various  persons,  notably  Calvin ;  was  twice  condemned  to  death  and 


was  finally  burned  at  the  stake  on  the  27th  of  October,  1553.  In  the 
fifteenth  book  of  his  work  Serveto  says  that  the  blood  passes  through 
the  lungs  by  means  of  the  arteries  and  pulmonary  veins.  Calvin  ordered 
that  all  copies  of  the  writing  of  Servetus  be  destroyed.  But  a  few  copies 
have  escaped. 

Christianismi  restitutio,  Vienna,  1553,  in-8° . 
Biography:  Ency.  Brit.;  Bio.  Med.;  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital 
Bulletin,  vol.  21,  pp.  i-io,  by  Wm.  Osier.    Geschichte  d.  beruehmten 
Spanischen  Artztes  Michaels  Serveto,  by  J.  L.  v.  Moshelm,  Helnc- 
stddt,  1750. 

Severino,  Marco  Aurelio  (Marcus  Aurelius-Severinus).  An 
Italian  anatomist,  1580-1656.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  medicine  at 
Naples.     One  of  the  first  scientific  comparative  anatomists. 

Historia  anatomica,  observatioque  medica  eviscerati  hominis, 
Naples,  i62p,  in-/f .  Zootomia  democritea,  id  est  anatome  generalis 
totius  animantium  opificii,  libris  quinque  distincta,  Nuremberg, 
1645,  in- 4°. 

Sharpey,  William.  An  English  anatomist  and  physiologist,  1802- 
1880.  Teacher  of  physiology  at  University  College,  London.  Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Edinburgh;  1836-74  professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology 
as  successor  to  Jones  Quain. 

Elements  of  descriptive  and  practical  anatomy  for  the  use  of 
students,  London,  1828,  (with  Richard  Quain). 

Fibres  of  =  connective  tissue  fibres  by  which  the  periosteum  is 
attached  to  the  underlying  bone. 

Sibson,  Francis.    An  English  anatomist,  1814-1876. 

Aortic  vestibule.     Aponeurosis.     Groove.     Notch, 

Siebold,  Karl  Theodor  Ernst  von.  A  German  zoologist,  1804- 
1885.  Studied  in  Berlin  and  Gottingen  with  Rudolphi  and  Blumenbach. 
Professor  of  zoology,  comparative  anatomy,  veterinary  medicine  at 
Erlangen,  1840;  in  1845  at  Freiburg;  1850  at  Breslau,  and  in  1853  at 
Miinchen.  He  was  associated  with  Koelliker  in  founding  the  "  Zeitschrift 
fur  wissenschaftliche  Zoologie,"  184^. 

Lehrbuch  der  vergleichenden  Anatomie  der  wirbellosen  Tiere, 
Berlin,  1848. 

Wahre  Parthenogenesis  bei  Schmetterlingen  und  Bienen,  Leip- 
zig, 1861. 

Skene,  Alexander  Johnston  Chalmers.  An  American  gynecolo- 
gist, 1 838-1 900. 

Glands  10/  =  paraurethral  glands 


Soemmering,  Samuel  Thomas.  One  of  the  most  able  and  most 
energetic  anatomists  of  Germany,  was  born  at  Thorn,  January  25,  1755. 
He  is  known  as  one  of  the  founders  of  surgical  anatomy.  His  great 
work  was  later  revised  by  a  number  of  German  authors  and  became 
through  the  revision  one  of  the  most  accurate  and  elaborate  works  pub- 
lished on  the  subject  up  to  1844.  He  was  teacher  of  anatomy  and  surgery 
at  the  "  Carolinum "  in  Kassel ;  1784-97,  professor  of  anatomy  and 
physiology  in  Mainz;  1804-20  he  lived  in  Miinchen  and  later  in  Frank- 
furt-am-Main,  where  he  died  in  1830,  the  2nd  of  March. 

Vom  Bau  des  menschlichen  Koerpers,  Frankfurt,   ijgi-gd. 

Ueber  das  Organ  der  Seele,  Koenigsberg,  1796. 

Tabula  baseos  ence'phali,  Frankfurt,  IJ99,  in-fol. 

Fovea  centralis.  Substantia  nigra.  Gray  substance.  Liga- 
ment. Nerve.  Macula  lutea.  Musculus  curvator  coccygis;  —  hyo- 
adenoideus.  Opisthenar.  Papilice  conicw  linguw.  Portia  dura  et 
mollis  paris  septimi.    Sulcus  suprafrontalis. 

Biography:  See  Choulant,  pp.  iji-i^p. 

Soemmering,  Wilhelm.  A  German  physician,  1793-1871.  Son'of 
the  preceding. 

De  oculorum  hominis,  animaliumque  sectione  horizontali. 
Goettingen,  1818,  in  large  folio,  3  pi. 

Abbildungen  des  Karpfengehirns,  edited  by  Wm.  S. 

Soranus  of  Ephesus,  studied  medicine  at  Alexandria,  and  lived 
during  the  reigns  of  the  emperors  Trajan  and  Hadrian.  He  distinguished 
himself  by  his  researches  on  the  female  organs  of  generation.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  dissected  the  human  subject;  and  this  appears  to  be  one 
reason  why  his  descriptions  of  these  parts  are  more  copious  and  more 
accurate  than  those  of  Galen. 

Spallanzani,  Lazare.  A  noted  traveler,  teacher  and  writer  of 
Italy,  1729-1799.  In  1754  professor  of  logic,  metaphysics  and  Greek  at 
the  University  of  Reggio;  1760  at  Modena;  1768  professor  of  natural 
history  at  Pavia,  to  which  he  was  called  by  Maria  Theresa.  He  aug- 
mented the  museum  at  Pavia  greatly  by  the  results  of  numerous  journeys. 
He  pointed  out  experimentally  that  the  spermatozoa  are  essential  to  fertil- 
ization, and  he  made  numerous  physiological  observations  of  great  value. 

Dell'  azione  del  cuore  ne'  vasi  sanguini,  buove  osservazioni, 
Modena,  1768,  in-8°. 

Dissertazioni  di  fisica  animate  e  vegetabile,  Modena,  1780. 

Spieghel,  Andrien  Van  der  (Spigelius,  Spiege,  Spigel,  Spiegel). 
A  Belgian  anatomist,  1578-1625.    Born  at  Bruxelles.    Professor  of  anat- 


omy  and  surgery  at  Padua,  1605-25.    Studied  under  Casserio  and  Fabri- 
cius  ab  Aquapendente. 

De  humani  corporis  fabrica  libri  X,  Venice,  162^,  in  fol.  De 
Formato  foetu  liber,  Padua,  1626,  in-fol. 

Opera  quce  exstant  omnia,  Amsterdam,  1645,  3  vols,  in  folio. 
Linea  semilunaris.    Lobus  caudatus  (hepatis). 

Spitzka,  Edward  Charles.  An  American  physician  known  for  his 
contributions  to  neurology,  1852-1914.  Born  in  New  York  City  on 
November  loth  (1852).  He  began  the  study  of  medicine  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  City  of  New  York,  from  which  he  graduated  in  1873. 
After  obtaining  his  degree  he  studied  at  Leipzig  and  Vienna,  under  Bill- 
roth, Meynert,  Arlt  and  Schenk.  He  served  as  an  assistant  in  embryology 
at  the  University  of  Vienna  from  1874-75.  He  practiced  in  New  York 
City  and  was  prominent  in  scientific  circles,  being  editor  of  the  American 
Journal  of  Neurology  and  Psychiatry  (1881-4).  He  is  the  author  of 
numerous  papers  of  a  medical  and  neurological  nature,  devoting  many 
years  to  the  study  of  mammalian  brains. 

Bundle  of  =  from  oculomotor  nucleus.    Marginal  tract. 

Biography:  Journal  of  Nervous  and  Mental  Diseases,  vol.  41, 
no.  4,  1914. 

Spix,  Johannes  Baptist.    A  German  anatomist,  1781-1826. 

Geschichte  und  Beurtheilung  aller  Systeme  in  der  Zoologie, 
nach  ihrer  Entwickelung,  von  Aristoteles  his  auf  gegenwaertige 
Zeit.  Nuremberg,  181 1,  in-8°.  Cephalogenesis,  vive  capitis  ossei 
structura,  formatio  et  significatio  per  omnes  animalium  classes, 
familias,  genera  ac  actates,  digesta,  atque  tabulis  illustrata,  legesque 
simul  psychologicB,  cranioscopice  et  physiortomice  inde  derivatae. 
Munich,  1815,  in-fol.,  18  pi. 
Lingula  of  the  mandible. 

Spurzheim,  Johann  Caspar.  A  Prussian  phrenologist,  born  at 
Longwich  near  Treves,  Prussia,  December  31st,  1776;  and  died  in  Boston, 
U.  S.  A.,  on  November  loth,  1832.  He  was  associated  with  Gall  in  the 
promulgation  of  phrenology. 

Gall  and  Spurzheim-Recherches  sur  le  systeme  nerveux  en 
general  et  sur  celui  du  cerveau  en  particulier,  Paris,  i8cfp,  in-4° . 
Reissued  in  4  vols,  in  1810-20  with  atlas  containing  100  plates  in 
folio,  translated  into  German.  Spurzheim-Observations  sur  la 
folie,  ou  sur  les  derangements  des  fonctions  morales  et  intellec- 
tuelles  de  I'homme,  Paris,  1818. 

Stannius,  Hermann  Friedrich.  A  German  zoologist,  1808-1883. 
Student  of  Johannes  Mueller.  Professor  in  Rostock.  Known  for  his 
investigations  of  the  activity  of  the  atrium,  ventricle  and  sinus  of  the 
frog's  heart. 


Stensen  (Steno,  Stenon,  Stenone,  Stenonis,  Stenonius),  Niels 
(Nicolaus).  A  Danish  anatomist,  physician,  professor,  exhorter,  priest, 
1638-1686.  Lived  in  Florence,  Copenhagen,  Hanover,  Miinster,  Ham- 
burg. Student  of  Thomas  Bartholin,  1656  in  Copenhagen;  of  Blasius 
in  Amsterdam.  While  with  Blasius,  and  an  inmate  of  his  house,  Stensen 
discovered  the  ductus  parotideus  in  the  head  of  a  sheep. 

Observationes  anatomies,  quibus  varia  oris,  oculorum  et 
narium  vasa  describuntur,  novique  salivcB,  lacrymarum  et  muci 
fontes  deteguntur,  et  novum  Bilsii  de  lympce  motu  et  usu  com- 
mentum  examinatur  et  rejicitur,  Leyden,  1662,  in- 12°. 

Observationum  anatomicarum  de  musculis  et  glandulis  speci- 
men, cum  epistolis  de  anatomia  rajce  et  vitelli  in  intestino  pulli 
transitu,  Copenhagen,  1664,  in-4°.  De  solido  intra  solidum  natu- 
raliter  contento,  dissertationis  prodromus,  Florence,  i66g,  in-4°. 
The  first  anatomical  discussion  of  the  nature  of  fossil  sharks. 
Discours  sur  l' anatomic  du  cerveau,  Paris,  i66g,  in-i2°. 

Ductus  parotideus.  Foramen  incisivum.  Plexus.  Vence 

Biography:  Bio.  Med.;  Niels  Stensen,  by  W.  S.  Miller,  iw, 
Bull.  Johns  Hopkins  Hospital,  vol.  2§,  no.  2j6,  pp.  44-51,  with 
bibliography  and  portraits  of  Niels  Stensen,  Thomas  Bartholin  and 
Geradus  Blasius.  Plenkers-W.-^Der  Dane,  Niels  Stensen,  Frei- 
burg, 1884. 

Stephanus.     See  Estienne,  Charles. 

Stilling,  Benedict.  A  German  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1810-1879. 
A  surgeon  and  anatomist  in  Cassel  and  Vienna.  Known  for  his  researches 
on  the  brain  and  spinal  cord. 

Untersuchungen  ub.   d.   Textur  des  Riickenmarks,   Leipzig, 
1842.     Untersuchungen  ub.  d.  Bau  u.  d.  V errichtungen  des  Gehirns. 
Canalis  hyaloideus.   Cells  or  column  =  Clarks  column.  Fleece, 
Gelatinous  substance.     Nucleus.     Raphe.     Sinus  rhomboidalis. 

Stocquart,  Alfred.  A  Belgian  anatomist,  1855-1897.  Professor 
of  anatomy  in  Brussels.  He  published  numerous  contributions  on  the 
anomalies  of  the  blood  vessels,  muscles  and  nerves. 

Stohr,  Philipp.  A  German  anatomist,  1849-1911.  Born  in  Wiirz- 
burg.  Studied  with  KoUiker.  Assistant  to  J.  Budge  in  Greifswald  at 
the  anatomical  institute,  1874.  Prosector  in  comparative  anatomy,  his- 
tology and  embryology  at  Wiirzburg,  1877;  in  1882  prosector  in  human 
anatomy  at  the  newly  erected  anatomical  institute  in  Wiirzburg.  Prosector 
extraord.  of  topographic  anatomy  1884-1889;  professor  ord.  at  the  ana- 
tomical institute  in  Zurich;  1897  professor  of  anatomy  at  Wiirzburg  as 
successor  to  Kolliker.  Known  for  his  studies  in  histology  and  embryology. 
Lehrbuch  der  Histologie,  1887;  14th  aufl.  ipio.     Ueber  den 

Conus  arteriosus  der  Selachier,  Chimdren,  und  Ganoiden,  1876. 

Beitrdge  zur  mikroskopischen  Anatomie  des  menschlichen  Korpers. 


a).  Retina;  b).  Ueher  die  Glashaut  des  Haarbalges;  c).  Ueber  den 
feineren  Bau  der  respiratorischen  Nasenschleimhaut.  Wiirzhurg, 
1885.  A  Textbook  of  Histology,  arranged  upon  an  embryological 
basis,  \by  Frederick  T.  Lewis  and  Philip p  Stohr,  2nd  edition.  Phila- 
delphia, 1914,  in-8°. 

Biography:  Philipp  Stohr.  Anat.  Anz.,  Bd.  40,  pp.  551-556, 
with  bibliography,  1^12. 

Susruta.  An  East  Indian  surgeon,  wrote  a  medical  work  in  the 
6th  century  B.  C.  which  has  certain  passages  relating  to  human  osteology, 
as  his  works  have  been  interpreted  by  Charaka  in  his  Compendium. 

Swammerdam,  Jan.  A  Dutch  naturalist  and  anatomist,  born  in 
Amsterdam,  1637-1680.  He  discussed  the  value  of  the  lymphatics,  was 
the  first  to  perfect  the  method  on  injecting  blood  vessels,  which  he  did 
especially  well  in  the  blood  vessels  of  the  uterus.  His  student  Ruysch 
carried  the  method  to  a  great  degree  of  perfection.  He  was  especially 
interested  in  the  anatomy  of  insects. 

Biblia  natures,  sive  historia  insectorum  in  certas  classes  redacta, 
nee  non  exemplis  et  anatomico  variorum  animalculorum  examine 
aeneisque  tabulis  illustrata,  Leipzig,  1752,  in  fol.  Edited  by 

Swedenborg  (Svedberg),  Emanuel.  A  Swedish  philosopher,  1688- 
1772.  Studied  in  the  University  of  Upsala,  in  London,  in  Holland,  and 
later  elsewhere,  when  he  devoted  some  time  to  the  problem  of  discovering 
the  nature  of  the  soul  and  spirit  by  means  of  anatomical  studies.  He 
was  well  acquainted  with  the  anatomical  literature  of  his  day,  and  sought 
the  assistance  of  the  best  teachers  of  his  time.  His  inquiries  resulted 
in  the  production  of  one  of  the  most  remarkable  anatomicahtreatises  of 
his  century.  His  anatomical  studies  seemed  to  have  led  up  to  his  theolog- 
ical interests,  to  which  he  devoted  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

CEconomia  Regni  Animalis,  Be  Fihri,  de  Tunica  Arachnoidea,  . 
et  de  Morbis  Fibrarum  agit;  anatomice,  physice,  et  philosophice 
perlustrata,  London,  1/40-1/41.  Republished  later  (1744-1745)  in 
two  volumes,  and  in  1847  a  third  volume  was  published  by  J.  J.  G. 
Wilkinson,  in  London.  In  this  work  he  anticipated  the  "  theory 
of  epigenesis,"  later  announced  by  Wolff  (1759) ;  made  many  new 
and  important  observations  on  the  brain,  which  were  in  advance 
of  the  statements  of  Willis,  Boerhaave,  Descartes  and  Vieussens. 
He  later  published  his  observations  on  the  brain  in  a  separate  work, 
"  De  Cerebro,"  which  was  later  translated  in  1882-188/,  into  Eng- 
lish 'by  Doctor  Rudolf  L.  Tafel,  and  published  in  two  volumes  with 
the  title:  "  The  Brain  considered  anatomically,  physiologically,  and 
philosophically,"  8°.  L  The  Cerebrum  and  its  Parts.  11.  The 
Pituitary  Gland,  the  Cerebellum  and  the  Medulla  oblongata.  He 
is  aiso  the  author  of:  De  Anima  agit.    De  Periostea  et  de  Mam- 


mis;  De  Generatione;  De  Partibus  Genitalibus  utriusque  Sexus,  et 
de  Formatione  Fostus  in  Utero  agit. 

Biography:  Emanuel  Swedenhorg's  Investigations  in  Natural 
Science  and  the  Basis  for  his  Statements  concerning  the  Functions 
of  the  Brain,  by  Martin  Ramstrom,  University  of  Upsala,  ipio. 
Emanuel  Swedenborg,  His  Life,  Teachings  and  Influence,  by 
George  Trobridge,  London. 

Syenesis  of  Cyprus  was,  according  to  Aristotle  (Hist.  Ill,  2,  21), 
the  first  to  discover  the  large  blood  vessels. 

Sylvius.    See  Boe. 

Sylvius,  Jacobus.    See  Dubois,  Jacques. 

Tarin,  Pierre.  A  French  physician  and  encyclopedist  in  Paris, 
1725-1761.  He  wrote  an  excellent  history  of  anatomy.  His  writings 
deal  chiefly  with  anatomy  and  physiology. 

Anfhropotomie,  ou  I' Art  de  dissequer,  Paris,  1750.  Diction- 
aire  anatomique,  suivi  d'une  bibliotheque  anatomique  et  physiolo- 
gique,  Paris,  1753,  in-if .  Osteographie,  ou  Description  des  os, 
Paris,  1753.    Myographie,  ou  Description  des  muscles,  Paris,  1753. 

Fascia  dentata.  Hiatus  Fallopii.  Fossa  interpeduncularis. 
Substantia  perforata  posterior.  Stria  terminalis.  Velum  medul- 
lare  posterius. 

Teichmann,  Ludwig.  A  German  histologist,  1 825-1 895.  Pro- 
sector in  Goettingen,  professor  of  anatomy  in  Krakau,  1868. 

Das  Saugader system  vom  anat.    Standpunkte,  Leipzig,  1861. 
Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  11,  p.  423. 

Teichmeyer,  Germain  Frederic.  A  German  physician.  In  1717 
professor  of  experimental  physics;  later  professor  of  anatomy,  botany 
and  surgery  at  Jena  until  1746. 

Elementa  anthropologice,  seu  theories  corporis  humani,  Jena, 
17 18,  in-4°. 

Tenon,  Jacques-Rene.  A  French  surgeon  and  oculist  in  Paris, 
1724-1816.  First  military  surgeon  in  1744,  and  loiter  chief  surgeon  at 
Salpetriere.  He  is  the  author  of  numerous  surgical  and  anatomical 

Memoires  sur  I'anatomie,  la  pathologie  et  la  chirurgie,  Paris, 
1806,  in-8°. 

Capsule.     Fascia  hulbi.     Spatium  interfasciale. 


Terraneus,  Laurent.  A  physician  in  Turin,  1688-1714.  To  him 
it  attributed  the  discovery  of  the  glands  of  Cowper. 

De  glandulis  universim  et  speciatim  ad  urethram  virilem  novis,, 
Turin,  i^op,  in-8°. 

Thebesius,  Adam  Christian.  Born  at  Hirschberg  in  Silesia,  1686- 
1732.  Described  the  blood  vessels  of  the  heart,  and  made  numerous  ob- 
servations in  pathological  anatomy. 

Dissertatio  de  sanguinis  circulo  in  corde,  Leyden,  1/08,  in-S°. 
Foramina  venarum  minimarum  (Thehesii) .    Valvula  Thebesii. 

Theile,  Freidrich  Wilhelm.  A  German  anatomist,  1801-1879. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Bern,  1834-54. 

Lehre  von  den  Muskeln,  1841.  De  musculis  rotatoribus  dorsi, 
Bernce,  1838. 

Canal  of  ^^  above  the  pericardium.  Glands  of  =  in  cystic 
ducts  and  in  pelvis  of  gall  bladder.  M.  depressor  vesicce  urinarice; 
intertransversarius ;  —  protractor  ani.  V.  major  cerebri.  Vv. 
intefossece  communes  antibrachii. 

Thoma,  Richard.  A  German  pathologist  and  histologist, 
1847-  .  Inventor  of  a  microtome.  Studied  in  Heidelberg  with 
Julius  Arnold  and  Helmholtz.  Became  professor  e.  o.  of  pathology  at 
Heidelberg  and  in  1884  professor  ord.  of  general  pathology  and  patho- 
logical anatomy  at  Dorpat.     Since  1894  in  Magdeburg. 

Ampulla  of  =  terminal  expansion  of  interlobular  artery  in 
splenic  pulp. 

Thomson,  Allen.  A  Scotch  anatomist  and  embryologist,  1809- 
1882.  Son  of  the  surgeon,  John  Thomson.  Studied  in  Edinburgh,  where 
from  1831-1836  he  studied  anatomy  and  physiology  with  Sharpey.  In 
1839  he  became  professor  of  anatomy  at  Marishal  College  and  at  the 
University  of  Aberdeen;  in  1841  teacher  of  anatomy  at  the  extra-mural 
school  in  Edinburgh;  1 848-1 877  professor  of  anatomy  at  the  University 
of  Glasgow. 

Contribution  to  the  history  of  the  structure  of  the  human 
ovum  and  embryo  before  the  third  week  after  conception.  Descrip- 
tion of  some  early  ova.     iS^g. 

Fascia  vf  =  above  the  symphysis  pubis. 

Tiedemann,  Frederick.  A  German  zoologist  and  embryologist, 
1781-1861.  A  student  of  Siebold;  professor  of  zoology,  human  and  com- 
parative  anatomy  in   Landshut,    1805;   in   Heidelberg  also   physiology, 


1816-49.    Was  the  first  to  show  that  the  neural  axis  is  composed  of  two 

Anatomie  und  Bildungsgeschichte  des  Gehirns  im  Fcetus  des 
Menschen,  nebst  einer  vergleichenden  Darstellung  des  Hirnbaues 
in  den  Thieren,  Nuremberg,  1816,  in-4°.  Zoologie,  Heidelberg, 
1808-1814,  in-8°,  J  vols.  Anatomie  des  Fischherzens,  Heidelberg, 
18 op,  in-4°. 

Glandula  vestibularis  major.  Vesicle.  Nerve  of  =  in  central 
artery  of  retina. 

Todd,  Robert  Bentley.  An  English  physician,  1809-1860.  Pro- 
fessor of  physiology  and  of  general  and  morbid  anatomy  in  King's  Col- 
lege, London ;  physician  to  the  Western  Dispensary,  Fellow  of  the  Royal 
College  of  Physician  and  Surgeons.  He,  with  William  Bowman,  pub- 
lished a:  "Physiological  Anatomy  and  Physiology  of  Man,  Philadel- 
phia, 1857,  in-8°."  Todd  is  the  editor  of  the  well-known  "  The  Cyclo- 
pedia of  Anatomy  and  Physiology,  1836-1859  in  5  vols.    London,  in-S"." 

Tomes,  Sir  John  A.    An  English  dentist,  1815-1895. 

Dental  Anatomy,  ^th  ed.,  1910,  edited  and  revised  by  his  son 

Fibrils  of  =  processes  from  the  odontoblasts.  Granular  layer 
to/  =:  outer  less  dense  layer  of  dentine.  Process  of  =  fibrillar 
process  around  an  enamel  cell. 

Topinard,  Paul.    A  French  anthropologist,  1830-1912. 

L'Anthropologie,  1876.  Elements  d'Anthropologie  generale, 

Ophryspinal  angle.  Line  of  =  between  glabella  and  mental 

Torre,  Marcus  Antonius  della.    See  Marcantonio. 

Toynbee,  Joseph.    An  English  otologist,  1815-1866. 
Corneal  corpuscles.    M.  tensor  tympani. 

Traube,  Ludwig.  A  German  physician  of  Ratibon  in  Silesia, 
1818-1876.    The  author  of  numerous  works  on  experimental  pathology. 

"  Beitraege,"  Berlin,  1871-1878. 
Space  of  =  on  chest. 

Treitz,  Wenzel.    An  Austrian  physician,  1819-1872. 

Arch  of  =  in  left  superior  colic  artery.     Recessus  duodeno- 
jejunalis.     Retroperitoneal  hernia.     Musculus  suspensorius  duo- 
'eni.    Fossa  subccscalis. 


Trembley,  Abraham.  A  French  naturalist,  1700-17S4,  who  is 
known  for  his  studies  on  regeneration  in  fresh  water  Hydra. 

Treviranus,  'Gottfried  Reinhold.  A  physician  and  teacher  of 
Breme,  where  he  was  born,  1776-1837.  Known  for  his  philosophical 
writings  in  biology. 

Biologie,  oder  Philosophie  der  lebenden  Natur  fuer  Natur- 
forscher  und  Mrzte,  Gottingen,  1802-182 1,  in  6  vols.,  in  8°. 

Troeltsch,  Anton  Friedrich.    A  German  otologist,  1829-1890. 

Corpuscles  of  =  spaces  in  tympanum.  Pockets  or  recesses 
of  =  folds  in  tympanum.    Recessus  membrani  tympani. 

Tuerck,  Ludwig.    An  Austrian  neurologist,  1810-78. 

Tractus  temporopontilis.  Plasma  cell.  Fasciculus  cerebro- 
spinalis  anterior. 

Tyrrell,  Frederick.    An  English  physician,  1797-1843. 
Fascia  of  =■  Denonvillier's  aponeurosis. 

Tyson,  Edward.  An  English  anatomist,  born  at  Summerset, 
1649-1708.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons, 
London.    Noted  for  his  anthropological  studies. 

Orang-Outang,  sive  Homo  sylvestris;  or  the  Anatomy  of  a 
Pygmie  compared  with  that  of  a  Monkey,  an  ape  and  a  man,\ 
London,  1699,  in  8°. 

Glandules  odoriferce. 

See  Huxley,  "Man's  Place  in  Nature,"  for  a  discussion  of 
Tyson's  work. 

Ursinus  (Beer),  Leonard.  A  German  physician,  1618-1664.  Pro- 
fessor of  botany  at  Leipzig,  1652,  then  physiology  in  1656.  He  is  the 
author  of: 

De  corporis  humani  pr^oportione,  Leipzig,  1643,  in  4° . 

Valentin,  Gabriel  Gustav.  A  German  physiologist,  1828-1883. 
Born  at  Breslau,  where  he  studied  under  Purkinje,  1828-32.  In  1836 
he  was  professor  of  physiology  at  Bern,  and  worked  here  for  forty-five 
years.  For  a  few  years  he  taught  anatomy.  Edited  from  1836-43  the 
"  Repertorium  f  iir  Anatomie  und  Physiologic." 

Handbuch  der  Entwicklungsgeschichte  des  Menschen  mit 
vergleich.  RUcksicht  der  Entwicklung  der  Saugethiere  und  Vogel. 
Berlin  and  Paris,  1835. 

Valentini  (Velentin),  Michael  Bernard.  A  German  anatomist, 
born  at  Giessen,  1657-1729.    Professor  of  physics  at  the  University  of 


Giessen ;  1696  professor  of  medicine,  which  he  held  till  his  death  in  1729. 
He  is  the  author  of  numerous  dissertations  relating  to  medicine. 

Amphitheatrum  zootomicum,  Frankfurt,  1720,  in  fol. 
Corpuscles.     Ganglion.     Membrane  of  =  Schwann's  sheath. 

Valette  St.  George,  Adolf  Freiherr  von  la.  A  German  anatomist, 
1831-1911.  For  50  years  a  teacher  in  the  University  of  Bonn.  From 
1875-1907  as  successor  to  Max  Schultze  he  was  director  of  the  ana- 
tomical institute  at  Bonn,  first  associated  with  Leydig  (to  1887)  and 
then  alone.  In  1865  Max  Schultze  had  founded  the  Archiv  fUr. 
mikroskopische  Anatomie,  which  he  edited  up  to  1874,  when  La  Valette 
St.  George  assumed  the  editorship,  which  he  held  alone  for  many  years, 
but  was  later  associated  with  Waldeyer  and  O.  Hertwig,  who  are  now 
(since  1907)  the  editors  of  the  journal. 

Die  Spermatogenese  hei  den  Saugetieren  und  dem  Menschen. 
Bonn,  1898. 

biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  38,  p.  2p,  ipii. 

Vallisnieri  (Vallisnerius),  Antonio.  An  Italian  physician  and 
zoologist,  1661-1730.  Studied  at  Scandiano,  Modena,  Reggio  and  in 
Bologna,  where  he  heard  the  lectures  of  Malpighi.  Professor  of  medicine 
in  Padua,  1700-1711.  Body  physician  to  the  Pope  at  Rome  as  well  as 
professor  of  medicine  in  Turin. 

Istoria  della  generasione  dell  'uomo,  degli  animali,  se  sia  d^ 
vermicelli  spermatid,  o  della  uova,  con  un  trattato,  nel  fine,  della 
sterilitd  e  dei  suoi  remedi,  Venice,  1721. 

Valsalva,  Antonio  Maria.  An  Italian  anatomist  born  at  Imola, 
1666-1723.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Bologna,  1707 
(1697).  A  student  of  Malpighi.  In  editing  the  works  of  Morgagni  he 
verified  the  anatomical  statements  on  the  cadaver,  and  verified  the 
citations  from  the  literature.  He  has  written  one  of  the  most  complete 
memoirs  on  the  ear  which  has  ever  appeared. 

De  aure  humana  tractatus,  in  quo  integra  ejusdem  auris  fabrica 
■multis  novis  inventis  et  iconismis  illustrata  describitur,  Bologna, 
1704,  in- 4°. 

Ligamentum  auricularia.  Sinus  aortce.  Antrum  mastoideum. 
Lamina  basilaris.    Taenice.    Zona. 

Valverde  de  Hamusco.    See  Amusco. 

Van  Gehuchten,  Albert.    See  Gehuchten,  Albert  van. 

Van  Hoorne.    See  Hoorne. 


Varolius  (Varoli)  (Varolio),  Costanzio  (Constantio,  Conetaazo). 
An  Italian  anatomist  born  at  Bologna,  1543-1575.  Professor  of  anatomy 
and  surgery  at  Bologna;  professor  in  Rome,  and  physician  to  Pope 
Gregory  XIII.    Known  for  his  work  on  the  brain  and  nerves. 

De  nervis  opticis  nonnullisque  aliis  prceter  communem  opin- 
'onem  in  humano  capite  observatis  epistola.     Padua,  1573,  in-8°. 
Pons  vafolii.     Valvula  coli. 

Vater,  Abraham.  A  German  anatom-ist  and  botanist,  1684-1751. 
Professor  of  anatomy  in  Wittenberg,  1719-37;  1737-46  professor  of 
pathology;  1746-51  professor  of  therapeutics.  He  has  published  a  great 
number  of  contributions  to  anatomy  and  botany  among  which  may  be 
mentioned : 

Dissertatio  de  ceconomia  sensuum  ex  speciali  organorum  sen- 
soriorum  et  sigillatim  ex  papillarum  nervearum  textura  mechanica 
demonstrafa,  Wittenberg,  17 17,  in-4°. 

Papilla  duodeni.  Corpusculum  lamellosum.  Fold  of  =  in 
mucous  membrane  just  above  V.'s  papilla. 

Verduc,  Jean,  Philippe.  A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  in  the  17th 

Nouvelle  osteologie,  avec  le  squelette  du  foetus,  Paris,  i6po, 

Verga,  Andrea.  An  Italian  psychiatrist  and  anatomist,  181 1-1895. 
Clinical  professor  of  psychiatry  at  Milan. 

Lachrymal  gr'oove.     Ventricle  of  =  space  below  the  psalterium. 

Verheyen,  Philippe.  A  Flemish  anatomist,  1648-1710.  He  was 
born  at  Verbrouck.  Professor  of  anatomy  at  the  University  of  Louvain, 
1689;  of  surgery  in  1693.  He  occupies  a  distinguished  place  in  the 
history  of  anatomy,  and  has  been  called  the  Vesalius  of  Belgium. 

Anatomia  corporis  humani,  Louvain,  idpj,  in-4° . 
Vence  stellatce. 

Verneuil,  Aristide-Auguste.     A  French  surgeon  in  Paris,  1823- 


Collateral  veins.    Neuroma. 

Vesalius,  Andreas  (Vesal,  Andre)  (Wesele,  Vesele).  The  great 
Flemish  anatomist,  founder  of  modern  human  descriptive  anatomy,  was 
born  in  Bruxelles,  1514-1564.  He  was  the  first  author  of  a  compre- 
hensive and  systematic  view  of  human  anatomy.  He  was  descended 
from  a  fam'ily  of  learned  physicians.    His  grandfather,  Everard  Vesalius, 


was  a  scholar  and  a  classic  physician,  known  for  his  translations  of  parts 
of  Hippocrates,  Galen  and  Rhazes.  The  father  of  Andreas  was 
apothecary  to  Margaret  of  Austria.  Vesalius  studied  classics  at  the 
University  of  Louvain,  and  began  the  study  (in  Paris)  of  anatomy  with 
Dubois  and  Giinther  von  Andernach  at  the  age  of  14.  In  1536  he  went 
to  Venice  where  he  studied  human  anatomy  with  the  utmost  zeal,  and 
before  he  was  22  years  of  age  he  was  called  to  Padua  to  give  public 
demonstrations  in  anatomy;  after  seven  years  he  was  called  to  Bologna 
and  from  there  to  Pisa.  His  large  work  in  anatomy  was  heralded  by 
the  appearance,  in  1538,  of  the  Tabula  Anatomica,  composed  of  six 
plates,  and  his  large  De  humani  corporis  fabrica,  appeared  in  1542  (3), 
printed  at  Basle  by  John  Oporinus.  The  plates  which  illustrate  this 
splendid  work  were  drawn,  and  possibly  engraved,  by  John  Stephan  de 
Calcar,  a  student  of  Titian.  In  1554  he  was  called  to  the  court  of  Spain 
by  Charles  V,  where  he  resided  for  some  years,  busy  with  his  work  as 
"  Archiatrus,"  and  in  answering  the  criticisms  brought  against  him  as  a 
plagiarist;  it  being  stated  that  he  had  derived  his  work  from  Galen, 
Eustachius,  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  others.  It  is,  however,  well  known 
that  Vesalius  was  a  diligent  dissector  and  it  is  very  certain  that  the 
dissections  shown  in  his  great  work  are  his  own.  He  died  in  a  ship- 
wreck on  the  15th  of  October,  1564,  on  one  of  the  Ionian  islands,  where 
a  friendly  goldsmith  of  Venice,  recognizing  the  body  of  Vesalius,  gave 
him  a  modest  burial. 

Andrew  Vesalii  de  corporis  humani  fabrica  librorum  epitome, 
Basel,  1542,  in-fol.  De  humani  corporis  fabrica  libri  septum, 
Basel,  1543,  in-fol.  max.  Anatomicarum  Gabrielis  Fallopii  obser- 
vationum  e.ramen,  Madrid,  1561. 

Fibrocartilago  interarticularis.  Foramen  Vesalii.  Fundus 
vesicce  urinariae.  Glandules  Vesalii.  Musculus  aniscalptor.  M. 
sedem  attolens.  Ossa  Vesalii.  Processus  vermiformis  cerebelli. 
Sinus  corpus  callosi. 

Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  Msculapius,  vol.  i, 
pp.  ^6-p4,  with  portrait.  Roth-  Andreas  Vesalius  Bruxellensis, 
the  edition  of  iSgs,  the  standard  source  of  knowledge  of  Vesalius 
and  his  times,  contains  bibliography,  references  to  his  different 
portraits,  the  resurrection  bone,  etc. 

Vesling,  Johann.  An  Italian  anatomist,  1598-1649.  In  1632  pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  at  Padua,  soon  afterwards  director  of  the  botanical 
gardens.  He  is  said  to  have  observed  the  development  of  the  external 
organs  of  the  human  foetus. 

Syntagma  anatomicum,  publicis  dissectionibus  in  auditorum 
usum  aptatum,  Padua,  1641,  in-8° . 
Linea  media  scroti. 


Vicary,  Thomas.    An  English  physician,  i49o(i500?)-i562.     He 
wrote  one  of  the  first  English  anatomical  textbooks. 
The  Anatomic  of  the  bodie  of  men,  1548. 

Vicq  d'Azyr,  Felix.  A  Parisian  anatomist,  1748-1794.  The  most 
brilliant  predecessor  to  Cuvier.  He  was  secretary  to  the  Academy  of 
Medecine  in  Paris,  consulting  physician  to  the  queen,  and  successor  to 
Buffon  in  the  French  Academy,  1788.  He  studied  especially  the  struc- 
ture of  birds.  Huxley  said  of  him :  "  He  may  be  considered  as  the 
founder  of  the  modern  science  of  anatomy." 

Systeme  anatomique  de  I'Encyclopedie  methodique,  Paris, 
I7p2-i8^2,  4  vols.,  in-4°,  with  atlas.  Oeuvres  de  Vicq  d'Azyr, 
Paris,  1805,  6  vol.  in-8°. 

Fasciculus  thalamomamillaris.  Centrum  ovale.  Centrum 
semiovale.  Foramen  coscum.  Line.  Corpus  nigrum.  Foramen 
Vicq  d'Azyri. 

Vidus  Vidius.    See  Guido  Guidi. 

Vieussens,  Raymond  de.  A  French  anatomist,  1641-1716.  Physi- 
cian in  Montpellier  and  in  Paris.  He  was  noted  for  his  constant  applica- 
tion to  the  study  of  anatomy  and  in  1685  he  was  admitted  to  the  Academy 
of  Science  as  anatomist. 

Traite  de  la  structure  du  coeur,  Toulouse,  1715.  Neurologia 
universalis,  hoc  est,  omnium,  humani  corporis  nervorum  simul  ac 
cerebri,  medullaeque  spinalis  descriptio  anatomica,  Lyon,  i68§, 
in-fol.  Novum  vasorum  corporis  humani  systema,  Amsterdam, 
1705,  in-8°. 

Nouvelles  decouvertes  sur  le  coeur.     Toulouse,  1706. 
Limhus    fossae     ovalis.    Ansa    subclavia.     Centrum    ovale. 
Foramina    venarum     minimarum.    Plexus    cfoeliacus.    Annulus. 
Velum  medullare  anterius.     Valvula.     Innominate  cardiac  veins. 
Ventriculus  septi  pellucidi. 

Vinci,  Leonardo  da.    See  Leonardo  da  Vinci. 

Virchow,  Rudolf  Ludwig  Karl.  A  German  pathologist  and 
anthropologist,  1821-1902.  Student  and  admirer  of  Johannes  Mueller. 
Assistant  in  anatomy  to  Robert  Froriep,  whom  he  succeeded  in  1846. 
In  1847  he  founded  the  "  Archiv  fiir  pathologic  Anatomic  und  Physiologic 
und  fUr  klinische  Medizin,"  which  in  1903  had  attained  to  the  170th 

Cellular  Pathology  (trans.),  i860,  London.  Uber  die 
Entwicklung  des  Schadelgrundes,  Berlin,  1857. 

Cellulce.  Corpuscula  Hassal-Virchowi.  Glandula  Virchowi. 
Lig  amentum  navitrapezium  lat.  Norma  temporalis.  Os  e  pact  ale 
proprium.     Pia  mater  Virchowi.     Processus  lemurians.     Spatium 


Virchowi.    Substantia  intermedia.    Sulcus  popliteus.    Tuberositas 

Biography:  Rudolph  Virchow,  Smithsonian  Rept.,  igo2,  pp. 
641-659.     (Deutsche-Rundschau,  December,  ipo2.) 

Vogt,  Karl.     A  German  biologist,  born  in  Giessen,  1817-1895. 

Embryologie  des  Salmones.  Hist.  Nat.  des  poissons  d'eaUf 
douce  d'Europe  centrale,  Neuchatel,  1842.  Untersuchungen  uber 
die  Entwickelungsgeschichte  des  Gehurtshelferkrdte  (Alytes  ob- 
stetricans),  Solothurn,  1842. 

Voigt,    Christian   August.     An   Austrian   anatomist,    1809-1890. 

Volkmann,  Alfred  Wilhelm.  A  German  physiologist,  1800-1877. 
Professor  in  Leipzig,  Dorpat  and  Halle,  known  for  his  researches  on  the 
nervous  system,  the  physiology  of  the  eye,  and  the  movement  of  the 

"  Die  Selbstdndigkeit  des  sympathischen  Nervensystems  durch 
anatomische  Untersuchungen  nachgewiesen,  Leipzig,  1842. 
Candles  Volkmanni. 

Von  Kupffer,  Karl  Wilhelm.     See  Kupffer,  Karl  Wilhelm  von. 

Wagener,  Guido.  A  German  zoologist  in  Marburg,  1822-1896. 
Known  for  his  studies  of  intestinal  parasites  and  the  minute  structure  of 
muscle  fibres. 

Wagner,  Rudolf.  German  physiologist  and  zoologist,  1805-1864. 
Born  in  Beyreuth,  studied  in  Erlangen,  Wiirzburg  and  in  1827  with 
Cuvier.  In  1833  ord.  professor  of  zoology  at  Erlangen;  in  1840  pro- 
fessor of  physiology,  comparative  anatomy  and  zoology  in  Gottingen,  as 
successor  to  Blumenbach. 

Zur  vergleichenden  Physiologie  des  Blutes,  Leipzig,  1833, 
in-8°.  Lehrbuch  der  vergleichenden  Anatomic.  Leipzig,  1834, 
in-8°.  Handatlas  der  vergl.  Anatomic,  1841.  Partium  ele- 
mentorum  organorum,  quos  sunt  in  homine  atque  animalibus 
mensiones  micrometricce,  Leipzig,  1834,  in-4°. 

Corpuscula  Wagneri.    Gyrus  parietalis  inf.    Subcuneus. 

Walter  (The  Elder),  Johann  Gottlieb.  Born  in  Koenigsberg, 
i734(9)-i8i8.  Student  of  Chr.  Th.  Biittner,  and  J.  F.  Meckel.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  in  Medico-surgical  college,  Berlin.  In  1802  he  sold 
to  the  King  of  Prussia  his  collection  of  anatomical  specimens  numbering- 
2868.    It  is  said  that  he  dissected  more  than  800  cadavers. 

Von  den  Blutadern  des  Auges.  Epist.  anat.  de  venis  oculi, 
Berlin,  1778. 


Biography:  Funfzigjdhriger  Jubeltag  des  Joh.  Gottl. 
Walter,  Berlin,  1810,  8°. 

Walther,  August  Friedrich.  German  anatomist,  1688-1746.  Pro- 
fessor of  anatomy  in  Leipzig. 

Anatome  musculorum  teneriorum,  Lipsiw,  1731.  Observa- 
tiones  novce  de  musculis,  Lipsiw,  I/33.  De  vena  portae  exerciia- 
tiones  anatomicce,  Lipsice,  173^-1^40. 

Ductus  suhligualis  minor.  Ganglion  coccygeum.  Plexus 
cavernosus.    Ligamentum. 

Warren,  John.  An  American  surgeon  and  anatomist,  1753-1815. 
Born  at  Roxbury,  Massachusetts.  First  professor  of  anatomy  and  sur- 
gery at  the  Harvard  Medical  School,  1783-1815. 

Warren,  John  Collins.  An  American  anatomist  and  surgeon, 
1778-1856.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery,  Harvard  Medical  School, 
1815-        ,  as  successor  to  his  father,  John  Warren. 

Cases  of  Organic  Diseases  of  the  Heart,  1809.  Description  of 
an  Egyptian  Mummy,  1821.  Description  of  the  Siamese  Twins, 
1829.  A  Comparative  View  of  the  sensorial  and  nervous  system 
in  man  and  animals,  1822.  The  Mastodon  giganteus  of  Northi 
America,  1852.  , 

Biography:  The  Life  of  John  Collins  Warren,  M.  D.,  compiled 
chiefly  from  his  Autobiography  and  Journals,  by  Edward  Warren, 
M.  D.,  Boston,  i860,  2  vols. 

Weber,  Eduard  Friedrich.  German  physiologist,  1806-1871. 
Author,  with  Wilhelm  Eduard  Weber,  of :  "  Mechanik  der  menschlichen 
Gewerkzeuge,  1836." 

Weber,  Ernst  Heinrich.  German  anatomist  and  physiologist, 
1795-1878.  Professor  of  anatomy  and  physiology  at  Leipzig,  1821-66. 
Professor  of  anatomy  at  Leipzig,  1866-71,  succeeded  by  Wilhelm  His. 
Professor  in  Wittenberg  and  Halle,  professor  of  comparative  anatomy. 
Known  for  his  physiological  and  anatomical  investigations. 

Handbuches  der  Anatomie.  Anatomia  comparata  nervi  sym- 
pathici,  Leipzig,  1817.  De  aure  et  auditu  hominis  et  animalium, 
Leipzig)  1820,  in-4°,  10  plates. 

Ligamentum  calcaneo-cuboideum  infimum,  med.  et  summum; 

—  cdlcaneo-metatarseum;  —  cartilagineum  calc.  navic;  — dorsale 
talonaviculare ;  —  ossis  metatarsi  quinti;  —  proprium  dorsale  meta^ 
carpi  et  tarsi;  — superius  Weberi;  —  transversum  genu  commune; 

—  volare  rectum  oss.  pisiformis.  Massa  ligamentosa.  ,  Musculus 
sphincter  ans.  int.  Organon  Weberi.  Tuberculum  humeri.  Zona 


Weber,  Moritz  Ignatz.  German  anatomist,  1795-1875.  Prosector 
in  Bonn;  1825  professor  of  anatomy;  1830  professor  of  comparative  and 
pathological  anatomy. 

Anat.  Atlas  d.  Menschl.  Korpers  in  nat.  Gr.  Dusseldorf,  1830- 
i8^S-  Handbuch  der  Anatomic,  Leipzig,  1845.  Elemente  der 
allg.  u.  spez.  Anatomie,  Bonn,  1826-1832.  Die  Lehre  ,von  der 
Ur-  und  Rasseformen  der  Schddel  und  Becken,  DUsseldorf,  i8jO. 

Arteria  auditiva  ext.  Fossa  mylohyoidea.  Ligamentum  an- 
nulare inf.  et  post.;  — cuhitolunare ;  — profundum  carpi;  — so- 
crococcygeum  post.  Plexus  plantaris  prof.  Processus  tympani. 
Rete  venosum  mirabile.  Sinus  sigmoideus  (transversus) ;  —  ten- 
torii.     Sutura   longit.   imperfecta.     Venm  ascendentes    (Weberi); 

—  cutanea   frontis    magna;  —  cutanea    communis   facialis    ant.; 

—  facialis    cutanea    magna;    — majores    cerebrales    et    cerebri; 

—  recta.     Zona  orbicularis. 

Weber,  Wilhelm  Eduard.  A  German  physicist,  1804-91.  Pro- 
fessor of  physics  at  Gottingen,  1831-91.  With  Eduard  Friedrich  Weber, 
the  author  of  "  Mechanik  der  menschlichen  Gewerksseuge,''  i8j6. 

Weismann,  August  Friedrich  Leopold.  A  German  zoologist  and 
philosopher,  was  born  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  January  17,  1834,  and 
died  at  Freiburg  in  Breisgau,  November  6,  1914.  At  the  University  of 
Goettingen  he  studied  chemistry  and  medicine,  coming  especially  under 
the  instruction  of  the  distinguished  anatomist  Henle,  and  received  there 
his  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1856.  Began  the  practice  of  medicine  at  Frank- 
fort, and  became  private  physician  to  Archduke  Stephan  of  Austria  at 
Schamburg  Palace.  He  studied  zoology  at  Giessen  under  Leuckart,  and 
became  privat  docent  in  zoology  at  the  University  of  Freiburg  in  1863, 
where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  Weismann  will  be  remembered 
chiefly  for  his  theories  of  heredity.  His  earliest  writings  on  this  subject 
date  from  the  year  1883. 

The  Germ-Plasm,  A  Theory  qf  Heredity,  translated  by 
W.  Newton  Parker,  New  York,  i8pj,  in-8°.  Vortraege  ueber 
Descendenztheorie,  igo2. 

Biography:  August  Weismann,  a  biographical  and  critical 
sketch  by  Edwin  G.  Conklin,  Science,  N.  S.,  vol.  xli,  No.  1069, 
pp.  917-922,  1915. 

Weitbrecht,  Josias.  German  anatomist  in  St.  Peterburg,  1702- 
1747.  With  Duvernoy  in  1725  as  "  Student  der  Akad."  in  St.  Petersburg. 
Adjunct  for  anatomy,  and  in  1731  Academician  for  physiology.  Known 
for  his  studies  in  syndesmology. 

Syndesmologia  sive  historia  ligamentorum  corp.  hum.  Pe- 
tropoli,  1742.    Erlangen,  1804,  in-4°. 


Apparatus  ligamentosus.  Appendix  Ug.  inf.  sacroischiadici. 
Lacertus  medius.  Ligamentum  access,  cubiti;  —  antebrachii;  —  cal- 
cano-cuhoideum;  —  calcaneo-fibulare;  —  deltoides      Weitbrechti; 

—  fibulce  post;  ■- — laterale  externum;  — cervicis  castes  (costo- 
transv.) ;  — malleoli  ext.;  — metatarsi  lat.;  — navicular e  cuboi- 
deum;  — ossis  metatarsi  tertii;  — planum;  — posterius  longum; 

—  prismaticum ;  —  rectum  longitudinale ;  —  teres  sinuos;  —  trans- 
versale  int.;  —  transversum  cartilagineum  semilun.  (transversum 
genu)  ;  —  trapezoideum  Weitbrechti;  —  triangulare  scapulw  (trans- 
versum scapulae).  Massa  ligamentosa  tarsi.  Membrana  inter- 
spinalis.  Planities  ligamentosa  lata  rhomb.  Plicce  aliformes  genu 
(alares).    Processus  aliformis  genu.  « 

Welcker,  Hermann.  A  German  anatomist  and  anthropologist, 
1822-1898.  Born  at  Giessen,  where  he  received  his  fii;st  educational 
training.  Ausserordentl.  professor  and  prosector  in  Halle  as  successor  to 
Max  Schultze,  later  Ordinarius,  and  then  director  of  the  anatomical  in- 
stitute, at  Heidelberg.  Later  he  returned  to  Giessen  and  then  was  suc- 
cessor to  Volkmann  as  director  of  the  Anatomical  Institute  in  Halle.  He 
is  the  author  of  numerous  contributions  to  anatomy,  pathology,  anthrop- 
ology and  technique. 

Die  Asymmetrien  der  Nase  und  des  Nasenshelets,  1882. 
Schiller's  Schddel  und  Totenmaske,  nebst  Mitteilungen  Uber 
Schddel  und  Totenmaske  Kant's,  i88j. 

Biography:  Anatomischer  Anzeiger,  Bd.  14,  pp.  102-112,  i8g8, 
■with  bibliography. 

Wenzel,  Joseph.  A  German  anatomsit,  1768-1808.  Professor  of 
anatomy  and  physiology  at  Mainz. 

Beobachtungen  ueber  den  Hirnanhang  fallssuechtiger  Per- 
sonen,  Mayence,  18 10,  in-8°.  Prodromtis  einer  Werkes  ueber  das 
Him  der  Menschen  und  Thieren,  TUbingen,  1806,  in-4°.  De  peni- 
tiore  structura  cerebri  humanorum  et  brutorum,  TUbingen,  1812, 
in  fol.,  30  plates. 

Ventriculus  cerebri  primus. 

Wemeking.  A  German  anatomist,  1798-1835.  Professor  in 

Commissura  Wernekingi. 

Wernicke,  Karl.    A  German  neurologist,  1848-1905. 

Area.  Center.  Fibres.  Field.  Radiatio  occipitothalamica. 
Region.    Sulcus  frontomarginalis;  —  'occipitalis  anterior. 

Westphal,  Karl  Friedrich  Otto.    German  neurologist,  1833-1890. 


Wharton,  Thomas.    An  English  anatomist,  1610-1673.    Physician 
in  London. 

Adenographia   sive   glandularum   totius   corporis   descriptio, 
London,  1656,  8°. 

Ductus  submaxillaris.     Jelly  of  Wharton. 

Whitman,  Charles  Otis.  An  American  zoologist,  1842-1910.  He 
was  born  in  Woodstock,  Maine,  December  14th  (1842).  He  early 
showed  an  interest  in  birds  and  while  yet  a  boy  he  procured  and  mounted 
a  very  fine  collection  of  the  birds  of  Maine.  He  secured  his  early 
acadenA  training  at  Bowdoin  College,  after  which  he  taught  in  the 
Westford  Academy,  1868-72.  In  Boston,  1873,  he  came  under  the  in- 
fluence of  Louis  Agassiz  and  was  one  of  the  fifty  students  who,  in  July 
and  August  of  that  year,  attended  the  summer  school  on  the  island  of 
Penikese.  In  1875  he  went  to  the  University  of  Leipzig  to  study 
zoology  with  Leuckart,  and  received  his  degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy 
in  1878,  his  thesis  being :  The  Embryology  of  Clepsine,  in  some  respects 
an  epoch  making  contribution.  On  his  return  to  America  he  obtained  a 
fellowship  in  Johns  Hopkins  University,  but  in  the  same  year  accepted 
the  professorship  of  zoology  at  the  University  of  Tokyo,  as  successor 
to  Professor  E.  S.  Morse.  He  remained  in  Japan  for  two  years,  during 
which  time  he  laid  the  foundation  of  modern  zoology  in  Japan.  After 
leaving  the  University  of  Tokyo,  Whitman  spent  some  months  in  study- 
ing with  Dohrn  at  the  Naples  Zoological  Station,  during  which  time  he 
produced  an  interesting  paper:  A  Contribution  to  the  Embryology, 
Life-history,  and  Classification  of  the  Dicyemids,  1883.  After  his  return 
to  America  he  served  as  assistant  in  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology 
at  Harvard,  1882-86,  during  which  time  he  produced  some  of  his  most 
important  contributions,  and  it  was  here  that  his  interest  in  the  develop- 
mental characters  of  the  eggs  of  vertebrates  was  first  aroused,  an  interest 
which  he  maintained  throughout  his  life.  His  interest  in  the  subject  is 
shown  by  the  numbers  of  memoirs  on  this  topic  that  his  students  turned 
out  under  his  direction.  From  1 886-1 889  he  acted  as  director  of  the 
Lake  Laboratory  at  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin,  which  had  been  founded  by 
Edward  Phelps  Allis,  Jr.,  and  it  was  during  this  period  that  Whitman 
and  Allis  founded  and  edited  the  Journal  of  Morphology.  This  journal 
he  carried  through  eighteen  volumes,  1887-1903,  when  it  was  temporarily 
suspended  to  be  taken  up  later  by  the  Wistar  Institute  of  Philadelphia 
(1908).  This  was  a  pioneer  biological  journal  in  America,  and  in  it 
Whitman  set  a  high  standard,  which  has  had  a  marked  influence  on 
American  biology.  In  1898  he  established,  in  cooperation  with  W.  M. 
Wheeler,  the  Zoological  Bulletin  (later  the  Biological  Bulletin),  which 
was  intended  for  the  prompt  publication  of  shorter  papers  on  biological 


topics.  Whitman  was  called,  in  1889,  to  the  chair  of  zoology  at  Clark 
University,  Worcester,  Massachusetts.  *  While  there  he  conducted  re- 
search work  in  zoology  along  very  high  lines,  and  after  three  years  went 
to  the  University  of  Chicago  (1892),  where  he  remained  to  the  end  of 
his  life.  The  Marine  Biological  Laboratory  for  the  purposes  of  instruc- 
tion' and  research,  was  founded  in  1888  and  Professor  Whitman  was  its 
first  director.  In  this  institution  all  biological  interests  were  represented, 
and  finally  included  the  departments  of  botany,  physiology,  embryology 
and  zoology.  After  bringing  the  work  of  the  laboratory  to  a  high  plane, 
and  after  seeing  the  institution  attain  a  permanent  place  in  biological 
affairs,  he  resigned  the  directorship  in  1908  to  devote  himself  more  com- 
pletely to  the  study  of  his  problems  of  heredity  in  pigeons.  In  1890 
Whitman  took  an  active  part  in  the  formation  of  the  American  Mor- 
phological Society,  which  later  (1902)  became  the  American  Society  of 
Zoologists.  At  the  University  of  Chicago  the  department  of  zoology 
was  primarily  a  research  department.  He  directed  the  work  of  many 
students  who  later  became  the  leaders  of  American  biology,  forty-four 
individuals  having  done  their  investigations  for  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Philosophy,  under  his  direction.  Whitman  was  not  a  voluminous  writer, 
but  his  contributions,  usually  short  and  beautifully  illustrated  (for  he 
kept  one  and  usually  two  Japanese  artists  busy  for  many  years),  were 
of  an  epoch  making  character.  He  left  a  large  amount  of  unfinished 
manuscript.  His  main  interests  were  along  the  lines  of  evolutional 
inquiry  and  embryology,  and  in  these  fields  he  stood  preeminent.  Whit- 
man's chief  influence  was  in  the  high  ideals  he  brought  into  American 
biological  work. 

Journal  of  Morphology,  vol.  22,  no.  4,  December,  ipii,  pp.  xv- 
Ixxv,  with  portraits  and  bibliography. 

Williams,  Leonard  Worcester.  An  American  comparative  anat- 
omist, 1875-1912.  Studied  with  Dahlgren  and  McClure  at  Princeton 
University;  later  at  Brown  University  with  Bumpus,  where  he  received 
his  Ph.  D.  in  1901.  Instructor  in  comparative  anatomy,  Harvard 
Medical  School,  1907-1912.  He  became  very  proficient  in  dissection  and 
in  the  preparation  of  dissections  for  exhibit  and  demonstration.  He 
published  several  important  contributions  to  comparative  anatomy  and 
had  others  under  way  when  he  met  an  untimely  death-  in  an  elevator 
accident  at  Harvard  University. 

The  later  development  of  the  notochord  in  mammals.    Amer. 
Journ.  Anat.,  vol.  8,  pp.  251-284,  20  figs.,  1908. 

Biography:  Leonard  Worcester  Williams,  by  J.  S.  Kingsley. 
Anat.  Rec,  vol.  7,  no.  2,  pp.  33-3S,  with  portrait. 


Willis,  Thomas.  An  English  physician,  anatomist  and  chemist, 
i62i(2)-i675.  Born  at  Great  Bedwin,  in  Wiltshire.  Studied  at  Oxford 
where  he  became  associated  with  Harvey  and  became  much  impressed 
with  Harvey's  great  discovery.  In  1660  he  was  elected  professor  of 
natural  philosophy  at  Oxford  University,  afterward  became  a  famous 
practictioner  in  London,  though  he  was  in  little  favor  at  co^rt.  He  was 
one  of  the  first  English  physicians  to  use  the  microscope  for  medical 
research.  He  was  aided  in  his  studies  on  the  brain  by  Richard  Lower 
and  Sir  Christopher  Wren. 

Cerebri  anatome,  cui  accessit  nervorum  descriptio  et  usus, 
London,  1664,  in-4°. 

Antrum  pyloricum  ventriculi.  Centrum  neri/osum.  Chorda 
transversalis.  Cir cuius  arteriosus.  Pentagonum.  Incisura  septi 
pellucidi  prima.  N .  accessorius  Willisi.  Protuherantia  basilaris 
(Pons  Varoli).     Tunica  nervea  Willisi. 

Biography:  Richardson  —  Disciples  of  Msculapius,  vol.  2,  pp. 
5^2-6 16,  with  portrait.  Thomas  Willis  (1621-1675),  by  Edward 
W.  Adams,  in  Medical  Library  and  Historical  Journal,  vol.  i, 
p.  265,  with  portrait. 

Wilson,  James.  A  celebrated  London  surgeon  and  teacher  of 
anatomy  in  the  Hunterian  School  in  Great  Windmill  Street  in  London. 
His  son,  James  Arthur  Wilson  (1795-1883),  became  a  noted  physician. 
James  Wilson  is  known  in  anatomy  for  his  description  of  the  Wilson's 
muscle  which  is  a  part  of  the  constrictor  ur^ethrcB. 
Practical  and  surgical  anatomy,  London. 

Windischmann,  Carl  Joseph  Flieronymus.  A  German  anatomist, 
1775-1839.     Professor  of  philosophy  and  history  at  Mainz. 

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